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Full text of "City of Gainesville 1991-2001 comprehensive plan"

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City of Gainesville 

1991 -2001 
Comprehensive Plan 














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Chapter A^ 
Future Land Use Element 






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FUTURE LAND USE 



DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



City of Gainesville 

1991 - 2001 
Comprehensive Plan 



Prepared by 

The Department of Community Development 

Comprehensive Planning Section 

November 1991 



"Preparation of this document was aided through financial assistance received from the State of Florida under 
the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program authorized by Chapter 87-98, Laws of 
Florida and administered by the Florida Department of Community Affairs." 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2013 



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4 

http://arcliive.org/details/cityofgainesvillOOgain 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Executive Summary i 



Land Use Data 1 

The Existing Land Use Map 1 

Existing Natural Features Map 2 

Acreage and Density or Intensity of Use 8 

Population Projection 10 

Land Use Analysis 11 

Traffic Circulation 1 1 

Potable Water 13 

Natural Groundwater Aquifer Recharge 17 

Sanitary Sewers 20 

Stormwater 20 

Solid and Hazardous Waste 22 

Development Suitability of Vacant and Undeveloped Land 23 

Creek Basins 23 

General Land Development Suitability 24 

Topography, Minerals and Natural Resources 24 

Historic Resources 27 

Land Use Requirement 27 

Land Use Needs 29 

Residential 29 

Commercial/Office 32 

Industrial 33 

Education 34 

Recreation 34 

Conservation 34 

Public Facihties 34 

Methodology 37 

Redevelopment 38 

Neighborhood Planning ' 40 

Nonconforming Uses 42 

Flood Prone Areas 42 



Table of contents continued 

Page 



Future Land Use 

Growth Management Framework 

Urban Reserve Area 
Appendix A Existing Uses Of Land Map 
Appendix B Methodology for Categorizing Land Uses 
Appendix C Land Map Series A - E 

Appendix D Data and Analysis for Newly 
Annexed Areas 


44 

44 

51 

A 

B-1 

C-1 

D-1 










LIST OF MAPS 






Map Nwmlj^r 




Name 


Pag? Nq 


1 






Existing Use of Land 


Appendix A 


2 






Community Wellfields 




3 


3 






Existing Natural Features 
Creeks Lakes and Wetlands 




5 


4 






100-YearRoodplain 




6 


5 






Soils and Mineral 




7 


6 






Existing Levels of Service 




12 


7 






Vacant Lands Unacceptable 
LOS Roadways 




14 


. 8 






Existing Geographic Service 
Area for Potable Water 




16 


9 






Potable Water System 
Problem Areas 




18 


10 






Degree of Confinement of 
the Roridan Aquifer System 




19 


11 






Existing Geographic Service 
Area for Wastewater 
Facilities 




21 


12 






General Soil Associations 




25 


13 






Commercial Excavation of 







Natural Resources 26 

1 4 Gainesville Market Areas 28 



^ 





LIST OF MAPS 


Map Numlj^r 


Nam^ Pag? Nq 


15 


Potential High Density Residential Areas 31 


16 


City of Gainesville Redevelopment Areas 39 


17 


Land Designated as Open Space on the 
Existing Land Use Map 43 


18 


Major Trip Attractors and Generators 45 


19 


Industrial Concentrations 46 


20 


City of Gainesville Urban Reserve Area 52 


A-E 


Land Use Map Series Appendix C 




LIST OF TABLES 


T^hW 


Name Page No 


1 


Acreage and Density 9 


2 


Projection of City 10 
Population 


3 


Roadway Deficient Levels 1 1 
of Service 


4 


Land Use Densities and 27 
Intensities 


5 


Land Use Requirements for 35 
Residential Acreage 
1988 - 2001 



6 Land Use Requirements for 35 

Commercial Acreage 
1988-2001 

7 Land Use Requirements for 35 

Industrial Acreage 
1988-2001 

8 Total Land Use Requirements 36 

1988 - 2001 

9 Gross Acreage Needed 36 

10 Future Land Use Acreage 51 



^b" 



Fi gures 

1 

2 
3 



LIST OF FIGURES 




Name 


Page No 


Detail Map for Vacant 
Land Sites 


15 


Gainesville Urban Area Model 


37 


College Park Neighborhood 


41 



% 



^ 



FUTURE LAND USE DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



The Future Land Use Element is perhaps the most importatnt element of the Comprehensive 
Plan, because the Future Land Use Element dictates how the city will develop and redevelop of 
over time. 

The Future Land Use Data and Analysis Report lays the foundation for determining the future 
land use plan of the Cit>'. Because much of the City of Gainesville is already developed, 
existing land use information is important in recognizing the future potential for development 
and redevelopment. The existing land use data offers assistance in planning for compatiblee 
uses in an organized fashion. 

The purpose of the analysis section of this Report is to determine the amount of land needed by 
land use category to accommodate the projected population. Another is to determine the 
development and redevelopment possibilities of land within the City. The plan will make 
these determinations based on the availability of traffic circulation, sanitary sewer, solid waste, 
drainage, and potable water facilities to serve existing vacant and developed land, and the 
natural conditions that may affect land development. Population projections are the main 
consideration for determining future land use needs. 

The following section list some of the major finding identified in the Future Land Use Data and 
Analysis Report. 

* The City is 83% built out. 

* The annual growth rate within the city limits of Gainesville is less than 1%. 

* Several key segments of the city's traffic circulation system are not operating at 
acceptable levels of service. 

* Potable Water, Wastewater, Solid Waste and Drainage facilities are available to serve 
existing land uses. 

* The Land Development Suitablity analysis indicate that there is and acute lack of land 
for higher density development. This is an indication that redevelopment and of 
underdeveloped areas for higher density development will be a main focus of the Future 
Land Use Element. 



c 



Future Land Use 



Future Land Use Data and Analysis Report 



LAND USE DATA 

The data section of this report lays the foundation for determining the future land use plan 
for the City. Because much of the City is already developed, existing land use information 
is important in recognizing the future potential for development and redevelopment The 
existing land use data offers assistance in planning for compatible uses in an organized 
fashion. This report also serves to fulfill the requirements of Chapter 163 F.S. and Rule 
9J-5.006, F.A.C. 



The Existing Land Use Map 

The existing uses of land in the City of Gainesville are depicted on Map 1 (a 1"=1000' 
scale map: Appendix A). Map 1 also indicates the uses in the unincorporated area 
immediately surrounding city limits. 

Map 1 was largely based on a consoHdation of the City's current zoning categories. (See 
Appendix B for a complete listing of how zoning categories were combined and an 
explanation of those categories.) Department of Revenue (DOR) codes, aerial 
photographs, and windshield surveys supplemented the zoning categories for determining 
uses. Land area in the "Unimproved land' category was determined by selecting parcels 
from the property appraiser's tax base which had a building value of zero. These parcels, 
which can include common areas, parking lots, and cemeteries, were checked against DOR 
codes and aerial photographs. Only land which is truly vacant was then used in the refined 
"Unimproved land" category. Due to restrictions of map scale, only unimproved properties 
or groups of properties totaling three acres or more are shown on the map. It should be 
noted that the totals in the acreage table (Table 1) do include all "Unimproved land" 
regardless of acreage size. 

Uses in the unincorporated area surrounding the municipal boundaries were derived from 
DOR codes. Further refinements were based on comments from Alachua County Planning 
Staff and aerial photographs. 

In addition to the categories required under 9J-5.006, F.A.C. the City of Gainesville's 
existing uses of land map includes categories for Office and Mixed Use. "Public buildings 
and grounds" and "Other public facilities" were combined into the category "Public 
Service" as indicated on Map 1. 

Existing Natural Features Maps 

Natural resources are shown on Maps 2-5. It should be noted that a beaches and 
shores map is not applicable because of Gainesville's inland location. 

Existing and Planned Waterwells 

Map 2 illustrates existing and planned waterwells and the best available data on 
cones of influence. The Murphree Water Treatment Plant owned by Gainesville 
Regional Utilities (GRU) is the primary facilitiy providing potable water for the 

1 



Future Land Use 



City of Gainesville and its immediate urbanized fringe. No "cones of influence" 
have been designated by the St. John's River Water Management District or other 
local agencies having quahfied professional hydrologists for the Murphree 
well field. 

In the absence of such information. Map 2 includes an overlay of those parts of the 
Murphree Wellfield Management Zones which fall within urban area boundaries. 
These concentric zones were designated in conjunction with the county's adoption 
of a wellfield management code in 1988. Until better data become available, the 
management zones are a reasonable substitute for a "cone of influence" around the 
municipal wellfield. 

The Tacachale Community of Excellence has three wellfield. Map 2 illustrates 
capture zones for the wellfields based on two and five year travel times. These 
capture zones were delineated by using the GPTRAC module of EPA's 
WellfieldProtection Area Model prepared by the St. John's Water Management 
District. 

The Murphree Wellfield Management Code: Management Zones 

The Primary Management Zone 

The Primary Management Zone that surrounds the Murphree Water Treatment Plant 
extends approximately one-half mile from the Murphree Wellfield property 
boundaries. The primary zone for the Tacachale wellfields extends from 200 - 300 

feet from each well. In the primary zone, new land uses which involves storage, ^ 

use or manufacture of hazardous materials are not allowed. Transportation of » 

hazardous materials is limited to local traffic serving facilties within the zone. Well 
construction is subject to special restrictions, and new sanitary landfills, county- 
regulated filling activities, new domestic and industrial wastewater treatment 
facihties and new septic tank wastewater treatement systems (with possible 
exceptions) are prohibited. Variance approval is required for the temporary storage 
of harazardous materials in containers or tanks beyond a certain volume for use in 
normal agricultural or forestry practices and construction activities. 

The Secondary Management Zone 

The Secondary Management Zone that surrounds the primary zone extends 

approximately one mile from the Murphree Wellfield property boundaries. The 

secondary zone for the Tacachale wellfields extends from 400 - 600 feet from each 

well. In the secondary zone, new land uses which involves the storage of 

hazardous materials is not allowed except for vehicular fuels storage subject to other 

county or state regulatory controls. Existing facilities in this category must meet 

new facility requirements by January I, 1993. Secondary containment for all new 

hazardous materials storage systems is required. Aboveground storage of 

petroleum products and other hazardous materials is subject to specific volume 

limitations and all existing aboveground facihties must comply with the full 

provisions of the code before January 1, 1998. Well construction is restricted and 

new saintary landfills and county-regulated filling activities are prohibited. 

Prepackaged consumer product materials are subject to new facility storage volume 

limits. Variance approval is required for the temporary storage of hazardous 

materials in containers or tanks beyond a certain volume for use in normal 

agricultural or forestry practices and construction activities. i 



Future Land Use 



The Tertiary Management Zone 

The Tertiary Management Zone is a rough square surrounding the secondary zone 
which is defined by township, range and section locations. It extends 
approximately two to four miles from the Murphree Wellfield property boundaries 
(approximately two miles within the urban area). Construction, modification and 
closure of wells are subject to special requirements in this zone. 

All Zones 

The discharge of hazardous materials regulated by the county's wellfield management code 
to the soils, groundwater or surface water is prohibited within the primary, secondary and 
tertiary management zones. The management code includes reporting and other 
requirements for any such discharges. 

Rivers, Lakes, and Wetlands 

Map 3 depicts creeks, lakes, and wetland areas in Gainesville. Wetlands are included on 
this map to indicate their relationship to the creek lines. 

Floodplains 

Map 4 and the Master Flood Control Maps (1990) on file in the Public Works Department 
shows the lOO-year floodplain areas for Gainesville. 

Minerals and Soils 

The following minerals are commonly found and have been mined in the Gainesville urban 
area: limestone, sand, and phosphate. Because these resources are so widely available it is 
unlikely they will be extensively excavated within the city limits, due to existing levels of 
urban development. 

Map 5 indicates soils for this area. Soil types were classified into two categories 
(Moderate-Severe Problems and Erosion Problems) based on their impact on development 
Information about these categories and the soils included within them is provided below. 

The Moderate- Severe Development Problem areas on Map 5 refers to soil 
classifications from the Alachua County Soil Survey prepared by the USDA Soil 
Conservation Service (SCS). SCS analyzed shrink-swell potential as a hazard to 
building foundations and roadways; corrosivity problems of steel piping and 
concrete base forms; and flooding potential or cave- in hazards for shallow 
excavations. Dwellings with or without basements and small commercial buildings 
were included in the analysis of foundation problems. The SCS soil types with 
moderate- severe ratings for such problems are as follows. 



e 



7B 


Kanapaha fine sand, 0-5% slope 


11 


Riviera sand 


13 


Pelham sand 


14 


Pomona sand 


15 


Pompano sand 


16 


Surrency sand 


17 


Wauchula sand 



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1 8 Wauchula-Urbar land complex 

19 Monteocha loamy sand 
20B Tavares sand, 0-5% slope 
21 Newnan sand 

23 Mulet sand 

25 Pomona sand, depressional 

26 Samsula muck 

29B Lochloosa loamy sand, 2-5% slope 

3 IB Blichton fine sand, 2-5% slope 

31C Blichton fine sand, 5-8% slope 

32C Flemington loamy sand, 5-8% slope 

33B Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2-5% slope 

34 Placid sand, depressional 

37-8 Pits and dumps 

44 Myakka sand 

5 1 Plummer sand. 



Erosion Problem areas on Map 5 refers to soil types where loss of vegetative cover 
on slopes of 2-8% would lead to topsoil loss via wind or rainfall. Those types are 
as follows. 

29B Lochloosa loamy sand, 2-5% slope 

29C Lxx;hloosa loamy sand, 5-8% slope 

30B Kendrick loamy sand, 2-5% slope 

3 IB Blichton fine sand, 2-5% slope 

32C Flemington loamy sand, 5-8% sand 

39B Bonneau fine sand, 2-5% slope 



Acreage and Density or Intensity of Use 

Table 1 contains acreage totals for each of the land uses shown on Map 1 . 
Residential uses were categorized according to density. Density was determined by 
the number of units per acre. Lx)w density residential uses include single-family 
and low density multi-family dwelling units. The high density residential category 
is characterized by uses such as high density multi-family and mobile homes. 

The non-residential use categories of Office, Commercial, and Industrial are 
designated as low, medium, and high in intensity of use respectively. These 
rankings are based on the types of uses permitted in each category as well as factors 
such as associated trip generating characteristics and parking requirements for uses 
within the categories. 

The Office category permits almost no retail activity and includes uses such as 
professional offices and banking/financial services. Uses in the Commercial 
category are primarily characterized by retail activity of varying scales. The least 
intense commercial uses in this category are neighborhood stores and repair 
services. The highest level of intensity is found in shopping center uses in activity 
centers. The most intense level of use is found in the Industrial category which 
includes manufacturing, wholesaling, warehousing and outdoor storage uses. 



Future Land Use 



Table 1: Acreage and Density of Use for City of Gainesville 
Land Uses 



Land Use 


Acreage 


% Of Total 


Density or 


Intensity of Use 




Residential 








Residential/Low 


6624.45 


33.58% 


1 d.u./5 acres to 9 d.u./acre 


Residential/High 


1159.61 


5.88% 


10 d.u./acre or more 










Business 








Oflice 


263.90 


1 .34% 


Low 


Commercial 


705.53 


3.58% 


Medium 


Industrial 


522.73 


2.65% 


High 










Other 








Mixed Use 


127.84 


0.65% 


NA 


Education 


1194.49 


6.06% 


NA 


Recreation 


669.54 


3.39% 


NA 


Public Service 


3822.31 


19.38% 


NA 


Agriculture 


171.16 


.87% 


NA 


Conservation 


1108.86 


5.62% 


NA 


Unimproved Land 


3356.21 






Total 


19726.65 







*NOTE: This total does not include circulation and right-of-way acreages. 
Source: Department of Community Development, January 1991 



Future Land Use 



Population Projections 

Population projections for the City of Gainesville are shown in Table 2. High, medium, 
and low forecasts are given. Based upon current knowledge and trends, the medium level 
projections are seen as the most likely scenario for Gainesville's future population size. 

Table 2: Projections of City Population 



Year 


Low 


Medium 


High 










1990 


86,553 


87,056 


87,559 


1991 


87,059 


87,930 


88,802 


1992 


87,567 


88,856 


90,145 


1993 


88,079 


89,828 


91,577 


1994 


88,594 


90,840 


93,086 


1995 


89,111 


91,888 


94,665 


1996 


89,632 


92,732 


95,832 


1997 


90,156 


93,599 


97,042 


1998 


90,683 


94,487 


98,292 


1999 


91,213 


95,395 


99,578 


2000 


91,746 


96,320 


100,895 


2001 


92,282 


97,116 


101,950 


2002 


92,821 


97,924 


103,026 


2003 


93,364 


98,743 


104,122 


2004 


93,910 


99,573 


105,237 


2005 


94,459 


100,429 


106,400 



^ Low projections are based on fitting a geometric curve to annual population counts to obtain a 

constant growth rate. 

^ Medium projections are an average of the low and high projections. 

■^ High projections are based on fitting a Gompertz curve to the city/county ratio and using the 

resulting projected ratios with BEBR medium projections for Alachua County population. 

Source: Methodology For Population Projections (April 1991) prepared by the City of Gainesville 
Department of Communmity Development 



10 



Future Land Use 



LAND USE ANALYSIS 

One purpose of this element is to determine the development and redevelopment 
possibilities of land within the City of Gainesville. Another is to determine the amount of 
land needed by land use category to accommodate the projected population. The plan will 
make these determinations based on the availabiUty of traffic circulation, sanitary sewer, 
sohd waste, drainage, and potable water facilities to serve existing vacant and developed 
land, and the natural conditions that may affect land development. Population projections 
are the main consideration for determining future land use needs. Table 2 shows 
population estimates for the two planning periods: 1991 to 1996, and 1996 to 2001. The 
medium level projections forecast an average annual growth rate of .96% from 1990 to 
2005. 

Traffic Circulation 

The Traffic Circulation Element addresses the level of service (LOS) standards of the state 
highway system roadways and additional collector and arterial roads that serve the 
Gainesville urbanized area. Most of these roadways that fall within the City operate at 
acceptable levels of service (see Map 6). However, several key segments are not operating 
at acceptable levels of service (see Table 3). The most concentrated deficiencies are 
occurring in the vicinity of University Avenue and West 13th Street (US 441). Table 3 
projects additional deficiencies in the downtown core. 

Table 3: Roadways with Deficient Levels of Service ^ 



ROADWAY 


FROM 


TO 


CLASS2 


1989 
LOS 


SR 24/Archer Rd 


SR226/SW 16th Ave 


US441/SW13thSt 


P 


E 


SR 26/Newberry Rd 


NW75th St3 


NW 8th Ave 


P 


E 


W. University Ave 


SRI 21/NW 34th St 


SR 26A/NW 20th St 


P 


F 


W. University Ave 


SR 26A/NW 20th St 


US441/NW13thSt 


P 


E 


SR 26A/ SW 2nd Ave 


SW 37th St 


SR/121/SW34th St 


P 


F 


US441/NW13thSt 


NW 29th Rd 


SR 26/W. Univ. Ave 


P 


E 


US441/NW13thSt 


SR 26/W Univ. Ave 


SR 24/Archer Rd 


P 


F 


SR 121/W34thSt 


NW 16th Ave 


SR 26/W Univ. Ave 


M 


F 


N 8th Ave 


NW 23rd St 


NW 6th St 


C 


F 


SR 26A/SW 2nd Ave 


SW 34th St 


SR 26/W Univ. Ave 


C 


F 



Note: ^ Level of Service standards are "D" for principal arterials and "E" for minor arterials and 
collectors. 

^Class refers to functional classification , principal arterial -P, minor arterial -M and 

collector -C. 
Source: FOOT, District 2 Regional Planning Office; values calculated based upon FOOT, 
Generalized Daily Level of Service Maximum Values, 1989. 

A Central City Interim Special Transportation Area (STA) has been approved in 
cooperation with the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) to address the needs of 
these congested areas (See Future Land Use Map in the Fuuire Land Use Element). The 
designation of the STA allows the City to pursue redevelopment in the University- 
Downtown Activity Center and the Gainesville Mall area even though the roadways serving 
those areas are not performing in accordance with FDOT statewide LOS standards. The 
Special Transportation Area is a technique which allows more specific and varied 
approaches to solving transportation needs in urban areas than the traditional solution of 
adding lanes or new roads. Specifically, this approach looks to cooperation among the 

11 



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Future Land Use 



City, FDOT, Alachua County and property owners to make land use and design decisions 
which maximize the use of existing roadway facilities. LOS standards will be adopted for 
specific roadways within the STA. Development regulations will be used to limit the 
number of driveway cuts, improve internal circulation and limitations on uses which are 
vehicle intensive, such as drive-thrus. Improved facility design may require the use of 
traffic analysis studies for specific projects. Land uses appropriate to the area should not 
aggravate peak-hour operating conditions and should provide a mix of residential and non- 
residential uses which can accommodate the housing and retail/service needs of the 
residents within the STA and surrounding residential neighborhoods. The designation of 
the STA is a land use and traffic circulation policy decision which will take shape over the 
life of the Comprehensive Plan. No single land use designation or regulation will bring 
about the interactive activity center which is envisioned in this designation. 

Concurrency requirements for traffic circulation will require the City to deny projects that 
would degrade any State roadway below adopted LOS. Map 7 indicates those vacant lands 
(3 acres or larger) which are within approximately a quarter mile of deficient roadways. 
Figure 1 provides more detail for each of these areas. 

Site A is approximately 22.22 acres. The designated land uses on the site are Residential 
(low density), (R(ld)) and Open Space (OS). The OS portions of the site, which roughly 
correspond to floodplain areas, are unlikely to be developed. Not all of the site fronts on 
NW 13th Street (LOS = E). Development east of the OS designation would have the 
greatest likelihood of directiy impacting the traffic circulation LOS. 

Site B, which falls within the STA, contains approximately 3.8 acres. Part of this site is 
designated for Office use and the remainder for Commercial use. The portion of the site 
designated for Commercial use fronts on NW 13th Street (LOS = E). However, the 
Commercial parcel also has access from NW 7th Avenue. Special analyses would be 
necessary to determine whether development on this portion would further deteriorate the 
LOS on NW 13th Street. The portion of the site designated for Office use fronts on NW 
8th Avenue (LOS = F). This portion of the site also has access from NW 12th Street. 
Most of the Office designated portion of this site is within the floodplain area which limits 
development potential. Again, specific analyses would be required to determine whether 
development would degrade LOS on NW 8th Avenue. 

Site C is a large site containing 5 parcels with a total of approximately 64.88 acres. Two 
parcels containing approximately 12.73 acres have f>otential access onto NW 34th Street 
(LOS = F). The land use designations on this site are R(ld) and OS. Major development 
on this site is unlikely because it is almost completely in the floodplain. 

The Traffic Circulation Element provides an in-depth analysis of the effects of land 
development on traffic facilities. 

Potable Water 

The Murphree Water Treatment Plant, located in northeast Gainesville, serves the 
Gainesville urban area. The plant's 1988 estimated service area population was 126,345 
people (see Map 8). The average daily demand in 1988 was 20 milhon gallons per day 
(mgd). The 1988 total system average daily per capita consumption is 133.1 gallons. 
Currentiy the Murphree Water Plant has a design capacity of 34 mgd with a planned 



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expansion due in 1991 to 40 mgd. At 34 mgd the Plant can support the existing land uses. 
The planned expansion will to accommodate the anticipated redevelopment and 
development of the urban area beyond the 2001 planning horizon of the city's 
comprehensive plan. 

Map 8 shows the location of the Tacachale Community potable water system. The 
Tacachale system has three wells with a combined pumping rate of .303 mgd. The 
Alachua County Public Health Unit personnel evaluate water quality periodically. The 
existing water facihty is sufficientjo support the Tacachale community. There are no plans 
for expansion of the system according to the water plant operators. The Future Land Use 
Plan must protect the water supply of this community. 

Deficiencies 

Based on the overall capacity of the Murphree Water Treatment Plant facilities, services are 
available to support existing land uses. However, in some older parts of the city, there 
may be some limitations to redevelopment due to site specific water distribution problems. 
Gainesville Regional Utihties (GRU) water personnel identified the following deficiencies 
that occur in the City of Gainesville (See Map 9): 

1 . Discontinuous main sizes 

2. Low pressure areas 

3. Asbestos cement pipes 

4. High maintenance areas 

GRU and the Gainesville Fire Department are currendy studying low flow fire hydrants. 
The Future Land Use Element should incorporate the results of this study when tfiey 
become available (Source: GRU WAVW Facilities Planning 1989). 

The problems associated with site-specific water facilities are correctable and should not 
create many problems or have a signifcant impact on development and redevelopment. 

New development in affected areas may be required to make the necessary improvements to 
mitigate the above noted problems. Corrections to the water system must be prioritized 
according to goals of the comprehensive plan to avoid conflicts where the City wants to 
encourage development or redevelopment 

Natural Groundwater Aquifer Recharg e 

The primary water supply for Gainesville is the Floridan Aquifer. The Floridan Aquifer 
underlies all of the Gainesville urban area and falls within three zones: (1) confined; (2) 
semi-confined / perforated; and (3) unconfined (CONS. Data and Analysis Report 1991). 
Map 10 shows the degree of confinement of the Floridan Aquifer system in the Gainesville 
urban area. In the eastern and northeastern portions, at least 10 feet of clays or clayey 
sands confine the Roridan. In the northwestern and central portions, the confining layer is 
variable and perforated by sinkholes which operate as a significant source of recharge for 
the Floridan. In the southwestern portion of the urban area, the Floridan is unconfined 
(overlain with thin, sandy soil) and therefore under water table conditions. This is an area 



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of high recharge to the Roridan and especially vulnerable to contamination, because an 
overlying confining layer is lacking. 

Community Wellfield 

In order to protect the community's water supply, the Murphree Wellfield must be 
protected. Since St. John's River Water Management District (or other local agencies 
responsible for the management of the aquifer) has not designated a "cone of influence" for 
the Murphree Wellfield, Alachua County has adopted a Murphree Wellfield Management 
Code. The code established three concentric zones around the wellfield: Primary, 
Secondary and. Tertiary zones (see Map 2). 

The primary zone has a radius of one-half mile extending from the Well Field. This zone 
prohibits new uses of land involving storage, transfer, use or manufacture of hazardous 
materials. Transportation of hazardous materials is restricted to local traffic serving 
facilities within die primary zone. The secondary zone has a one-mile radius. This zone 
prohibits new underground storage of hazardous materials except for motor fuels and 
requires that existing facilities meet the requirements for new facilities by 1993. The 
tertiary zone has a radius of 2 - 2.5 miles and would limit well construction. 

Map 2 shows the location of the Wellfield Management zones. An overlay of this map and 
the existing land use map indicate there are a number of industrial sites located within the 
secondary and tertiary zone. In order to protect the community's water supply the Future 
Land Use Plan must prevent land uses incompatible with Wellfield Management Code 
restrictions. Application of environmental performance standards (discussed in the 
CONS. Data and Analysis Report 1991)) should be apphed to this area. 

Sanitary Sewers 

The Gainesville urban area is served by two sewage treatment plants: Kanapaha and Main 
Street Plants owned and ojjerated by the City of Gainesville. The Kanapaha and the Main 
Street plant have design capacities of 10 million gallons per day (mgd) and 7.5 mgd of 
wastewater respectively (WAVW Data and Analysis Report 1991). In 1988 the average 
daily demand at the Kanapaha Plant was 7.86 mgd and 4.5 mgd at the Main Street Plant. 
These plants currently have a service area (See Map 1 1) population of 1 19,814 persons. 
The University of Florida operates it own sewage treatment plant which has a design 
capacity of 3.1 mgd and an average daily demand of 1.805 mgd. 

The current peak and committed flow is 15.95 mgd with a surplus based on peak flow of 
1.55 mgd. Based on peak flow calculations, the existing sanitary sewer facihties have the 
capacity to serve approximately 6000 additional residential units A planned 2.0 mgd 
expansion of the Kanapha Plant to increase design capacity to 12 mgd will adequately serve 
future city and urban area residents. 

The only problem that currently exists is that the Main Street Plant has on occasion 
exceeded pollution standards for effluents being released into the Sweetwater Branch creek 
system. This problem will be corrected by improvements which are under construction and 
scheduled to be completed in 1992. 

Stormwater 

The City's Public Works Department provides stormwater management. The Stormwater 
Management Utility is a dedicated revenue source for improvements, maintenance and 
personnel. 

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The City can be divided into seven watershed basins, related to the creek system. Two of 
these basins flow ultimately into the St. John's River system. The remaining basins are 
stream-to-sink which discharge to an underground aquifer or depression basins. 
Virtually all of Gainesville is served by some form of drainage system. The replacement of 
aging and inadequate systems is a greater concem than the construction of new facihties. 
New development has provided stormwater facilities for water quantity since the mid- 
1970' s and water quality since the early 1980's. Recent flood studies have indicated that 
the soil information used to design stormwater management facilities in past years was 
inaccurate, resulting in higher floodzone elevations than expected. In 1990 the City 
adopted updated flood elevation maps and development regulations. Basin- wide studies 
are needed to address the existing deficiencies witiiin each drainage basin. Preliminary 
studies, on file in the Public Works Department, have indentified over 100 existing 
stormwater deficiencies. These deficiencies range from the need for major culvert repair to 
non-existent roadway drainage facihties in older neighborhoods. Minor flooding is 
experienced along Hogtown Creek and it's tributaries during storm events approaching the 
severity of the 10-year storm. 

Level of service (LOS) standard deficiencies are not expected to limit development because 
regulations will require new development to meet the adopted LOS standards. The 
Stormwater Management Utility will prioritize and budget improvements necessary to 
remedy existing deficiencies. 

Solid and Hazardous Waste 

Alachua County provides solid waste facilities for the City of Gainesville at the Southwest 
Landfill. This landfill is a Class I disposal site and must be covered once a day. The 
Southwest Landfill is expected to reach capacity in 1998. An Alachua County task force is 
currendy in the process of selecting a new landfill site. 

A privately owned landfill located in the Southeast Gainesville urban area serves a variety 
of development oriented businesses by providing for the disposal of construction materials. 
This is a Class III disposal site requiring waste material to be covered once a week. 

Currently, Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI), provides the entire City with sohd waste 
collection services on a contract basis. In addition to solid waste collection, the City has 
adopted a citywide waste recycling program. BFI administers the program which collects 
cans, glass, plastic bottles, and newspapers. The city's recycling program also includes the 
separation of yard waste and white goods for disposal. The city's goal is to reduce its solid 
waste stream into the landfill by 30%. 

Large quantity generators (LQGs) and small quantity generators (SQGs) produce 
approximately 16.5 milHon pounds of hazardous wastes annually in Alachua County 
(Alachua County: "Hazardous Waste Management Assessment," 1987). Most generators 
and waste volumes are located in the Gainesville urban area. 

Currently, there are no commercial hazardous waste management facilities exist in Alachua 
County to treat, store, or transfer hazardous waste produced by SQGs and households. 
Without a convenient means of proper disposal, re-use, or recycling, SQGs and individuals 
will continue to dispose of relatively large quantities of hazardous wastes inappropriately 
and thereby threaten pubUc health and safety. 

The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) is now monitoring and 
investigating 10 hazardous waste sites within the City of Gainesville. The City should 
coordinate efforts with DER and the Alachua County Office of Environmental Protection 

22 



# 



Future Land Use 



when development proposals which involve known hazardous contamination sites are 
submitted. 



DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY OF VACANT 
AND UNDEVELOPED LAND 

An analysis of unimproved land and natural and man-made features that may place 
constraints on development is discussed below. This analysis compares the location of 
vacant and undeveloped land to soil conditions, floodplains, wedand areas, creeks, 
wellfield management zone, groundwater recharge areas and areas with manmade pollution 
problems. For this discussion the City is divided into seven water basins: Littie Hatchet 
Creek, Lake Forest, Calf Pond, Sweetwater, Tumblin Creek, Lake Alice and Hogtown 
Creek. Appendix C presents a graphic presentation of this analysis by each water basin. 



Creek Basins 

Little Hatchet Creek 

Nearly all of the undeveloped land located within this basin is affected by natural or man- 
made features that may affect land development The two main affected areas consist of the 
Airport Industrial Park and a large vacant tract of land adjacent to N.E. 39th Avenue 
designated for residential use (see Appendix C: Map Series A). Analyses of these areas 
indicate that the Airport Industrial park is affected by soils with "severe" development 
constraints and wedand problems; is located within the Wellfield Management Zones; and 
is the home of man-made pollution sources. Restrictions in the Murphree Wellfield 
Management Code may hmit development of this area. Vacant land in the vicinity of the 
Airport Industrial Park is suitable for agricultural and industrial development insofar as the 
development can comply with wellfield protection and stormwater management regulations. 

Vacant land adjacent to N.E. 39th Avenue is affected soils with "severe" development 
constraints, wetlands, floodplains, and the wellfield management zone. The wetiands and 
floodplains are significant constraints to the development of this property. These 
constraints should limit the useof this property to low density residential or open space. 

Lake Forest 

Vacant land located within the city limits in this basin has very few limitations to 
development, however soils with "severe" development constraints prevail. Such soil 
conditions require special design features and raise the cost of development. A small 
portion of available land is within the 100-year floodplain (see Appendix C; Map Series B). 
Undeveloped land in this area could support residential and some commercial development. 
No man-made sources of pollution have been identified in this area. 

Calf Pond and Sweetwater Branch 

Map Series C (Appendix C) indicates that most of the vacant land parcels in these basins 
are affected by surface water wetlands, 100-year floodplains and creeks. Soils with 
"severe" development constraints appear to coincide with unimproved lands. Such 
conditions require special design features and raise the cost of development. Due to the 
creek system, development of industrial property in the South Main street area may be 
hmited. 



23 



Future Land Use 



Tumblin Creek and Lake Alice 

None of the undeveloped land within this basin is affected by poor soil conditions. The 
only significant parcel of undeveloped land (Southwest Williston Road near Bivens Arm) is 
located in a potential high aquifer recharge area, (Appendix C; Map Series D) and affected 
by a wetland and the l(X)-year floodplain. Based on the environmental conditions in this 
area, the development of this site should be limited to low intensity uses. There are no 
man-made pollution sources that will prevent or limited the development potential of 
undeveloped lands in this basin. 

Hogtown Creek 

Map Series E (Appendix C) shows the relationship among undeveloped lands, and the 
natural environment and man-made pollution sources. Areas that will have the most 
problems being developed are those that are affected by the creek system, floodplains and 
surface water wedands. A significant portion of this basin is also located in the Radon- 
Prone Zone. Policies regarding development in the wellfield management zone will also 
affect the development of some areas in this basin. The Land Use Plan in the City's 1980 
-20(X) Comprehensive Plan designates nearly all of the vacant land affected by natural 
environmental conditions as residential or conservation/ park land. This basin also contains 
a significant man-made pollution source (Cabot Carbon/Koppers) that affects soil, water 
and air conditions. 

General Land Development Suitability 

The analysis of vacant land indicates that the development potential of unimproved land in 
the city is limited due to constraints of soil type (see Map 12), flood plain, and wetlands. 
Land development regulations dealing with stormwater, creek and floodplain protection 
will be used to determine development potential on a site by site basis. The implementation 
of an environmental performance overlay district will further control development. 

This analysis also indicates there is an acute lack of unimproved land suitable for higher 
density development. This is an indication that redevelopment of underdeveloped areas for 
higher density development will have to be a major focus of the Future Land Use Plan, in 
order to preserve the fragile environment. 

Topography and Minerals (Natural Resources) 

The topography of Gainesville does not limit the development potential of most of the city. 
One main consideration is the slope of the City. Four slope categories have been identified 
within the city limits: 0-1%, 0-5%, 6-12% and 12-(-%. The least sensitive of the categories 
is the 0-5% category. The most sensitive are the 0-1% and 12-i-% categories. Tliey are 
considered to be equivalent because they each have inherent drainage problems. Most of 
Gainesville is the within the 0-5% slope range. The most difficult areas for development 
are those located adjacent to creeks. The development of Gainesville is Umited by several 
natural low lying systems: Gum Root Swamp in the northeast; Newnans Lake to the east; 
and Paynes Prairie to the southwest of the city. 

The Gainesville urban area contains the following minerals (natural resources): Limestone, 
Sand and Phosphate. Map 13 shows the location of sites where these resources have been 
commercially excava tedwithin the city. Currently there is no existing commercial 
extraction of minerals within city limits. Future extraction of minerals in the city is unlikely 
(COS Data and Analysis Repon 1991). 

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Future Land Use 



Historic Resources 

The City of Gainesville possesses many valuable architectural (historic) resources that are 
being preserved through the efforts of the City and the Historic Preservation Board. At the 
present time the City has four National Register historic districts (See the Historic 
Preservation Element), including three Gainesville neighborhoods and portions of the 
University of Florida campus. There are also 24 structures listed individually on the 
National Register of Historic Places, including 10 on the UF campus. The City's historical 
resources are contained on approximately 443 acres. The Northeast, Southeast,Pleasant 
Street and UF Campus districts contain 166, 1 1 1, 77, and 70 acres respectively. 
Individually listed properties contain approximately 19 acres. Due to the importance of the 
city's historical resources, the Future Land Use Plan will protect the city's historic 
resources. 

LAND USE REQUIREMENTS 

The analysis of the amount of land needed to accommodate the projected population utilizes 
a regional land use allocation and simulation model. The model uses projected population, 
housing, employment, income and other data to forecast land use needs by market areas 
(see Map 14). 

Table 1 shows the categories of existing land uses and their densities or intensities of use. 
This table shows that 83% of the land in the city is developed, not necessarily to the extent 
existing structures are vacant. The most prominent land uses are residential and public 
service. 

Table 4 shows the average densities and intensities of major land use categories for each 
market area. Average gross densities and intensities over entire market areas do not 
provide a true picture of what is develof)ed or what the densities and intensities of use are in 
a specific area. Net densities and intensities of use are much higher. Additional analysis of 
the density and intensity is provided in the following Land Use Needs section. Land 
requirements for the city are divided into four major land use categories: Residential, 
Office, Commercial, and Industrial. 

Table 4: Average Gross Land Use Densities and Intensities 





Residential 
Land Use 


Commercial 
Retail 


Office 


Industrial 


Warehousing 


Market Area 


DUPAl 


FAR2 


FAR 


FAR 


FAR 














1 


3.50 


0.0000 


0.1795 


0.0000 


0.0000 


2 


0.00 


0.0000 


0.0000 


0.0000 


0.0000 


3 


3.63 


0.2674 


0.2086 


0.5420 


0.0000 


4 


14.00 


0.5639 


0.5534 


0.1368 


0.2030 


5 


6.46 


0.1993 


0.1941 


0.2214 


0.0983 


6 


5.74 


0.1257 


0.1556 


0.1575 


0.1630 


7 


2.52 


0.2521 


0.3645 


0.1508 


0.1264 


8 


0.00 


0.0000 


0.0000 


0.0000 


0.0000 


9 


4.45 


0.2602 


0.1930 


0.0054 


0.0000 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study 1989 (Market areas 2 and 8 are located outside of the city). 

1 DUPA = Dwelling units per acre. 

2 FAR = Floor area ratio 

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Future Land Use 



Land Use Needs 

The City is obligated to assign land use designations to all property within its jurisdiction. 
There is no requirement that all property must be developed within the planning time frame. 
Given its slow rate of growth, it is not anticipated that the City will reach build-out before 
2001. Thus, there will remain some vacant land designated for residential use at the end of 
the planning time frame. 

Tables 5 through 9 compare the additional acres of urban land needed to support the 
projected city population with the vacant land available and zoned for each land use. The 
tables indicate that there is considerably more vacant land zoned for residential, commercial 
and industrial purposes in the city than will be required over the planning period. 

Residential 

Table 5 indicates the city currently has 1837.97 acres of vacant land designated for 
residential purposes and a total of 7,783.96 acres developed for a total gross acreage figure 
of 9621.93 acre. Based on the Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study the City needs 
850.60 (see Housing Element page 28) acres within the planning time frame which wiD 
leave 987.37 acres of currendy designated residential land vacant Of this 987.37 acres 
171.91 is designated agriculture (1 unit per acre). Approximately 50% of the vacant 
property will have Umited development potential due to environmental features that must be 
protected, such as creeks, lakes, wetland and upland areas(over 1050 acres). Based on 
these conditions the city will have approximately 408 gross residential acres (which 
translates into 384 net acres using a 20% reduction for infrastructure improvement) over 
what is needed to support the projected population. An analysis of environmentally 
significant lands and resources and Map 1 indicate that most of the vacant land in the city 
has remained undevelop)ed due to site conditions that make land outside the city more 
viable. The apparent surplus of 408 acres will serve to keep land cost down and make 
opportunities for affordable housing available. Most recent development has skip over the 
City for cheaper land in the County as demonstrated due to the amount of urban 
development in rural area's outside the City. 

Since the City is compact and nearly build-out, development on almost any vacant land will 
be of an in-fiU nature. However, in order to discourage urban sprawl type of development 
where it is possible and to keep land costs down for housing, the City will allow higher 
density in areas of the City that has always accommodated higher densities and intensities 
of use. 

Residential Land Use Density 

Table 4 shows the average gross density in Market Areas range from 2.52 to 14 units per 
acre. The average gross density over the entire market areas does not provide a tme picture 
of what is developed or what the densities are in specific areas. The methodology for 
categorizing land uses in appendix B shows existing residential zoning densities range from 
less than one unit per acre to 43 units per acre. The city also allows planned developments 
that may have higher densities. In the downtown, residential densities have been unlimited 
with performance standards being used to mitigate any negative impact on adjacent 
properties. An analysis of the residential areas within 1/4 mile of the University indicated 
that there are actual densities of up to 123 units per acre. These areas also include a 
Holiday Inn that serves the University, large fraternity and sorority houses, a major 
hospital (AGH) and many smaller rental units that may be accommodating more people 
than they where designed for. These areas do not function as a single family area and has 
not been designated for single family for several years. 

29 



Future Land Use 



Housing Demand 

Map 15 identifies the area where higher densities will be needed for students and facility. 
The students and faculty at the University of Florida play a major role in the future 
development of the City of Gainesville. The number, of faculty employed and students that 
attend the University each year, have an impact on the city's housing market and traffic 
circulation network. It has long been the concern of city policy makers that the residential 
area surrounding the University does not adequately serve the housing needs of the 
university related population. It is also especially desirable to accommodate as many 
employees and students into housing close to the University. Due to low densities and 
high land cost near the university and downtown, apartment complexes have developed in 
the urban area outside of the city in an urban sprawl fashion, creating traffic problems, 
demands for additional services such as mass transit, police and fire protection. The State 
Comprehensive Plan has several goals and objectives that dictate that the City of 
Gainesville should do whatever is needed to encourage higher density within urban areas. 
Higher densities in those areas that can be redeveloped, will discourage urban sprawl, and 
promote compact and infill development. The increase in the number of people living close 
to the University that are associated with the University (Faculty and Students) will reduce 
the peak hour transportation demand on the traffic circulation network. A larger residential 
population close to the University will also be a prime catalyst in revitalizing the 
downtown. 

Another issue is that the turnover of students in university housing each year indicated that 
higher densities can be support within walking distance of the University. While the 
enrollment of undergraduate students have been capped, 4500 freshmen and 2000 college 
transfers are admitted to the university each year, most of whom the University tries to 
house on campus. This means that approximately 6500 students who lived on campus the 
year before are looking for housing. A large number of student want to live close to the 
university. This can be determined based on the waiting list of students for university 
housing. The City could accommodate new students or the students that would have to 
move out of University housing to accommodate the new students near the university, 
(Students living on campus are currently included in the City Population) with higher 
densities. 

Based on the analysis presented above, instead of designating residential areas miles away 
from the major activity generator (University of Florida) in the City, the Future Land Use 
Plan must accommodate higher densities close to the campus. Table 1 indicates that there 
are currendy 9621.93 acres designated for residential purposes, the future land uses plan 
(see Table 10) allocates 9663.99 acres, which is only an increase of 42.06 acres. The Plan 
should designate some areas of the City close to this major traffic generator for at least 100 
units per acre and possibly higher in the downtown to be consistent with both existing 
development and current State and City policies. The overall impact of the increase in 
density will be less urban sprawl, more efficient use of existing infrastructure and mass 



30 



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transit, increase in the LOS on State Roads due the reduced number of commuters into the 
University and the protection of natural resources. Land use policies and land development 
regulations must ensure that densities and intensities of use are compatible with the 
character of surrounding neighborhoods 

Non-residential Uses 

The Growth management theme for Florida and the Department of Community Affairs 
Functional Plan is to "grow smarter". Growing smarter means that urban area with 
adequate infrastructure should be commercial, office, service and industrial centers instead 
of rural areas without the proper infrastructure to support development. 

Commerci al/Office 

Table 1 shows that there are 969.43 acres currently developed as commercial and office 
use. Table 6 includes all the vacant acreage currentiy designated for commercial and office 
uses indicates that there are 260. 10 acres currently vacant. There is, a total of 1229.53 
acres of land specifically designated on the Future Land Use Map. Table 1 also shows that 
there are 127.84 acres designated for mixed use. The current Mixed Use land use category 
is designated downtown Gainesville and a small area in the Fifth Avenue neighborhood that 
serves as neighborhood commercial for that neighborhood. In total the City currentiy 
designates 1357.37 acres of land that can be converted to some type of non-residential use. 
Of the 260.10 vacant acres only an additional 15 acres will be needed to support the 
projected population. Most of 260.10 acres are smaller parcels that will represent infill 
development. Table 6 shows that Market Area 5 has a surplus of 108.02 acres. An 
analysis of Market Area 5 indicates that most of this acreage is locate near a superfund site 
or is part of the Airpon which indicate this land is unlikely to be use to meet the commercial 
needs of the Gainesville Service Area. The City of Gainesville is 83% built out, and 
population growth is less than ) % a year, the Gainesville commercial/office market serves 
most of North Central Rorida. The Gainesville Urban area has four major hospital and the 
University of Florida that draw people living outside the area into the area for medical 
attention and employment, which translate into a market demand for more goods and 
services. As a regional commercial and service center, Gainesville provides urban services 
that rural communities do not and can not provide. In order for Gainesville to continue to 
play its important role in the region of providing urban commercial and office services for 
rural communities, the City must provide land use strategies that meet this need. Based on 
its regional significance the City may need the flexibility to develop additional non- 
residential acreage. 

An important issue that must be consider in the City's Land use strategy, other than its 
regional market, is the need to provide jobs, goods and services close to where the 
residents of Gainesville live. The State goals and objectives within the growth management 
framework calls for innovative land use strategies that allow flexibility, encourages 
redevelopment of urban areas, promote infill and compact development. An imf)ortant 
strategy in this Plan is the use of Mixed Use Land Use Categories. This strategy will allow 
the City to designate areas for a mix of uses (commercial, office and residential) that were 
once designated for a single purpose. Through the use of performance standards the mixed 
uses will not cause a negative impact on adjacent uses. Table 10 of the Future Land Use 
Section indicates that 1709.48 acres (Commercial, Office, MU-L, MU-M and MU-H) 



32 



Future Land Use 



could possibly be used for a commercial or office in the most extreme development pattern. 
To ensure the provision of residential uses in the mixed use categories, the city will work to 
include standards in the land development regulations. The regulations may include 
acreage thresholds for when development must include residential development. During 
the time the City will develop regulations a moritorium on rezoning will be in effect in the 
mixed use areas. Considering that 1357.37 acres are currendy designated for this type of 
non-residential use, the net increase is only 352.1 1 acres. This acreage will be needed for 
the region to maintain a separation of urban and rural densities. 

Permitted commercial intensity ranges from a FAR of .50 to an FAR of 5.00 in commercial 
and office areas. The intensity of use in the downtown has been controlled by performance 
standard, it appears that the highest intensity could be as high as a FAR of 10.00 for non- 
residential uses. 

Industrial 

Table 1 indicates that there are currendy 522.73 acres of land developed as industrial use. 
Table 6 shown that there are currendy 333.40 acres of vacant industrial land. Thus, the 
total amount of currendy designated industrial land is 856.13 acres. Table 6 indicates that 
the City only needs 32.71 acres of the 333.40 acres to accommodate its projected 
population. Areas designated for industrial use are located in areas close to downtown and 
near the airport on the east side of the City where these uses can be supported by the 
existing infrastructure. As stated earlier, Gainesville is the regional business center of 
North Central Florida. In order for Industry to locate or get started (homegrown industry) 
urban services and infrastructure will be needed which the rural community may not be able 
to provide. For Gainesville or any other urban community to provide industrial land for the 
projected population within its city limits or urban boundary would encourage urban sprawl 
into rural areas. The Growth management theme for Florida is to "grow smarter". 
Growing smarter means that the urban area with adequate infrastructure should be 
industrial centers instead of rural areas without the proper infrastructure to support 
development. 

Based on the role that urban communities must play in the "growing smarter" theme 
Gainesville must provide enough land in proper location to support this state goal. Table 
10 in the Future Land Use Section indicates that 968.27 acres of land will be designated for 
future purposes. 

Future Land Use Plan designation 968.27 ac. 
Existing Land Use Plan 856. 1 3 

Difference 121.14 

Vacant Industrial Land 333.40 ac. 

Need Based on Projected Population 32.7 1 
Difference 300.69 

Total surplus 421.83 ac. 

An analysis of the location of the 421 .83 acres indicates that this land can only be used for 
industrial purposes. Since the land is located in developed industrial parks. All industrial 
uses are considered high intensity uses that must be buffered from residential uses. 



33 



Future Land Use 



Education 

A School Plant Survey conducted in Febmary of 1989 indicated that 5 new school sites 
will be needed to alleviate school overcrowding and to accommodate projected school 
population. Based on this survey three elementary and two middle schools will be needed 
within the Planning period. The survey indicated that those five sites are needed outside of 
City Limits, therefore no additional land will be needed for educational purposes within the 
city. Table 1 indicates that there are 1,194.49 acres of land currently designated for 
educational use, while Table 10 (Future Land Use Acreage) indicates that the City has 
allocated 1485.26 acres of land for education. The 290.77 acreage difference represents a 
reclassification of land designated recreation to education. This acreage consist of school 
playgrounds and recreational facilities that have limited public access (See Recreation 
Element for more details). Enrolhnent figures for the University of Rorida indicate that no 
additional land will be needed for the University during the time frame of this plan. 

Recreation 

Based on level of service standards from the Recreation Element the City will need 41 acres 
of active recreation land (neighborhood park) by 2001. Table 1 indicates that the city 
currently has 669.54 acres of land designated for recreation. This amount is reduced by 
290.77 acres to 378.77 acres with the reduction of educational facilities (see above). Table 
10 indicates that the Future Land Use Plan will allocate 354.1 1 acres for recreation. The 
difference between the existing and the future is 24.66 acres in addition to the 41 acres for a 
total of 65.44 acres. Most if not all of the 24.66 acres are contained in the conservation 
land use, of which Ring Park consists of 20 acres. The Future Land Use Map will show 
the generalized location of where the 41 acres is needed to meet the City's recreational 
needs. 

Conservation 

Based on the levels of service standards in the recreation element, the City will need 120 
additional acres of local nature park that will be designated Conservation on the Future 
Land Use Map. The total projected need based on papulation is 1245.94 acres. Table 1 
indicates that there are currently 1 108.86 acres of land designated for conservation. Table 
10 indicates that the Future Land Use Plan designates 1 125.94 acres for conservation for 
an addition of 17.08 acres. The location of conservation areas is designated on the Future 
Land Use Map. Population projection is the minimum criteria used to project conservation 
land use needs, the preservation of environmentally significant resources and the protection 
of public safety, health and welfare will dictate that the City purchase or designate more 
land for conservation purposes than is needed to accommodate projected population. The 
Conservation Element has policies that will ensure that the City will meet this need before 
the end of the planning period. 

Public Facilities 

Based on the projected population and the lack of need to expand capital facilities there is 
no need for additional for additional land for capital facilities. Table 1 indicates that there 
are 3822.41 acres of land designated Public Service which is the same as Public Facilities. 
Table 10 indicates that the Future Land Use Map designated 4064.07 acres for Public 
Facilities. The addition 245.63 acres is vacant land that is included in the Unimproved 
Land category in Table 1, some of which provides a buffer around the Airport. 



34 



Future Land Use 



Table 5: Land Use Requirements for Residential Acreage 1988 to 2001 



Market Area 


Vacant 


Required 


Difference 


1 


53.47 


3.14 


50.33 


2 


— 


- 


- 


3 


231.65 


36.91 


194.74 


4 


0.26 


3.43 


(3.17) 


5 


210.34 


60.84 


149.50 


6 


652.18 


14.29 


637.89 


7 


141.47 


(326.82) 


(185.35) 


8 


— 


— 


— 


9 


548.60 


05.17 


43.43 










Total 


1837.97 


850.60 


987.37 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study 1989 

Table 6: Land Use Requirements for Commercial Acreage^ 1988 to 2001 



Market Area 


Vacant 


Required 


Difference 


1 


0.00 


0..06 


(0.06) 


2 


— 


— 


— 


3 


5.21 


0.00 


5.21 


4 


9.89 


2.03 


7.86 


5 


110.07 


2.05 


108.02 


6 


17.60 


3.50 


14.55 


7 


17.45 


6.85 


10.60 


8 


— 


- 


- 


9 


99.88 


3.79 


96.09 










Total 


260.10 


14.94 


245.16 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study 1989 
%oie: Commercial also includes office uses. 

Table 7: Land Use Requirements for Industrial Acreage 1988 to 2001 



Market Area 


Vacant 


Required 


Difference 


1 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


2 


— 


-- 


— 


3 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


4 


.92 


0.00 


.92 


5 


187.16 


22.04 


165.12 


6 


127.60 


10.73 


116.88 


7 


7.90 


0.00 


7.90 


8 


— 


- 


— 


9 


9.82 


0.00 


9.82 










Total 


333.40 


32.77 


300.63 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study 1989 

35 



Future Land Use 



Table 8: Total Land Use Requirements 1988 to 2001 



Market Area 


Vacant 


Required 


Difference 


1 


53.47 


3.25 


50.22 


2 


-- 


- 


— 


3 


236.86 


36.93 


199.93 


4 


11.07 


5.50 


5.57 


5 


507.57 


87.44 


420.13 


6 


797.38 


29.76 


767.62 


7 


166.82 


274.71 


(107.89) 


8 


- 


- 


-- 


9 


658.30 


311.23 


347.07 










Total 


2431.47 


748.82 


1682.65 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study 1989 



Table 9: 
Needed 



City of Gainesville Land Use Requirements: Gross Acreage 



Year 


1996 


2001 


Residential 


8057.55 


8428.35 


Retail 


558.00 


566.50 


Office 


255.60 


258.04 


Industrial 


378.56 


393.21 


Hotel 


45.22 


45.22 


Other 


110.90 


115.09 








Total 


9405.83 


9806.41 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Study 1989 

An analysis of the existing land use plan indicates that the city has enough land (in the 
proper land use category) to meet the needs of the projected population. In fact, there may 
be a surplus in most of the land use categories. There are several factors that must be 
considered before the final determination can be made. The final assessment must subtract 
out wetlands and other sensitive areas from undeveloped lands, and land requirements for 
infrastructure needs should also be subtracted. The location of existing commercial and 
industrial property, the share of the Gainesville urban area market the city hop)es to capture 
within the city Umits, and the fact that in order to maintain a flexible market more land than 
needed, must also be available. 



36 



Future Land Use 



Methodolog y 

The Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Model was employed to determine land use 
requirements. The focus of this model was on market demand as well as existing and 
projected relationships between demand and developed space. The model allocates future 
land use and development into each of nine market areas (see Map 14) according to: 
anticipated population growth, income, employment, regional demographic and economic 
shifts; the performance of existing space; and current and projected development densities 
by land use type and area. 

Figure 2 depicts the general components of the model. The fu-st component involved the 
relevant demographic and economic data. This data included projected population, 
households, income and employment for each of the nine market areas comprising the 
Gainesville Urban Area. The second component includes measures of market demand in 
each development category. For example, retail demandwas measured by the estimated and 
projected sales potential in the urban area and within the nine market areas. The projections 
of market demand were used to estimate market growth and share for each area in the third 
model component. The demand data was compared to existing development to determine 
the absorption of additional space and units in each land use. 

Finally, the market-driven estimate of demand and absorption was translated into land use 
requirements through assumptions conceming development density by location. For 
residential land use, density was measured by dwelUng units per acre (DUPA). For 
commercial and industrial land use, density was measured by a floor area ratio (FAR) 
calculated for each land use and area. The FAR is the ratio between building space and 
land area, with a higher ratio corresponding to denser development. 

The model derives estimates and projections of these components and variables for each of 
several residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. The land requirements for each 
use were then combined to determine a total urban land use projection for each of the nine 
market areas. 

Figure 2: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Model 



Demographic 
Data 


Market Demand 


Absorption 


Land Use 


Population 
Income 

Employment 


Sales Potential 

Supportable 
Space 

CO 


Market 
Growth 
Market Share 

Occupied Space 
Total Space 


Densities 

Land Requirements 

Additional 1 ^nd 
Use 



Source: Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Model 1989 



37 



Future Land Use 



REDEVELOPMENT 

The City of Gainesville is approximately 83% built-out (Table 1). Much of the existing 
development is low density and low intensity. Redevelopment and infill development, 
compatible with the character of individual neighborhoods, are needed. Most of the areas 
shown for redevelopment are related to the proposed Central City Special Transportation 
Area. It is intended that redevelopment of these areas will contribute to an interactive 
activity center which lessens the need for vehicular trips by allowing an appropriate mix of 
residential and non-residential uses accessible by foot, bicycle and bus. Map 16 shows the 
proposed redevelopment areas of the city and areas where housing rehabilitation activities 
will occur. The redevelopment areas included: Downtown Gainesville (Planning District 
1 ), the Enterprise Zone, historic districts, housing rehabilitation areas and areas designated 
as a pocket of poverty. 

Neighborhoods north, east and south of the University have a large percentage of student 
residents, but do not accommodate a large enough share of student housing. It is especially 
desirable to accommodate student housing close to the University to reduce the 
transportation demand that student housing in outlying areas places on the City and the 
University. As stated earlier, students at the University of Florida are currendy included in 
the City's population figures. As new students enroll in the University dormitories, 
existing students must move out. These are the students that should continue to be housed 
near the University. Over time, this will have the effect of reducing peak hour traffic 
problems and help to revitalize downtown. This would also provide the density that is 
needed to support the Mass Transit System. A larger residential population near the 
University would also be a prime catalyst in revitalizing the downtown. Older 
neighborhoods close to the downtown continue to include deteriorated dwellings and 
underutilized parcels although new housing has been built in the Porters neighborhood. 
The City continues its efforts to attract employers to the downtown and nearby industrial 
areas which are centrally located and accessible by mass transit. Another primary target 
for redevelopment is the North 13th Street Activity Center (N.W. 13th Street and N.W. 
23rd Avenue) The large amount of vacant commercial property in this area detracts from its 
desirability as the prime retail and office area serving many northwest neighborhoods. 
Recent investment in the area, Sam's Wholesale Club and Kash and Karry, indicate both 
that this activity center is well located to serve community needs and that redevelopment of 
the area can satisfy community shopping needs generated by the large amount of residential 
development surrounding the activity center. 

The redevelopment areas contain a mix of land uses; commercial, office, residential and 
industrial uses. The Enterprise Zone encompasses most of the redevelopment areas. In 
order for an area to be designated as a State Enterprise Zone, it must exhibit the 
characteristics described in Section 290.0004(1 )(a), F.S. Those characteristics include 
areas that show physical signs of deterioration and dilapidation which endanger Ufe and 
propeny and the health and welfare of the community, among other things. The 
redevelopment areas also include areas containing valuable historical resources that must be 
preserved and maintained and areas where the sense of neighborhood is threatened by 
substandard housing conditions. 

In order to encourage infill and redevelopment consistent with the State policies to 
discourage urban sprawl, the Future Land Use Map designates areas near the university 
and near the downtown to carry densities up to 75 units per acre north of the university, 
1(X) units east and south of the university and 150 units in the downtown. Higher densities 
usually provide compatibility problems with surrounding lower density areas. Currently 
the compatibility between high density and low density is achieved through land 
development regulations that will restrict building height, provide a step down in density or 

38 



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open space buffers between high density and low density development. Density bonuses 
to achieve the maximum density are only given to those projects that can demonstrated that 
the development will be compatible. Compatibility can also be achieved through 
performance standards, the demand for a total separation of different uses is based on 
somewhat outdated euchdean zoning process. 

Infrastructure 

An important consideration for infill and redevelopment is infrastructure capacity. The 
projected design capacity of the Potable Water and Sanitary Sewer Element is sufficient to 
accommodate higher densities The current Mass Transit System can accommodate 15,925 
person trips at full capacity, existing demand is approximately 5,000 person trips, (page 4 
Mass Transit Element). The existing infrastrucuire can accommodate the increase in 
residential density which is needed to support the Transit System. As explained in the 
Traffic Circulation Element, an increase in density near traffic generators is actually 
expected to improve the level of service on other transportation facilities. Development 
within the areas to be designated for higher densities will not contribute to stormwater 
problems. As redevelopment occurs existing problems will be eliminated because new 
development will have to meet the LOS Standards adopted in the Stormwater Element. 
Because many of these areas were developed prior to any water quantity or quality 
standards, redevelopment can only improve on the present situation. 

Neighborhood Planning 

Since 1987, three neighborhood plans have been prepared for three areas within the 

redevelopment area: The College Park Neighborhood Plan; the Southeast Study Reix)rt and 

the Downtown Design Plan. The overall goal of each of these plans has the same theme, ^ 

providing a mechanism that will stimulate the private sector to undertake redevelopment and 

revitalization activities. The College Park Neighborhood Plan sets forth the following 

goals and objectives that should be used in all redevelopment efforts: 

Identify public improvement projects that will aid in the revitaUzation of the 
neighborhood. 

Suggest appropriate changes in the existing land development regulations that may 
aid in the revitalization and redevelopment effort, and upgrade development quality. 

Identify potential sources of money for the implementation of the plan. 

Devise an appropriate neighborhood strategy for revitalization. 

Identify opportunities for appropriate redevelopment projects, 

College Park Neighborhood 

The College Park Neighborhood is a 78.76 acre area located north of the University of 

Florida (See Figure 3). The College Park Neighborhood is part of a much larger 

university-oriented area. The redevelopment of this area must be carefully done in order to 

maintain the charm and character of the neighborhood. One of the main goals is to allow 

the maximum density possible without destroying the college park neighborhood or 

adjacent single family neighborhoods. In order to the accomplish this, the City is 

preparing a Master Plan including Land Development Regulations that will regulate the 

intensity of development within the area. A preliminary' draft of the Master Plan describes / 

three types 

40 



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of buildings (I, n and in)that would be compatible with the neighborhood and surrounding 
areas. The Type I building would provide retail, office and residential uses within four 
story buildings adjacent to University Avenue and N.W. 13th Street. Retail uses would be 
restricted to the first 2 floors, office on all four floors and residential on floors 2 through 4. 
Type I buildings and uses should only be aUowed in the areas designated MU-L (see 
Figure 3 ) The Type II building would allow office and residential uses within a 3.5 story 
building with limited office uses allowed on the first floor, residential use v/ould be 
allowed on all floors. The Type n building and uses would be located in the core of the 
neighborhood but not adjacent to single family areas. Type II buildings and uses should 
only be allowed in the areas designated for MU-R. The Type HI building would allow 
residential uses within a 2.5 story building . The Type EI building buffers the higher 
intensity Type I and Type n buildings from single family areas. Type IE buildings and 
uses should be allowed in the areas designated R-M (Residential Medium Density (8 -30 
units per acre). 

Once the Master Plan for the College Park Neighborhood is completed the Comprehensive 
Plan should be amended if the building types and uses recommended in the master plan 
would be inconsistent with the adopted building types and uses. 

NONCONFORMING USES 

Uses identified as being inconsistent with the community's character can be categorized as 
nonconforming uses. These are uses of buildings or lands other than uses specifically 
permitted in the zoning districts in which such buildings or lands are located, provided such 
uses were at one time legal and have not been discontinued for more than (9) consecutive 
months. 

There are approximately 185 residential parcels with residential nonconforming uses. It is 
estimated that about 100 commercial, office or industrial parcel may be located within 
residential districts where they are prohibited. Many of these nonconforming uses have 
existed for almost a decade (since the last city-wide rezoning). This indicates that these 
uses may actually be healthy and compatible with the surrounding area. Further study of 
nonconforming uses is needed to determine which uses are not appropriate and therefore 
should continue to stay nonconforming and whether uses which are thriving should be 
allowed to become a conforming use. The future land use plan through its policies should 
seek to eliminate incompatible land uses that pose a threat to public safety and welfare. 

FLOOD PRONE AREAS 

In the City of Gainesville most of the Eoodplain areas are not suitable for development. 
Hoodplains in the city are closely associated with the creek system. City ordinances 
currently restrict devlopment in flood channels, floodplains and along regulated creeks. 
Map 17 shows those areas of the city that where designated as Open Space on the land use 
map of the City's 1980 - 2(XX) Comprehensive Plan. The land which is designated open 
space closely corresponds with areas designated as the l(X)-year floodplain (see Map 4). 
The significance of floodplains to development in the city is discussed in the Stormwater 
Management (Drainage) Data and Analysis Report. 






42 



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Future Land Use 

FUTURE LAND USE 

Growth Management Framework 

The State mandate to ujxiate local comprehensive plans places the responsibility on the City 
to develop a Future Land Use Plan that will guide development and accommodate expected 
growth trends without reducing service levels below adopted standards. To meet this 
challenge, the City must develop a growth management framework for the future which 
will become the foundation for the Land Use Plan. The framework for this Plan will be the 
multi-center approach. The goals of this concept are to maintain Gainesville's low density 
character and guide higher density development into concentrated centers. Existing low 
density areas and vacant areas are buffered from intensive commercial areas, although some 
low density areas adjacent to more intense activities may be converted to higher densities. 

The multi-center approach consists of several activity centers and industrial concentrations 
located throughout the city (see Map 1 8 and 19). The goals of these concentrated centers 
is to prevent the diffusion of commercial activities into commercial strips and protect 
residential areas from hazardous and intensive land uses. The following is a list of other 
possible benefits from utili2dng a multi-center system: 

Future development of activity centers can accommodate projected growth without 
destroying the character of existing neighborhoods. 

The use of activity centers can guide new growth to environmentally suitable areas, 
thus reducing the potential for disrupting environmentally sensitive areas and 
allowing for the expansion of the city's green way network. 

Different housing type of varying density can be developed near activity center that 
would offer a wider choice of residential living pattern especially near the 
University of Florida. 

The dependency on the automobile for transportation can be reduce through the use 
of mixed use areas that encourages a mixture of residential, office and commercial 
uses. 



In order to implement a multi-centered system, the Future Land Use Plan must allow mixed 
use development. The Plan proposes to implement this system using four mixed use land 
use districts: Mixed Use Low (MUL), Mixed Use Medium (MUM), Mixed Use 
Residential (MUR), and Mixed Use High (MUH). The MUL district will includes low 
intensity neighborhood-serving activity centers. This district will also be used to encourage 
redevelopment of existing strip commercial areas. The MUM district will be used to 
designate community-servicing activity centers. This district should not be used to 
designate strip commercial areas. The MUR district will be used to designate areas that 
maybe developed or redeveloped using traditional residential neighborhood design 
principles. The Traditional neighborhood design encourages development that caters to 
pedestrians and bicyclists of the neighborhood. The MUH district designates the 
Downtown as an urban area serving activity center. The following land use categories will 
implement the growth management plan (see Table 10 for acreage distribution by Future 
Land Use category) : 



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Single Family (up to 8 units per acre) 

This land use category shall allow single family detached dwellings at densities up 
to eight dwelling units per acre. The single family land use classification identifies 
those areas within the City that due to topography, soil conditions, surrounding 
land uses and development patterns, are appropriate for single family development. 
Land Development Regulations shall determine the performance measures and 
gradations of density. Land Development Regulations shall specify criteria for the 
siting of low intensity residential facilities to accommodate special need 
populations and appropriate community level institutional facilities such as places 
of rehgious assembly, private schools and libraries. Land Development 
Regulations shall allow Home Occupations and accessory units in conjunction with 
single-family dweUings under certain limitations. 



Residential Low Density (up to 12 units per acre) 

This land use category shall allow dwelhngs accommodating up to four families at 
densities up to 12 units per acre. The Residential Low Density land use 
classification identifies those areas within the City of Gainesville that, due to 
topography, soil conditions, surrounding land uses and development patterns, are 
appropriate for single family development, particularly the conservation of existing 
traditional low-density neighborhoods, single-family attached and zero-lot line 
development, and small scale multi-family development. Land Development 
Regulations shall determine gradations of density, specific uses and performance 
measures. Land Development Regulations shall specify criteria for the siting of 
low intensity residential facihties to accommodate special need populations and 
appropriate community level instiuitional facihties such as places of rehgious 
assembly, private schools and hbraries. Land Development Regulations shall allow 
Home Occupations; accessory units in conjunction with single-family dwellings; 
and bed-and-breakfast estabhshments within certain hmitations. 



Residential Medium Density (8-30 units per acre) 

This land use classification shall allow single-family and multi-family development 
at densities from 8 to 30 dwelling units per acre. The land shown as Residential 
Medium Density on the land use plan identifies those areas within the City of 
Gainesville that, due to topography, soil conditions, surrounding land uses and 
development patterns, are appropriate for single-family and medium intensity multi- 
family development. Land Development Regulations shall determine gradations of 
density and specific uses. Land Development Regulations shall specify criteria for 
the siting of appropriate medium intensity residential facilities to accommodate 
special need pnDpulations and appropriate community level institutional facilities 
such as places of religious assembly, private schools and libraries. Land 
Development Regulations shall allow Home Occupations within certain hmitations. 



Residential High Density (21-100 units per acre) 

This category shall allow multi-family development at densities from 21 to 100 
dwelhng units per acre. The land shown as residential high density on the land use 
plan identifies those areas within the City of Gainesville that, due to topography, 
soil conditions, surrounding land uses and development patterns, are appropriate 

47 



Future Land Use 



for high intensity multi-family development and secondary retail and office uses at 
scaled to serve the immediate neighborhood. The intensity of secondary retail and 
office use cannot exceed more than 20% of the residential floor area. Land 
Development Regulations shall determine gradations of density, specific uses, 
percentage of floor area and maximum floor area appropriate for secondary uses. 
Land Development Regulations shall specify the criteria for the siting of high 
intensity residential facilities to accommodate special need populations and 
appropriate community level institutional facilities such as places of religious 
assembly, private schools and libraries. Land development regulations shall allow 
Home Occupations within certain limitations. 



Mixed Use Residential (up to 75 units per acre) 

This residential district provides for a mixture of residential and office uses. Office 
uses that are complementary to and secondary to the residential character of the 
district may be allowed. An essential component of the district is orientation of 
structures to the street and the pedestrian character of the area. Office uses located 
within this district should be scaled to serve the immediate neighborhood and 
p)edestrians from surrounding neighborhoods and institutions. Land Development 
Regulations shall set the district size; appropriate densities (up to 75 dwelhng units 
per acre); the distribution of uses; appropriate floor area ratios; design criteria; 
landscaping, pedestrian, mass transit and bicycle access, and street lighting. Land 
Development Regulations shall specify the criteria for the siting of public and 
private schools, places of religious assembly and community facilities within this 
category when designed in a manner compatible with the adoption of a Special 
Area Plan for that area. The intensity of office use can not exceed more than 10% 
of the total residential floor area per development. 



Mixed Use Low Intensity (8-30 units per acre) 

This category includes a mixture of residential, office and retail uses scaled to 
serve the needs of the surrounding neighborhood. This category has been applied 
to commercial development to enhance the flexibility of these low intensity areas. It 
is not expected that these areas shall be expanded significantly during this planning 
period; creation of strip development is not intended. Public and private schools, 
places of religious assembly and community facilities shall be appropriate in this 
category. Residential development from 8 to 30 units per acre shall be permitted. 
Land Development Regulations shall ensure the compact, pedestrian character of 
these areas; provide guidelines for the compatibility of {permitted uses; and ensure 
that such areas do not serve overlapping market areas of other designated low 
activity centers. Floor area ratios in this district shall range between 1.00 - 2.(X). 



Mixed Use Medium Intensity (14-40 units per acre) 

This category includes a mixture of residential, office, business and light industrial 
uses concentrated in mapped areas. Public and private schools, institutions of 
higher learning, places of religious assembly and community facilities shall be 
appropriate in this category. Such development shall function as an activity center 
serving multiple neighborhoods. It is not expected that these areas shall be 
expanded significandy during this planning p)eriod. Land Development Regulations 
shall ensure the compact, pedestrian character of these areas; provide guidehnes for 

48 



Future Land Use 



the compatibility of permitted uses; and ensure that such areas do not serve 
overlapping market areas of other designated medium intensity activity centers. 
Residential development from 14 to 40 units per acre shall be permitted. Floor area 
ratios in this district shall range between 1.00 - 2.00. 



Mixed Use High Intensity (up to 150 units per acre) 

This category includes a mixture of residential, office, business uses and light 
industrial uses concentrated in mapped areas. PubUc and private schools, 
institutions of higher learning, places of reUgious assembly and community 
facilities shall be appropriate in this category. Such development shall function as 
an activity center serving the urban area. When in accord with all other land use 
regulations, residential densities up to 150 units shall be permitted. Land 
Development Regulations shall be prepared to ensure the compact, pedestrian 
character of these areas. Floor area ratios in this district shall not exceed 10.00. 



Office 

The office land use category identifies areas appropriate for office and residential 
uses. This category is intended to identify appropriate areas for professional and 
service uses, hospital and medical uses, compound and residential uses, and 
appropriate ancillary uses. Office designations shall be appUed to compact office 
development; office designations shall not encroach in viable residential areas nor 
expand strip development. Residential uses in office districts shall be designed as 
infill, mixed use, compound use or shall accommodate existing residential 
development within the district. Densities shall not exceed twenty (20) units per 
acre. Land Development Regulations shall determine the appropriate scale of uses; 
and the specific criteria for the siting of private schools and churches. Floor area 
ratios in this district shall range between 0.50 - 2.00. 

Commercial 

The commercial land use category identifies those areas most appropriate for large 
scale and highway-oriented commercial uses. Land Development Regulations shall 
determine the appropriate scale of uses. This category is not appropriate for activity 
centers. Floor area ratios in this district shall range between 0.50 - 2.00. 

Industrial 

The industrial land use category identifies those areas appropriate for 
manufacturing, fabricating, distribution, extraction, wholesaling, warehousing, 
recycling and other ancillary uses. Land Development Regulations shall determine 
the appropriate scale of uses and consider the externalities of such uses. Intensity 
of use shall not exceed a maximum lot coverage of 80%. 



Education 

This category identifies appropriate areas for public and private schools and 
institutions of higher learning when located outside of activity centers. Land 
Development Regulations shall address compatibihty with surrounding uses and 
infrastructure needs. Roor area ratios in this district shall not exceed 5.00. 

49 



Future Land Use 



Recreation 

This category identifies appropriate areas for public and private leisure activities. 
Land Development Regulations shall address the scale, intensity and buffering of 
structures and outdoor improvements. This category shall meet the appropriate 
intensities of use as established by the Park Design and Function Standards 
adopted in the Recreation Element. 

Conservation 

This category identifies areas environmentally unsuited to urban development, 
permanent buffers between land uses, areas used for passive recreation and nature 
parks. Privately held properties within this category shall be allowed to develop at 
single family densities of one unit per five acres. Land Development Regulations 
shall determine the appropriate scale of activities, structures and infrastructure that 
will be allowed. 

Agriculture 

This category identifies existing lands which are expected to continue in 
agricultural production and ancillary uses. Land Development Regulations shall 
allow single family densities of one unit per five acres. It is not expected that lands 
designated for urban uses will be converted to agricultural production. 

Public Facilities 

This category identifies administrative and operational govemmental functions 
such as government offices, utility facihties and storage facilities. Maximum lot 
coverage in this district shall not exceed 80%. 

Planned Use District 

This category is an overlay land use district which may be appUed on any specific 
property in the City. The land use regulations pertaining to this overlay district 
shall be adopted by ordinance in conjuction with an amendment to the Future Land 
Use Map of this comprehensive plan. The category is created to allow the 
consideration of unique, innovative or narrowly construed land use proposals that 
because of the specificity of the land use regulations can be found to be compatible 
with the character of the surrounding land uses and environmental conditions of 
the subject land. Each adopting PUD overlay land use designation shall address 
density and intensity, permitted uses, traffic access and trip generation, 
environmental features and buffering of adjacent uses. Planned Development 
zoning shall be required to implement any specific development plan. In the event 
that the overlay district has been applied to a site and no planned development 
zoning has found approval by action of the City Commission within one year of 
the land use designation, the overlay land use district shall be deemed null and void 
and the overlay land use category shall be removed from the Future Land Use 
Map, leaving the original and underlying land use in place. 



c 



50 



Future Land Use 



Table 10: FUTURE LAND USE ACREAGE 



LAND USE 


ACREAGE 


% OF TOTAL 








Agriculture 


1 71 .91 


0.87% 


Commercial 


325.68 


1.65% 


Conservation 


1 1 25.94 


5.71% 


Education 


1485.26 


7.53% 


Industrial 


968.27 


4.91% 


Mixed Use (High) 


1 33.37 


0.68% 


Mixed Use (Low) 


570.90 


2.89% 


Mixed Use (Medium) 


405.53 


2.06% 


Mixed Use Residential 


36.07 


0.18% 


Office 


274.00 


1.39% 


Public Facilities 


4064.70 


2 0.61% 


Planned Use District 


1 47.89 


0.75% 


Residential (High) 


303.28 


1.54% 


Residential (Low) 


1 290.50 


6.54% 


Residential (Medium) 


880.58 


4.46% 


Recreation 


354.1 1 


1.80% 


Single Family 


71 88.66 


3 6.44% 








Total 


19726.65 





Source: Department of Community Development November 1990 



Urban Reserve Areas and .Annexation 

The procedure for the delineation of urban reserve and annexation areas is estabhshed by 
the 1990 Alachua County Boundary Adjustment Act. 

The City of Gainesville and Alachua County have historically been unable to agree on 
annexation. In 1990 the Florida Legislature passed a special act which sets forth 
procedures for establishing municipal reserve areas, adjusting the boundaries of 
municipalities through annexation and contraction. 

The Boundary Adjustment Act replaces former coordinating mechanisms by prescribing a 
schedule for the establishment of reserve areas and procedures for annexation that do not 
require joint action on the pan of the City or County once the Reserve Area is established. 
The act also precludes annexation by general law. This method of coordination begin in 
January 1991, when the County scheduled a pubUc hearing on the designation of Reserve 
Areas. On October 15, 1991 the Alachua County Board of County Commissioners 
approved the Urban Reserve Area for Gainesville (See Map 20). Now annexation can 
occur within this area by enactment of an ordinance by the annexing municipality, (subject 
to referendum if petitioned by 20% or more of the affected electors). The Comprehensive 
Plan will be amended when areas are annexed. 



51 



APPENDIX A 



FUTURE LAND USE DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



EXISTING USE OF LAND MAP 



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APPENDIX B 



FUTURE LAND USE DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



METHODOLGY FOR CATEGORIZING LAND USE 



9 



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1 



Future Land Use 



Methodology for Categorizing Land Uses 



The Existing Land Use Map was constructed by matching the City of Gainesville's 
zoning categories with the existing land use categories specified in 9J-5.006. Some 
zoning categories contain a mix of uses that cannot be appUed exclusively to one 
existing use category. Under those circumstances, existing use was determined on 
a parcel -by-parcel basis using DOR codes, aerial photos, field surveys, and various 
address and business directories. 

This appendix lists the definitions and zoning breakdowns for each existing land 
use category. 



Residential/Low Density 

Definition 

All residential lands with densities between 1 unit/5 acres and 9 units/acre were 
defined as "Residential/Low Density." Also included in this category were any 
foster family homes, day care homes, and churches located in low density 
neighborhoods. 

Zoning Breakdown 

All properties with the following zoning designations met the definition of 
"Residential/Low Density." Densities hsted represent the maximum range permitted 
in the district 

3.5 units/acre single-family residential district 

4.6 units/acre single-family residential district 
5.8 units/acre single-family residential district 
5.8 to 6.9 units/acre single-family and multi-family 
residential district 

e. RMF-5 - 5.8 to 8 units/acre single-family and multi-family 

residential district 

f . RC - Residential conservation district, permitting single-family 

and two-family dwellings 

g. RU-1 - 8 units/acre residential university, low density district 

The following zoning categories contain a mix of uses including residential. DOR 
codes were used to identify parcels that met the definition of "Residential/Low 
Density." 

Agriculture district 
Conservation district 
Planned development district 
Limited office and residential district 
General office and residential district 



a. 


RSF-1 


b. 


RSF-2 


c. 


RSF-3 


d. 


RMF-4 



a. 


A 


b. 


C 


c. 


PD 


d. 


OR-1 


e. 


OR-2 



B-1 



a. 


RMF-6 


b. 


RMF-7 


c. 


RMF-8 


d. 


RU-2 



Future Land Use 



Residential/High Density 

Definition 

All residential lands with densities greater than or equal to 10 units/acre were 
defined as "Residential/High Density." Also included in this category were any 
foster family homes, day care homes, child care centers, churches, social service 
homes, and personal care facilities located in high density residential 
neighborhoods. 

Zoning Breakdown 

All properties with the following zoning designations met the definition of 
"Residential/High Density." Densities listed represent the maximum range 
permitted in the district. 

10 to 15 units/acre multi-family residential district 

14 to 21 units/acre multi-family residential district 

20 to 30 units/acre multi-family residential district 

14 to 21 units/acre residential university, medium density 

district 

e. RU-3 - 20 to 30 units/acre residential university, high density 

district 

f . RU-4 - 20 to 43 units/acre residential university, intense density 

district 
d. RM - Mobile home residential district 

The following zoning categories contain a mix of uses including residential. DOR 
codes were used to identify parcels that met the definition of "Residential/High 
Density." 

a. PD - Planned development district 

b. OR-1 - Limited office and residential district 

c. OR-2 - General office and residential district 



Office 

Definition 

The "Office" category consists of low intensity business uses. These are primarily 
offices; retail uses were excluded. 

Zoning Breakdown 

All properties with the following zoning designations met the definition of "Office.' 

a. O-l - Limited office district 

b. 0-2 - General office district 



B-2 



Future Land Use 



The following zoning categories contain a mix of uses including office. DOR codes 
were used to identify parcels that met the definition of "Office." 

- Planned development district 

- Limited office and residential district 
General office and residential district 
Medical services district 
Business and office district 



a. 


PD 


b. 


OR-1 


c. 


OR-2 


d. 


M 


e. 


BO 


Commercial 


Definition 



The "Commercial" category consists of medium intensity business uses. These 
uses primarily include retail sales, repair services, and shopping centers. 

Zoning Breakdown 

All properties with the following zoning designations met the definition of 
"Commercial." 



Limited business district 
General business district 
Neighborhood shopping center district 
Shopping center district 
Tourist-oriented business district 
Automotive-oriented business district 
Parking district 

The following zoning categories contain a mix of uses including commercial. DOR 
codes were used to identify parcels that met the definition of "Commercial." 



a. 


B-1 


b. 


B-2 


c. 


NSC 


d. 


SC 


e. 


BT 


f. 


BA 


g- 


P 



a. BO 

b. M 

c. PD 



Business and office district 
Medical services district 
Planned development district 



Industrial 

Definition 

The "Industrial" category consists of high intensity business uses. These uses 
primarily include warehousing, wholesaling, and industrial uses. 



B-3 



Future Land Use 



Zoning Breakdown 

All properties with the following zoning designations met the definition of 
"Industrial." 

a. W - Warehousing and wholesaling district 

b. I-l - Limited industrial district 

c. 1-2 - General industrial district 



Education 

Definition 

All educational uses were defined as "Education." This included the University of 
Florida, other public schools, and any private schools with elementary or higher 
level coursework. 

Zoning Breakdown 

All properties zoned "E" (Educational services district) less any land involved in 
recreation use met the definition of "Education." 

DOR codes were used to identify private schools within other zoning districts. 



Recreation 

Definition 

All recreation uses were defined as "Recreation." This included school 
playgrounds, active city and county parks, and private sports facilities. 

Zoning Breakdown 

Recreation uses can be found in all zoning districts. DOR codes and the City of 
Gainesville's Recreation Inventory were used to identify parcels that met the 
definition of "Recreation." 



Public Service 

Definition 

All public services that were not included in other existing land use categories were 
defined as "Public Service." This includes government offices, airports, public 
hospitals, police and fire services, and utilities. This excludes education uses, 
conservation uses, and recreation uses. 



B-4 



Future Land Use 



Zoning Breakdown 

The following zoning categories contain a mix of uses including public service. 
DOR codes were used to identify parcels that met the definition of "Public Service. 

a. PS - Pubhc services and operations district 

b . AF - Airport facilities district 

c. M - Medical services district 



Conservation 

Definition 

All conservation uses were defined as "Conservation." This included open space 
buffers and public and private parks without active recreation facilities. 

Zoning Breakdown 

The following zoning categories contain a mix of uses including conservation. 
DOR codes were used to identify parcels that met the definition of "Conservation." 

a. PS - Public services and operations district 

b. C - Conservation district 



Agriculture 

Definition 

All agricultural uses were defined as "Agriculuire." This primarily included 
cropland and pasture land. 

Zoning Breakdown 

All properties zoned "A" (Agriculture district) less any residential uses. 



Mixed Use 

Definition 

All areas containing a dense mixture of residential, office, commercial, and 
municipal uses were defined as "Mixed Use." 



B-5 



Future Land Use 



Zoning Breakdown 

All properties with the following zoning designations met the definition of "Mixed 
Use." 

a. BI - Business Institutional district 

b. CCD - Central city district 



Unimproved Land 

Definition 

All properties assigned a zero building value by the Alachua County Property 
Appraiser's Office (less common areas, parking lots, and cemeteries determined 
from DOR codes and aerial photos) were defined as "Unimproved Land." 

Zoning Breakdown 

Unimproved land is found in all zoning districts. Only properties or groups of 
properties that were greater than or equal to three acres were shown on Map 1 . All 
unimproved land, regardless of parcel size, was included in the acreage totals 
shown on Table 1. 



Special Overlays 

Historic District 

This overlay identifies the boundaries of all historic districts currently listed on the 
Local Register of Historic Places. 

Hospitals 

This overlay identifies all hospitals, including pubhc, private, and teaching 
hospitals. 

Superfund Site 

This overlay identifies the hazardous waste site designated for cleanup under federal 
Superfund legislation. 

Existing Land Use in the Urban Area 

All existing land use categories and definitions used for the surrounding urban area 
match those Usted for the City of Gainesville. Because City zoning does not apply 
to the urban area, an alternative method for determining existing use was required. 
For this purpose, DOR codes were identified for each parcel and then matched with 
the appropriate existing land use category. Additional input was provided by aerial 
photographs and comments from the Alachua County Planning Staff. 

B-6 



I 



f 



APPENDIX C 
FUTURE LAND USE DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



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APPENDIX D 



^ 



CITY OF GAINESVILLE 

FUTURE LAND USE ELEMENT DATA AND 

ANALYSIS REPORT FOR NEWLY ANNEXED 

AREAS 

August 1993 



Z' 



►^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page Numbe 
Note 
FUTURE LAND USE DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 

General Description of Annexation Areas 

Demographics of the Annexed Areas 

Land Use Analysis 

Population Projections 2 

Existing Land Use 3 

P*roposed Future Land Use 5 

Traffic Circulation 6 

Potable Water 7 

Natural Groundwater Aquifer Recharge 7 

Sanitary Sewer 7 

Stormwater 7 

Solid Waste 8 

Mass Transit 8 

Airport 8 

Housing - 8 

Recreation 8 

Capital Improvements 9 

Development Suitability of Vacant and Undeveloped Land 9 

Soil Types 10 

Redevelopment 1 1 

Appendix 1: Maps referenced in the text A-1 

Appendix 2: Existing Land Use Map Series A-2 

Appendix 3: Future Land Use Map Series A-3 



Z' 



LIST OF MAPS AND TABLES 



MAPS 



Page Number 



Map 1 
Map 2 
Map 3 
Map 4 
Map 5 
Map 6 
Map 7 
Map 8 
Map 9 
Map 10 
Map 11 
Map 12 
Map 13 
Map 14 



Annexation Area 1 Boundaries 

Annexation Area 2 Boundaries 

Annexed under City Ordinance 3865 (Area 3) 

Environmentally Significant Lands and Resources (Area 1) 

100- Year Floodplain (Area 1) 

Environmentally Significant Lands and Resources (Area 2) 

100- Year Floodplain (Area 2) 

Environmentally Significant Lands and Resources (Area 3) 

100- Year Floodplain (Area 3) 

Area 1 Soil Limitations for Urban Development 

Area 2 Soil Limitations for Urban Development 

Area 3 Soil Limitations for Urban Development 

Area 1 No Soil Erosion Problem Areas 

Area 2 Erosion Problems 



Existing Land Use Map Series 

Future Land Use Map Series 
TABLES 



Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 1 

Appendix 2 

Appendix 3 



Table 1 
Table 2 
Table 3 



Population Projections 

Existing Land Use Acreage and Density of Use for Annexed Areas 

Future Land Use Acreage for Annexed Areas 



2 

3 
5 



z' 



NOTE: 

1 . References to Maps 1 through 14 in the body of the text refer to maps in Appendix 1. 

2. References to the Existing Land Use Map Series in the body of the text refer to maps in 
Appendix 2, 

3 . References to the Future Land Use Map Series in the body of the text refer to maps in 
Appendix 3. 



z' 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANNEXATION AREAS 

The City of Gainesville annexed two areas of unincorporated Alachua County in September 
of 1992. In addition, on June 7, 1993, another unincorporated area was annexed 
voluntarily. All of these areas fall within the Urban Reserve Area (see Map 1, City of 
Gainesville Intergovernmental Coordination Data and Analysis Repon) adopted by the 
Alachua County Commission in August of 1991. The area annexed to the northwest of the 
City (annexed under City Ordinance 3768, hereafter referred to as Area 1) is shown on 
Map 1. This area is generally bounded on the north by the City of Alachua and Deerhaven 
Power Plant, on the east by 5jE 15th Street, on the south by the old city limits of 
Gainesville, and on the west by the extension of NW 43rd Street This area has a 
population density of .51 persons per acre. 

The area annexed to the southwest of the City (annexed under City Ordinance 3769, 
hereafter referred to as Area 2) is shown on Map 2. The area is bounded on the nonh by 
Newberry Road, on the east by the old city limits of Gainesville, on the South by Hogtown 
Creek, and on the west by 1-75. This area has a population density of 3.32 persons per 
acre. 

The area voluntarily annexed in the southeast (annexed under City Ordinance 3865, 
hereafter referred to as Area 3) is shown on Map 3. It is contiguous to the eastern 
boundary of the old city limits and north of Young American Park. This area consists of 
approximately 1 8 vacant acres. 

DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE ANNEXED AREAS 

The population of all areas annexed by the City is 4,986, based on the 1990 Census count. 
The annexed area to the nonh west of the City (Area 1) contains 2,397 residents, and the 
annexed area to the southwest (Area 2) contains 2,589 residents. Area 3 is vacant and has 
no population. Total households in all areas annexed is 2,676. Area 1 contains 1,275 
households, with a household size of 1.88. Area 2 contains 1,401 households, with a 
household size of 1.85. The racial composition of Area 1 is 71.7% white, 26.7% black and 
1.6% classified as other. The racial composition of Area 2 is 91% white, 5.6% black and 
3.4% classified as other. 

LAND USE ANALYSIS . ^ 

One purpose of this section is to determine the development and redevelopment possibilities 
of land v^ithin the annexed area of the City of Gainesville. Another is to determine the 
amount of land needed by land use category to accommodate the projected population. This 
addendum to the City of Gainesville Comprehensive Plan wiU maJce these determinations 
based on the availability of traffic circulation, sanitary sewer, solid waste, drainage, potable 
water, recreation and mass transit facilities to serve existing vacant and developed land in 
the annexed areas, and the natural conditions that may affect land development. It should be 
noted that Alachua County's 1991-201 1 Comprehensive Plan contains a land use analysis 
which includes the areas annexed by the City of Gainesville. Area 1 is mainly a regional 
industrial employment center servicing the needs of Alachua and surrounding counties. 
Area 2 is mainly a commercial area which contains a regional shopping mall that serves 
Alachua County and the surrounding region. Area 3 is vacant land proposed for a City 
park. The City has made every anempt possible to designate future land uses in the 
annexed areas consistent with the County's designations. 



- ^ 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Repon (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 



POPULATION PROTECTTONS 

Population projections are a primary consideration for deteimining future land use needs. 
Area 1 is projected to have a population of 2,494 in 1996 and 2,622 in 2001. Area 2's 
population is forecasted to be 2,751 in 1996 and 2,964 in 2001. See Table 1 for annual 
projections from 1992 through 2001. The projections are based on an average annual 
growth rate of 1% for Area 1 and 1.5% for Area 2. 

Table 1: Population Projections 

Area 1 

Percentage 
Year Population Growth Rate Growth Rate 



1992 


2398 






1993 


2421 


1.010 


0.96% 


1994 


2445 


1.010 


0.99% 


1995 


2470 


1.010 


1.02% 


1996 


2494 


1.010 


0.97% 


1997 


2519 


1.010 


1.00% 


1998 


2544 


1.010 


0.99% 


1999 


2570 


1.010 


1.02% 


2000 


2596 


1.010 


1.01% 


2001 


2622 


1.010 


1.00% 



Area 2 



Percentage 



2X 


Population 


Growth Rate 


Growth Rate 


1992 


2589 






1993 


2631 


1.016 


1.62% 


1994 


2670 


1.015 


1.48% 


1995 


2710 


1.015 


1.50% 


1996 


2751 


1.015 


1.51% 


1997 


2792 


1.015 


1.49% 


1998 


2834 


1.015 


1.50% 


1999 


2877 


1.015 


1.52% 


2000 


2920 


1.015 


1.49% 


2001 


2964 


1.015 


1.50% 



^ 



These projections were obtained from the Urban Services Reports for each of the annexed 
areas. The reports were developed as part of the requirements for annexation under the 
Boundary Adjustment Act and are attached to the annexation ordinances. 

The projected 1% annual growth rate for Area 1 is consistent with the moderate growth rate 
which the Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR) estimated for Alachua 
County (1.2% from 1990 to 1991). While there is a significant quantity of vacant land in 
Area 1 , much of it is proposed for non-residential use. Much of the land-proposed for 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Report (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 



residential use is designated single family or low density residential. These factors limit the 
population growth potential in the area, especially for the short term. 

Area 2's slightly higher growth rate of 1.5% is projected based on the availability of vacant 
medium density residential land close to facilities and a major activity center (the Oaks 
Mall). Portions of this area have already developed as low to medium density apartments 
or townhouses and that trend is expected to continue. 

Area 3 is not projected to have any population growth because it will be used as a City 
park. 

EXISTING LAND USE 

Table 2 contains acreage totals for each of the existing land uses shown on the Existing 
Land Use Map Series. Existing land uses were detennined using a combination of 
windshield surveys and Department of Revenue (DOR) codes. The primary land uses in 
Area 1 are Agriculture and Unimproved land. The primary land uses in Area 2 are 
ResidentiaVLow, Residential/Medium and Agriculture. Area 3 is unimproved. 



Table 2: 
Area 1 



Existing Land Use Acreage and Density of Use for Annexed Areas 



Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 


Density or Intensity of Use 


Residential 








Residential/Low 


459.19 


9.66% 


1 to 12 dwelling units/acre 


Residential/Medium 


23.74 


0.50% 


13 to 30 dwelling units/acre 










Business 
















Office 


7.22 


0.15% 


Low 


Commercial 


42.67 


0.90% 


Medium 


Industrial 


313.30 


6.59% 


High 










Other 








Education 


15.32 


0.32% 


NA 


Recreation 


14.83 


0.31% 


NA 


Public Service 


0.89 


0.02% 


NA 


Agriculture 


3042.48 


63.97% 


NA 


Conservation 


25.09 


0.53% 


NA 


Unimproved Land 


811.17 


17.06% 


NA 










TOTAL 


4755.90 


100.00% 





/" 



I) 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Repon (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 



Area 2 



Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 


Density or Intensity of Use 










Residential 








ResidentiaJ/Low 


216.12 


19.07% 


1 to 12 dwelling units/acre 


Residential/Medium 


121.14 


10.69% 


13 to 30 dwelling units/acre 










Business 
















Office 


24.63 


2.17% 


Low 


Commercial 


108.39 


9.56% 


Medium 


Industrial 


0.00 


0.00% 


High 










Other 








Education 


15.00 


1.32% 


NA 


Recreanon 


0.00 


0.00% 


NA 


Public Service 


8.88 


0.78% 


NA 


Agriculture 


339.93 


29.99% 


NA 


Conservadon 


180.93 


15.967c 


NA 


Unimproved Land 


118.37 


10.44% 


NA 










TOTAL 


1133.39 


100.00% 


- 


Area 3 


Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 


Density or Intensity of Use 










Unimproved Land 


18.0 


100% 


NA 



Residendal uses were categorized according to density. Density was determined by the 
number of units per acre. Low density residendal uses include single family, some multi- 
family and mobile homes at densities of 1 to 12 du/acre. Medium density residential uses 
are primarily multi-family at densities of 13 to 30 du/acre. 

The n on -residential use categories of Office, Commercial and Industrial are designated as 
low, medium and high in intensity of use respectively. These rankings are based on the 
types of uses permitted in each category as well as factors such as associated trip generation 
characteristics and parking requirements for uses within the categories. 

The office category permits almost no retail activity and includes uses such as professional 
offices and banking/financial services. Uses in the Commercial category are primarily 
characterized by retail activity of var>'ing scales. The least intense commercial uses in this 
category are individual businesses such as convenience stores. The highest level of 
intensity is found in shopping center uses such as the Oaks Mall in Area 2. The most 
intense level of use is found in the Industrial category which includes manufacturing, 
wholesaling, warehousing and outdoor storage uses. 



^ 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Report (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

Windshield surveys of several of the industriaJ parks in Area 1 showed that they contained 
mixed concentrations of office and industrial uses. However, the majority of uses within 
those areas were industrial in nature. 



PROPOSED FUTURE LAND USE 

The land use categories which will implement the growth management plan in the annexed 
areas are described in the City's Future Land Use Data and Analysis Report Density in the 
Residential Medium category was amended to 10 to 30 du/acre. 

Table 3 shows the acreage distribution by Future Land Use category for each of the 
annexed areas. Please note that the Future Land Use acreage total for Area 1 varies from its 
Existing Land Use total because about 718 acres of land lanown as the Weiss P*ropeny have 
not yet received City Future Land Use designations. It was determined that this area 
needed additional land use studies to properly determine future land use categories. The 
categories for this property remain as designated by Alachua County (Residential-Low and 
Conservation). 

The most prominent future land uses in Area 1 are projected to be Agriculture and 
Industrial, for a combined total of 73% of future land use. The most prominent future land 
uses in Area 2 are projected to be Residential/Medium and Conservation, for a combined 
total of 58.66% of fumre land uses. The only future land use for Area 3 is Recreation since 
this land will be used for a city park. These designations are shown on the Future Land 
Use Map Series. See anachment for the Future Land Use Map Series. _ 



Table 3: Future Land Use Acreage For Annexed Areas 
Area 1 



Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 








Agriculture 


1,442.04 


35.72% 


Commercial 


117.91 


2.92% 


Conservation 


127.78 


3.16% 


Education 


15.32 


.38% 


industrial 


1,505.15 


37.28% 


Office 


19.84 


0.49% 


Public Facilities 


1.53 


0.04% 


Planned Use 
District 


5.82 


0.14% 


Residential (Low) 


359.19 


8.90% 


Residential 
(Medium) 


87.66 


2.17% 


Single Family 


355.32 


8.80% 








rOTAL 


4,037.56 


100.007o 



/' 



,1) 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Repon (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

Area 2 



Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 








Commercial 


119.51 


10.54% 


Conservation 


289.11 


25.51% 


Education 


15.00 


1.32% 


Mixed Use (Low) 


8.76 


0.77% 


Office 


25.51 


2.25% 


Public Facilities 


9.94 


0.88% 


Residential (Low) 


66.29 


5.85% 


Residential 
(Medium) 


375.72 


33.15% 


Recreation 


6.48 


0.57% 


Single Family 


217.07 


19.15% 








TOTAL 


1,133.39 


100.00% 


Area 3 


Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 








Recreation 


18.00 


100.00% 



Within Area 1, some of the properties designated Industrial on the Future Land Use Map 
Series contain non-conforming uses. In many cases, these nonconformities also existed 
under Alachua County's Land Use Plan. For example, there are some single family homes 
and a mobile home park (Ranch Villas) designated Industrial because of industrial 
concentrations surrounding them. There are also retailing and office uses in some areas 
which will become non-conforming under the City's Industrial Category. 

TRAFFIC CIRCULATION 

The Traffic Circulation Element of Alachua County's 1991-201 1 Comprehensive Plan 
addressed the level of service (LOS) standards of the state highway system roadways and 
additional collector and arterial roads that serve the annexed areas. A portion of S.W. 20th 
Avenue, a minor arterial maintained by the County, was annexed by the City of Gainesville 
from 1-75 to S.W. 62nd Blvd. in Area 2. This road has been detemiined to be operating at 
a level of service B from S.W. 75th Street to S.W. 62nd Blvd., and a level of service F 
from S.W. 62nd Blvd. to S.W. 34th Street, as updated in the Metropolitan Planning 
Organization (MTPO) March 17, 1993 LOS Report The FDOT has scheduled a Planning, 
Development and Engineering (PD &E) Study for this roadway to be completed by 1993- 
94. 



z' 



State Road 26 (Newberry Road), a portion of which was annexed by the City in Area 2, 
has been determined to his operating at a level of service D, according to the updated MTPO 
May 24, 1993 LOS Repon. Alachua County, in cooperation with FDOT, has identified the 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Repon (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

segment from the west ramp of 1-75 east to NW 8th Avenue as being policy constrained, 
due to the existence -of six lanes. Constrained facilities are roads on which it is not feasible 
to add through lanes to meet current or future traffic needs due to physical, environmental 
or policy constraints. The City shall follow FDOT standards for this roadway, which 
indicate that the level of service on constrained facilities shall be maintained (not 
significandy degraded). 

All of the other roadways that fall within the annexed area are operating at an acceptable 
level of service. MTPO LOS Reports will annually update level of service for roadways in 
the Gainesville Metropolitan Area. The City shall apply the goals, objectives and policies of 
the Traffic Circulation Element of the Comprehensive Plan to transportation needs in the 
annexed areas. 

POTABLE WATER 

The Murphree Water Treatment Plant, located in northeast Gainesville, serves much of the 
annexed area with potable water service. Map 1 of the Potable Water and Wastewater Data 
and Analysis Report shows the existing geographic service area for potable water facilities. 
Currently, the Murphree Water Treatment Plant has a design capacity of 34 mgd (Table 4, 
Potable Water and Wastewater Data and Analysis Repon). Forecasts of demand and 
capacity. (Tables 9 and 10 of the Potable Water and Wastewater Data and Analysis Report) 
indicate a surplus capacity through the year 2001. Therefore, potable water demand will not 
exceed available capacity during the planning time frame. 

NATURAL GROUNDWATER AOUTFER RECHARGE 

The primary water supply for Gainesville and the newly annexed area is the Floridan 
Aquifer. The Floridan Aquifer underlies all of the City of Gainesville, including the 
annexed areas. Map 5 of the Conservation, Open Space and Groundwater Recharge Data 
and Analysis Report shows the degree of confinement of the Floridan Aquifer System for 
the entire city and annexed areas. The City will apply the goals, objectives and policies of 
the Conservation, Open Space and Groundwater Recharge Element to the annexed areas. 

SANTTARY SEWER 

The City of Gainesville currently serves almost the entire annexed area through Gainesville 
Regional Utilities. Map 5 of the Potable Water and Wastewater Data and Analysis Report 
shows the existing geographic service areas for wastewater facilities. Area 1 is served 
mainly by the Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant. A small portion of this area is served 
by the Main Street Wastewater Treatment Plant The remainder of the area does not 
cuirendy receive sanitary sewer services from Gainesville Regional Utilities. However, 
lines can be extended as development creates demand. Area 2 is entirely served by the 
Kanapaha Plant. Based on peak flow calculations, the existing sanitary sewer facilities 
have the capacity to adequately serve existing and future residents of the City within the 
planning time frame (See Tables 19 and 20, Potable Water and Wastewater Data and 
Analysis Repon). 

STORMWATER 

The City's Public Works Department provides stormwater management. Studies within the 
annexed areas are needed to address any existing deficiencies within drainage basins. Area 
1 contains a significant amount of floodplain and wedands, and a study of this area is 



z' 



I 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Report (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

needed to determine accuracy with FEMA maps. The Alachua County Comprehensive Plan 
Drainage Element, Figure 2, identifies no recurrent drainage problems or proposed 
drainage improvement projects in any of the areas annexed by the City. The City will apply 
the goals, objectives and policies of the Storm water Management Element to the annexed 
areas. 

It should be noted that Master Drainage Plans for two portions of Area 1 exist. These are 
referred to as Hawes Trust Watershed No. 1 and Hawes Trust Basin No. 3. Both of these 
plans have received approval from the Sl John's River Water Management District and 
from Alachua County. Policies will be developed in the Goals, Objectives and Policies 
section to take into account these plans. 

SOLID WASTE 

Alachua County provides solid waste facilities for the City of Gainesville and the entire 
county at the Southwest Landfill. The Southwest Landfill is expected to reach capacity in 
1998. Refer to the City's Solid Waste Data and Analysis Report for additional information 
about the future needs for solid waste capacity. 

MASS TRANSIT 

The existing and future Regional Transit System main bus service area is identified in the 
Mass Transit Element, Map 1. The Regional Transit System serves all of Areas 2 and 3, 
and portions of Area 1. Further studies on extending the R.T.S. service area should be 
conducted based on residential density, employment center population, projections of 
ridership and proximity to existing service to ensure the efficient provision of transit 
service. 

AIRPORT 

Part of Area 1 falls within the 65 LDN airport noise contour. A portion of this area was 
designated for residential development in the Alachua County Land Use Plan. Residential 
development is an incompatible land use in the noise contour zone. The City has taken 
noise contour zones into consideration when designating future land uses. Proposed future 
residential uses have been removed from the 65 LDN noise contour zone to eliminate 
incompatible land uses as required by the City's goals, objectives and policies in the 
Aviation Element. 

HOUSING 

The majority of housing in the annexed area is of standard condition. However, several 
subdivisions in the annexed area may contain a high percentage of substandard housing. 
The city will examine the need for a housing conditions survey and codes enforcement 
efforts in these areas, which include, the Momingstar subdivision located in Area 2; and 
Pine Forest Estates, Whitney Mobile Home Park and Ranch Villa Trailer Park located in 
Area 1. The city will apply the goals, objectives and policies of the Housing Element to 
ensure that all housing units in the City meet the City's Minimum Housing Code. 

RECREATION 

Recreation level of service standards were adopted in the Comprehensive Plan based on the 
1989 urban area population and facilities. The areas annexed by the City are included in the 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Repon (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

Gainesville Urban Area (see Map 13, Recreation Data and Analysis Repon). Therefore, 
population from the' annexed areas will have no impact on the recreation levels of service 
during the planning time frame. 

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS 

After studies have been completed, capital improvements related to stormwater facilities and 
roads may be proposed for the Momingstar subdivision in Area 2. 

DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY OF VACANT AND UNDEVELOPED 
I^AND 

This section analyzes the development potential of vacant and undeveloped land in the two 
annexation areas. The analysis is based on locations of floodplains, creeks, wellfield 
management zones, groundwater recharge areas and soil types. 

Area 1 

Area 1 contains approximately 811 existing acres of vacant land and an additional 3,042 
acres of agricultural land, about half of which is expected to be convened to non- 
agricultural use within the 5 and 10 year planning horizons. It is expected that most of the 
vacant and agricultural acreage will go to two uses: residential and industrial. It should be 
noted that this minors Alachua County's proposals for acreage in Area 1. 

A large proportion of the vacant acreage proposed for future industrial development is 
located either within existing and active industrial parks or proximate to these locations. 
Some of this area falls within the secondary and tertiary wellfield managements zones as 
shown on Map 4. The City's existing Comprehensive Plan and Land Development 
Regulations will regulate industrial uses as concerns hazardous materials and septic tank 
placement within these zones. 

Map 4 also shows the creeks, lakes and wetlands within Area 1. There are a significant 
number of wetiands in Area 1 which will limit development potential. Map 5 illustrates the 
100- Year Floodplain for Area 1. Hoodplains will also pose a development constraint for 
major portions of Area 1. The City's Land Development Regulations and the State's 
associated regulations will be utilized to protect critical areas. Some of these areas have 
been designated for conservation use on the Future Land Use Map. 

Area 2 

Area 2 contains about 118 existing acres of unimproved land and about 340 acres of 
agricultural land, some of which is expected to be used for medium density residential use. 
Much of the remainder is proposed for conservation use and is under consideration for City 
purchase. It is not expected that any of the land will remain in agricultural use by the end 
of the 5 and 10 year planning horizons. 

None of the acreage within Area 2 falls within the Wellfield Management Zones. 
However, as Maps 6 and 7 indicate, the area does have large wetiand areas and a 
significant portion falls within the 100- Year Floodplain. Hogtown Creek also flows 
through this area. As indicated earlier, some of the undeveloped area has.been designated 
for conservation use on the Future Land Use Map so that it will be protected. Land 



z' 



#) 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Report (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

Development Regulations and state regulations will control development potential within 
the remaining vacant areas proposed for residential development The City will amend its 
Creek Protection Ordinance to extend into annexed areas to protect creek beds and regulate 
development within the area. 

Area 3 

Area 3 consists of about 18 acres of unimproved land. Maps 8 and 9 illustrate the 
environmentally sensitive areas. This parcel is owned by the City of Gainesville and it is 
intended for use as a City park. The City's development regulations will adequately protect 
the wetland areas on this site. 

Soil Types 

The soils map series indicate soil limitations on development for the annexation areas. Soil 
types were classified into two categories (Moderate-Severe Problems and Erosion 
Problems) based on their impact on development. Information about these categories and 
the soils included within them is provided below. 

The Moderate-Severe Development Problem areas refer to soil classifications from 
the Alachua County Soil Survey prepared by the USDA Soil Conservation Service 
(SCS). SCS analyzed shrink-swell potentiaJ as a hazard to building foundations 
and roadways; corrosivity problems of steel piping and concrete base forms; and 
flooding potential or cave-in hazards for shallow excavations. Dwellings with or 
without basements and small commercial buildings were included in the analysis of 
foundation problems. The SCS soil types with moderate- severe ratings for such 
problems are as follows. It should be noted that the soil type numbers were 
updated in December 1990 by the SCS and that this represents the new numbering 
system. 

7 Kanapaha sand, 0-5% slopes 

1 1 Riviera sand 

13 Pelham sand 

14 Pomona sand 

15 . Pompano sand ^ 

16 Surrency sand 

17 Wauchula sand 

18 Wauchula-Urban land complex 

19 Monteocha loamy sand 

20 Tavares sand, 0-5% slopes 

21 Newnan sand 
23 Mulat sand 

25 Pomona sand, depressional 

26 Samsula muck 

29 Lochloosa fine sand, 2-5% slopes 

33 Norfolk loamy fme sand, 2-5% slopes 

34 Placid sand, depressional 

37 Zolfo sand 

38 Pits and dumps 
48 Myakka sand 
51 Plummer sand. 

74 Blichton sand, 2-5% slopes 



10 



City of Gainesville 

Future Land Use Data & Analysis Repon (Annexed Areas) 

August 1993 

75 Blichton sand, 5-8% slopes 

76 Bivans sand, 5-8% slopes 

Map 10 shows these soils types combined into areas which limit urban type 
development for Annexation Area 1. Map 1 1 shows the same soils limitations areas 
for Area 2. Map 12 shows the soil limitations areas for Area 3. As can be noted in 
Map 12, the entire area has soil limitations which limit urban development Since 
this area is intended for a City park, these limitations should not pose a problem. 

Erosion Problem areas refer to soil types where loss of vegetative cover on slopes 
of 2-8% would lead to topsoil loss via v^ind or rainfall. Those types are as follows. 

29 Lochloosa fine sand, 2-5% slopes 

30 Kendrick sand, 2-5% slopes 

39 Bonneau fine sand, 2-5% slopes 

72 Lochloosa fine sand, 5-8% slopes 

74 Blichton sand, 2-5% slopes 

76 Bivans sand, 5-8% slopes. 

Map 13 illustrates the areas within Annexadon Area 1 where erosion problems lead to 
development limitations. Map 14 shows the same information for Area 2. Area 4 contains 
no soils which create erosion problems. 

REDEVELOPMENT 

Redevelopment compatible with the character of individual neighborhoods is needed in 
several areas throughout the City. In the annexed areas, the Momingstar subdivision, a 
99.97 acre area located in Area 2, is one such neighborhood. The Momingstar subdivision, 
which is rural in character, lacks adequate infrastructure and accessibility. According to the 
County Public Works Department, historical access to the community has been severely 
restricted due to urban encroachment on the community and road closings which were 
approved by the Alachua County Board of County Commissioners. Another problem in the 
community is that there is no publicly owned right-of-way and many of the roads are dirt 
roads. The Momingstar subdivision also has drainage and flooding problems. County ^ 

suidies have indicated that some of the localized drainage problems could be solved through 
the construction of an improved drainage system, but the flooding problems resulting from 
the back-up of flood waters from the Sugarfoot Prairie could not be solved. A portion of 
the Momingstar subdivision is located in the floodplain. The City of Gainesville recognizes 
that most floodplain areas are not suitable for development, and restricts such development 
through the enforcement of City ordinances. The significance of floodplains to 
development in the City is discussed in the Stormwater Management (Drainage) Data and 
Analysis Report. 

Redevelopment plans and studies for this area will be conducted by the City. TThese plans 
should identify public improvement projects that will revitalize the area and identify 
potential sources of funding for the implementation of the plan. Studies to determine 
whether nonconforming uses exist and whether such uses are a threat to public safety and 
welfare should also be conducted in the annexed areas. The City shall apply the policies of 
the Future Land Use Element which seek to eliminate such incompatible uses. 



D) 



11 



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Appendix 1 



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Map 2 



ANNEXED UNDER CITY ORDINANCE 3769 



■ I - 



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LEGEND 



Annexation Boundary 
Old City Limits 



Prepared by: Department of 
Community Development North 

March 1993 Scale: 1:1 600 



Map 3 
ANNEXED UNDER CITY ORDINANCE 3865 




NORTH 



NO SCALE 



MARCH 1993 



wm 




• • • 

• •* * • 






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Map 6 

ENVIRONMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT LANDS AND RESOURCES 

ANNEXED UNDER CITY ORDINANCE 3759 
regulated creek 
wellfield zone 
la»;e 

WETLAND 
CREEK 



Prepared by th* 0*pt. of 
ContBiaany O»**lop<n*nt, 1/99 

ScaU: 1' laoO' 1 

Merit* 



Seurc**: Matlonal W*tlaa4« bi*»a tory/ 1 t (4 

City of Q*ln««Tllk», Ca*lronM*Mlairy tlvnlrteant Linda 
and Maaoarcaa/ltlX 

USaS Aarlal Photaa, OatnaaTlll* 3/1*S4 

Public Worka Dapart***!.. «»B»lalad Craaka Map, 
A pril, 109 3 




Map? 

100 - YEAR FLOODPLAIN 

ANNEXED UNDER CITY ORDINANCE 3769 



100 - YEAR FLOODPLAIN 
CITY LIMITS 



rr«par«4 by: D«partm*nt of Community 0*T«lopm«nt 
January, 1093 1 

ScaU: 1* 1600' Horth 



Source: Fadaral Emorg»ncy Managamanl Aganey (FEMA> 
Flood Inauranc* Rata Map (FIRM) 
Saptambar 28,1 984 

CH2mHIII Oapraaalonal Flood Baain Study 
for Alachua County, 1988 : 







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East University Avenue 



SUBJECT PROPERTY 



10 8 8 8 



4 66 



10889-1 



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10890-1 



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ENVIRONMENTALLY 

SIGNIFICANT LANDS AND 

RESOURCES 

Map 8 
Annexed under City Ordinance 3865 

LEGEND 



WETLAND 



North 
Scale: 1"=300* 




SOURCES: National Wetlands Inventot7/19S4. 

City of Gainesville, Environmentally Significant 

Lands and Resources/1 992- 

USGS Aerial Photos, Gainesville 2/19S4. 

Prepared by: The Department of Community Development, 5/93 



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APPENDIX 2 



^ 



Existing Land Use Categories 
LEGEND 



SF Single-Family 

R-L Residential Low Density 

R-M Residential Medium Density 

MU-L Mixed Use Low Density 

O Office 

C Commercial 

IND Industrial 

E Education 

REG Recreation 

CON Conservation 

PF Public Facility 

PUD Planned Use Development 

AGR Agriculture 

VAC Vacant 

City Limits 



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Existing Land Use Map iSeries Area 1 







:-^irS- r.-i\.--j-' :^tv^Ln/^7>/?./v^<y,^->'..,i:>i7T^S^-'^ • •'^^ 






1 






1' : 600' JUNE 1993 









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7814 



Existing Land Use Map Series Area 1 



SECTION 7. T3S.R20C 



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3) 



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APPENDIX 3 



^ 



Comprehensive Land Use Plan Changes 



LEGEND 



SF 


Single-Family (up to 8 units/acre) 


R-L 


Residential Low Density (up to 12 units/acre) 


R-M 


Residential Medium Density (10-30 units/acre) 


MU-L 


Mixed Use Low Density 


. O 


Office 


C 


Commercial 


IND 


Industrial 


E 


Education 


■ REG 


Recreation 


CON 


Conservation 


PF 


Public Facility 


PUD 


Planned Use Development 


AGR 


Agriculture 




City Limits 


1 R-L 1 


Alachua County (1-4 Units/acre) 


CON 


Alachua County 







:~'/.-x: 






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■??.?.'.«; 



Chapter B 
Mobility Element 




Mobility Data and Analysis Report 



(Traffic Circulation and Mass Transit) 



City of Gainesville 

1991-2001 
Comprehensive Plan 



Prepared by 

The Department of Community Development 

Comprehensive Planning Section 

November 1991 
Revised January 24, 1994 



"Preparation of this document was aided through financial assistance received from the State 
of Florida under the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program 
authorized by Chapter 87-98, Law of Florida and Administered by the Florida Department of 
Community Affairs." 



a 



CI 



m 



J 



Summary of 9J-5.007 Requirements for the 
Traffic Circulation Data and Analysis 

Existing Traffic Circulation Data Requirements. The element shall be based upon the 
following data requirements pursuant to Subsection 9J-5.005.2 

(a) The following features shall be shown on an existing traffic circulation map or map 
series: 



1 . Collector roads. 

Existing Element 1991 Updated Element 1994 

Map 1, page 2. Map 1, page 3 

2. Arterial roads. 

Map 2, page 3. Map 2, page 4 

3. Limited access facilities. 

Page 1. Map 3, page 5 

4. Ports, airports, rail lines, high speed rail lines, and related facilities. 

Page 1 and Map 3, page 4. Pages 28, 32, Map 25, page 33 

(b) The existing Florida Department of Transponation roadway functional 

classifications shall be utilized on the existing traffic circulation map or map series. 

Map 1, page 2 Maps 1 through 3, pages 2 Map 

Map 2, page 3, through 5. 

Functional classification 

by segment listed in Appendix A, 

Table A- 1. 



(c) The existing traffic circulation map or map series shall identify the number of traffic 
lanes for each roadway. 

See Map 4, page 5 Map 4, page 6 

Appendix A, Table A- 1 . Appendix C, pages C-5 to C-8. 

2. Traffic Circulation Analysis Requirements 

(a) An analysis of the existing traffic circulation levels of service and system needs 
based upon existing design capacities; most recently available estimates for average 
daily trips; and accident frequency data, if available. The analysis shall address the 
need for new facilities, or expansions to provide safe and efficient op)erating 
conditions on the roadway network. 

See pages 9 -16, Text pages 29, 41-42 

Appendix A, Table A- 1 Table 3, pages 34-36 

Appendix C, page C-5 to C-8 
Appendix B, Tables B-1, B-2. Text pages 28 and 29 

Maps 26 and 27, pages 34-35 

Appendix A, pages A-3 

and A-4. 

(b) An analysis of the projected traffic circulation levels of service and system needs 
based upon the future land uses shown on the future land use map or map series, 
addressing the need for new facilities or expansions to provide safe and efficient 
operating conditions on the roadway network. In addition, this analysis shall 
consider the adopted level of service standards, improvements, expansions and new 
facilities planned for in the Rorida Department of Transportation 5- Year 
Transportation Plan and the plans of the appropriate metropolitan planning 
organization and should, to the maximum extent feasible as determined by the local 
government adopting the local government comprehensive plan, be compatible with 
the policies and guidelines of such plans. 



See pages 17-30 
Appendix C, Table C-1 
Appendix D. 



Text pages 63- 68 

Appendices C and D 

Text pages 83- 96 

Map 38, page 85 

Map 39, page 89 

Tables 37 and 38, page 86 

Table 39, page 87- 88 



Summary of 9J-5.008 Data and Analysis Requirements for the 

Mass Transit Element 

(a) The following features shall be shown on the existing mass transit map or map series, or 
on the existing traffic circulation map or series: 

1 . Mass transit routes or service areas: 

Existing Element 1991 Updated Element 1994 



Requirement 


Item 


Page 


Item 


Page 


Main bus service area 


Map 1 


7 


Map 6 


2 1 


Main bus routes 


Maps 2 -11 


8- 17 


Maps 7 - 16 


9-18 


Mini bus service area 










and zones 


Maps 12 & 13 


18. 19 


Maps 17&18 


20-21 


Shuttle service area 










and routes 


Map 14 


20 


Map 19 


22 



2. Mass transit terminals 

Requirement Item Page Item Page 

Mass Transit Terminals Map 1 7 Map 6 8 

3 . Mass transit rights of way or exclusive mass transit corridors 

There are no mass transit rights of way or exclusive mass transit corridors. 

(b) The existing mass transit map or map series shall identify major trip generators and attractors based upon the 

existing land use map or series 

Requirement Item Page Item Page 



Major crip generators/ 






attractors: 






Activity Centers 


Map 15 


21 


Industrial Concentrations 


Map 16 


22 


Location versus transit 






routes 


Maps 2- 11 


8- 17 




Map 13 


19 



Map 20 


25 


Map 21 


27 


Maps 7-16 


9-18 


Map 17 


20 



w 



Mass Transit Analysis Requirements 



(a) An analysis of existing mass transit levels of service and system needs based upon the existing mass transit 

levels of service and system needs based upwn the existing number of vehicles, service frequency, ridership, and 
revenue by mode; major trip generators and attractors; percent of auto ownership; and population characteristics 
including size, income, age and special needs: 



Requirement 


Itepi 


£at 


Inventory of vehicles 






Main bus & shuttle 


Text 


23 




Table 3 


23 


Mini bus (Demand Response System) 






Text 


24 




Table 4 


24 


RTS Facilities 


Text 


24 


crs 


Text 


25 


Service frequency 






Main bus 


Text 


25 




Table 5 


26 




Table 6 


27 


Mini bus (Dem 


and Response) 






Text 


28 




Table 8 


29 


Campus Shuttle 


Text 


29 


Ridership 






Main bus 


Text 


35 



Iten 



Page 



Table 10 37 

Table 11 38 

Mini bus (Demand Response System) 

Text 38 

Table 12 39 

Table 13 39 

Campus Shuttle Text 39 



CTS 

Revenue by mode 
Main bus 



Text 
Table 14 



40 
40 



Text 40 

Table 15 41 

Table 16 43 

Table 17 44 
Mini bus (Demand Response System) 

Text 44 

Table 18 45 

Table 19 46 



Text 




48 




Table 


8 


48 




Text 




48 




Table 


9 


48 




Text 




1 9 




Text 




19, 


23 


Text 




42 




Table 


6 


43 




(Sat. 


Service 


not included) 


Text 




44 




Table 


7 


44 




Text 




48 




Text 




49 




Table 


10 


49 




Text 




49, 


SO 


Table 


12 


50 




Table 


13 


50 




Text 




49 




Table 


10 


49 




Text 




23 




Not p 


rovided 






Text 




51, 


S3 


Table 


14 


5 1 




Table 


15 


5 2 




Tabke 


16 


53 




Text 




53, 


54 


Table 


17 


5 4 




Table 


18 


5 5 





o 



Requirement 



Item 



Pa£ 



Item 



Page 



Major trip generators 



and attractors 


Text 


30-35 


Text 




19 




Maps 17- 19 


31-33 


Map 


17 


20 




Map 16 


22 


Text 




24 




Map 20 


36 


Map 


20 


25 




Text 


46-49 


Map 


21 


27 




Table 20 


47 


Table 


2 


26 




Table 21 


48 


Table 


32 


72 




Table 22 


49 


Table 


33 


73 


Population Characteristics 






Text 




56-63 


Number 


Text 


50 


Text 




56-57 




Table 23 


50 


Table 


19 


57 


By Age 


Text 


51-52 


Text 




57 




Table 24 


51 


Table 


20 


58 




Table 25 


52 


Table 


21 


58 


Income 


Text 


52-53 


Text 




59 




Tables 26, 27 


53 


Table 


22, 23 5 9,60 


Disabled 


Text 


54 


Text 




60 




Table 28 


54 


Table 


24 


60 


Special Needs 


Text 


54 


Text 




61 


Vehicles/Household 


Text 


55-56 


Text 




61 




Table 29 


55 


Table 


25 


62 




Table 30 


56 


Table 


26 


62 




Table 31 


56 


Table 


27 


63 



L 



(b) An analysis of projected mass transit levels of service and system need based upon future land uses as shown on 

the future land use map or series, and projected population size and characteristics. In addition, this analysis shall consider 
the adopted level of service standards, improvements, expansions or new facilities planned for in the Department of 
Transportation 5 -Year Transportation Plan and the plans of the appropriate metropolitan planning organization and should 
to the extent feasible as determined by the local govenunent adopting the local government comprehensive plan, be 
compatible with the policies and guidelines of such plans. 



Requirement 


Item 


Page 


Item 


Page 


LOS based on projected 










land use 


Text 


30-35 


Text 


24 




Map 20 


36 


Map 20 


25 




Map 16 


22 








Text 


46-49 


Text 


68-74 




Table 20 


47 


Table 32 


72 




Table 21 


48 


Table 33 


73 




Table 22 


49 


Table 34 


74 


Population size and 










characteristics 


Text 


50-54 


Table 19 


57 



This item discusses the impact of population growth and changing population characteristics on transit levels of 
service. 



Compatibility with FOOT 










and MTPO plans 


Text 


46-49 


Text 


98 




Table 20 


47 


Text 


48 




Table 21 


48 








Table 22 


49 







V 



Table of Contents 

Introduction 1 

Mobility Element Data Report 2 

Road System 2 

Arterial, Collector and Limited Access Facilities 2 

Mass Transit System 2 

Main Bus Service 19 

Demand Response System Service 19 

Campus Shuttle and other Campus Services 19 

Coordinated Transportation System 23 

Private Transportation Systems 23 

Exclusive Mass Transit Rights-of-Way or Corridors 24 

Existing Major Trip Generators and Attractors 24 

Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities 28 

Ports, Airports, and Freight and Passenger Rail Lines 28 

Accident Frequency Data 28 

Transportation Mobility Element Analysis Report 29 

Peak Hour Level of Service for the Roadway Network 29 

Modal Split and Vehicle Occupancy Rates 42 

Mass Transit Peak-Hour Service and Frequency 42 

Main Bus Peak-Hour Service Area and Frequency 42 

Demand Response System Service Area and Frequency 44 

Shuttle Bus Service Area and Frequency 48 

Inventory of Facilities and Vehicles 48 

Rider ship 49 

Revenue and Operating Expenses 51 

Integration Between Modes 55 

Population Characteristics 56 

Persons per Household 57 

Population by Age 57 

Existing and Projected Income 59 

Persons with Public Transit Related Disabilities 60 

Special Needs Populations 61 

Number of Vehicles per Household 61 

Analysis of the Projected Transponation Network 

Level of Service and System Needs 63 

Land Use 63 

Housing and Employment Patterns 64 

Projected Levels of Service 65 

Mass Transit Trip Generation and Future System Capacity 68 

Bicycle Needs 75 

Pedestrian Needs 75 

Transportation Strategies 79 

Transportation Management Systems 83 

Transportation Concurrency Management Area 84 

Intergovernmental Coordination 94 

Conclusion 95 



$ 



<r 



Appendices 

S a f e t y Appendix A 

Future Land Use Map Series Appendix B 

Projected Service Volumes Appendix C 

Level of Service by Lane Miles Appendix D 

Legal Description of TCMA Appendix E 



io 



<* 



Table of Maps 

Page 

Existing Traffic Circulation, Collectors 3 

Existing Traffic Circulation, Collectors 4 

Existing Traffic Circulation, 

Limited and Controlled Access Facilities 5 

Existing Traffic Circulation, Number of Traffic Lanes 6 

Existing Traffic Circulation, Maintenance Responsibility 7 

Service Area of the RTS Main Bus System 8 

Main Bus Routes 9 -18 

Demand Response System Service Area, Zone 2 and 3 20 

Demand Response System Service Area, Zone 1 21 

Campus Shuttle Routes and Commuter Parking Lots 22 

Existing and Future Major Trip Generators 25 

Existing and Future Industrial Concentrations 27 

Existing Bicycle Facilities Types 30 

Existing Pedestrian Facilities 

and Major Pedestrian Traffic Generators 31 

1991-2001 Future Transportation Mobility Map Series, Designated and 

Future Greenway (Pedestrian Trail) System 31 

Rail and Airport Facilities 33 

Speed Limits and Intersections with High Collision 

Frequency Rate 34 

Pedestrian Accident Locations 1986 35 

Bicycle Accident Locations, 1986 36 

Level of Service of Gainesville Roadways 37 

Areas Remote from Weekday, Peak Hour Transit Service 45 

Areas Remote from Weekday, Off Peak Hour 

Transit Service 46 

Areas Remote from Saturday Transit Service 47 

1991-2001 Future Traffic Circulation, 

Proposed Improvements 1992-1997, 67 

Year 2015 Cost Feasible Plan, Gainesville Metropolitan Area 69 

Bicycle Project Priorities 76 

Sidewalk Projects MTPO Priorities 77 

Bicycle Usage Trends Program 81 

1991-2001 Future Transportation Mobility Map Series, 
Boundary: (Central City) Transportation Concurrency 

Management Area (TCMA) 85 

Map 39 Central City Transportation Concurrency Management Area 

Boundaries: TCMA Sub-Areas 90 

Appendix B Future Land Use Map 

Appendix C 1991-2001 Future Transportation Mobility Map Series, 

Projected Levels of Service of Gainesville Roadways 2001 C-9 



Map 


1 


Map 


2 


Map 


3 


Map 


4 


Map 


4 


Map 


5 


Map 


6 


Maps 


7- 16 


Map 


17 


Map 


18 


Map 


19 


Map 


20 


Map 


21 


Map 


22 


Map 


23 


Map 


24 


Map 


25 


Map 


26 


Map 


27 


Map 


28 


Map 


29 


Map 


30 


Map 


31 


Map 


32 


Map 


33 


Map 


34 


Map 


35 


Map 


36 


Map 


37 


Map 


38 



c 



Q 



Table of Tables 



Table 


1 


Table 


2 


Table 


3 


Table 


4 


Table 


5 


Table 


6 


Table 


7 


Table 


8 


Table 


9 


Table 


10 


Table 


11 


Table 


12 


Table 


13 


Table 


14 


Table 


15 


Table 


16 


Table 


17 


Table 


18 


Table 


19 


Table 


20 


Table 


21 


Table 


22 


Table 


23 


Table 


24 


Table 


25 


Table 


26 


Table 


27 


Table 


28 


Table 


29 


Table 


30 


Table 


31 


Table 


32 


Table 


33 



Page 

Private Transit Services 24 

Existing Major Trip Generators/Attractor 

Gainesville Urban Area 26 

Safety Projects 29 
1991 LOS for State, Alachua County and City 

of Gainesville Roadways 38-40 

Modal Split 42 

Main Bus Service by Route 43 

RTS Demand-Response System Routes 44 

Inventory of Main Bus Fleet 48 

Demand-Responsive Fleet 48 

Ridership, Main Bus System 49 

Ridership, Campus Shuttle System 49 

Demand Response System Ridership and Capacity 50 

Demand Response System Ridership by Fiscal Year 50 

Main Bus Revenues from Fares, Passes and Tokens 51 

Main Bus Operating Expenses by Fiscal Year 52 

Cash Fares and Cash Fares per Rider by Route, 

January to December 1989 53 

Demand Response System Fares Received by Fiscal Year 54 
Mini-Bus Expenditures, Costs and Costs per Rider 

by Fiscal Year 55 

City of Gainesville and Unincorporated Gainesville Urbanized 

Areas Existing and Projected Population 57 

Existing and Projected Population by Age Group, 

Citv of Gainesville: 1980, 1996, 2001 58 

Population by Age Group, Unincorporated Gainesville Urban 

Area: 1989, 1996 and 2001 58 

Estimated and Projected Households by Income, 

City of Gainesville 59 

Estimated and Projected Households by Income, 

Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area 60 

Persons with Public Transit Related Disabilities 60 

Vehicles by Occupied, Year Round Housing Units, 

City of Gainesville 62 

Vehicles by Occupied, Year Round Housing Units, 

Unincorporated Gainesville Urbanized Area 62 

Vehicles by Occupied, Year Round Housing Units, 

Total Gainesville Urbanized Area 63 

Acreage and Density of Use for City of Gainesville Land Uses 64 

Acreage and Density for Area Annexed 1992 64 

Schedule of Project l3evelopment and Environmental Studies.. 66 

Year 2015 Needs and Cost Feasible Plan 70-71 

Standard Daily Person Trip Rate, City of Gainesville and 

Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area, 1985 72 

Standard Daily Person Trip Rate, City of Gainesville and 

Unincorporated Gainesville Urbanized Area, 2000 73 



I 



(C 



Table 34 



Table 35 

Table 36 

Table 37 

Table 38 

Table 39 

Appendix A 
Appendix A 
Appendix C 

Appendix D 



Gainesville Urban Area MTPO Long Range Transit 

Ridership Goals ; 74 

Bicycle Project Priorities for Gainesville Urbanized Area 75 

Needed Sidewalk Projects within City Limits 78 

1991 Level of Service by Lane Miles City Wide 86 

1991 Level of Service by Lane Miles of Roadway Segments 

included in the Central City TCMA 86 

Roadways included in the Central City TCMA 87-88 

Monthly Accident Totals 1982-1987 A3-A4 

Collision Frequencies for Selected Intersections (1986) A5 

1996-2001 Projected Levels of Service for 

Gainesville Roadways C1-C4 

Lane Miles at LOS Dl 



r 



^ 



TRANSPORTATION MOBILITY DATA AND 
ANALYSIS REPORT 

(Revised January, 1994) 



Introduction 

The transportation mobility element has been prepared in order to plan for a multi-modal 
transportation system which places less emphasis on accommodating the single-occupancy vehicle 
and encourages the development of compact, pedestrian-oriented urban areas, promotes energy 
efficient development patterns throughout the city, protects air quality and provides more efficient 
mobility of citizens and goods. This element addresses the auto, mass transit, bicycle and 
pedestrian modes of transportation within the City of Gainesville. Transportation planning in the 
Gainesville area is coordinated through the Metropohtan Transportation Planning Organization 
(MTPO). 

Transportation planning has changed. The cost of maintaining the present travel patterns has 
become too great. Air pollution, damage to urban neighborhoods, unreasonable commuting times, 
costs of road building and maintenance have rendered an auto-oriented transportation network that 
is not sustainable into the next century. Children and older people are especially disenfranchised 
by a tt^nsportation system that requires an automobile to make local trips. A new direction in 
transportation planning has been taken with the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation 
Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. Greater emphasis at state and federal levels is being given to 
pedestrian and bicycle modes of travel and methods to improve safety (see appendix A). The 
ISTEA legislation allows localities a greater opportunity to conform transportation planning to 
community needs. It provides Gainesville a chance to develop a vision for a future transportation 
system that is consistent with community values adopted in other elements of the comprehensive 
plan. Gainesville is a city which places a heavy emphasis on quahty of life issues such as the 
viability of neighborhoods, protection of natural features and maintenance of the tree canopy. The 
community is fortunate to have a significant concentration of public facilities located centrally and 
forming its urban core. Because such a large percentage of trips are directed to the urban center, 
there is an opportunity to provide transportation alternatives to the single occupant automobile. 

This plan envisions the eventual redevelopment of the Central City Core in a manner that is multi- 
modal, with a focus on a pedestrian orientation. A key feature in this vision is the understanding 
that roadways in the central city are not planned for additional travel lanes. New construction of 
roadways between 1993 and 2015 will be limited. University Avenue, which already 
accommodates the largest proportion of pedestrians and bicyclists in the central city core will be 
targeted for restoration with greater sidewalk widths, slower travel speeds and improved transit 
service. In large part this will be accomplished by efforts now underway by the University of 
Rorida, Shands Hospital and the Veterans Administration to alter the transportation demand of 
their employees, clients and students through incentives such as ride sharing, flexible work hours 
and the introduction of additional transportation options. Additionally, redevelopment of the 
College Park Neighborhood, and other central city neighborhoods is focused on increased 
residential densities and increased pedestrian activity. Increased residential densities and increased 
pedestrian activity can only be achieved by encouraging mixed use development which provides 
greater convenience to residents and employees in the area and by enhancements of the central city 
area which make the pedestrian, cyclist and transit user feel welcome, secure and comfortable. 
Connecting the Central City Core to the greenway system will provide access points for safe 



I 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

pedestrian and bicycle travel throughout the city, as well as fitness, socializing and natural area 
experiences. 

New development throughout the city must address greater access to neighborhood shopping 
services and public facilities by way of convenient pedestrian and bicycle connections between 
neighborhoods and other land uses. It is important that development plans include connections 
from the very beginning of the project and that redevelopment and infill development address 
sidewalk, transit and bike access when improvements are made to any site. 

The Transportation Mobility Element addresses the requirements of the Local Government 
Comprehensive Planning and Land Development Act and Florida Administrative Code 9J-5. This 
Element combines the Traffic Circulation and Mass Transit Elements prepared for the 1991-2001 
City of Gainesville Comprehensive Plan. The Central City Interim Special Transportation Area 
designated in 1991 will be replaced with the Central City Transportation Concurtency Management 
Area in accordance with Rule 9J-5.0057. The element also includes transportation data and 
analysis for areas annexed by the city since November 1991. 

Transportation Mobility Element Data Report 

Road System 

Arterial, collector and limited access facilities 

Maps 1 through 3 show collector roads, arterial roads, and limdted and controlled access facilities 
that are completely or partially within the city limits of Gainesville. The information presented 
reflects state functional classification. The number of traffic lanes is shown on Map 4. The 
number of traffic lanes is derived from the number of through lanes, in both directions, passing 
through the terminal intersection of a particular roadway segment. It does not include turn lanes. 
None of Gainesville's arterials are one-way roads. Map 5 shows maintenance responsibiUty for all 
functionally classified roads. 



Mass Transit System 

Existing Mass Transit Services 

The City of Gainesville owns and operates the Regional Transit System (RTS). Four types of 
transit services are offered by RTS: 

1) A fixed route, main bus service operates in the urban area. 

2) The University of Florida contracts with RTS to provide on-campus bus service. 

3) A demand responsive system serves the transportation disadvantaged in all of 
Alachua County. 

4) Service for special events is provided upon request, at cost. 

More specialized transportation services are provided by private and non-profit transit providers 
including, taxi companies and emergency transport agencies. 



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Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 
August, 1993 



Main Bus Service 

The main bus service has ten routes that serve an area of approximately 45 square miles. The City 
of Gainesville contains 37 square miles of this area. (Some undeveloped portions of the area 
annexed by the city in 1992 do not receive main bus service.) Map 6 compares the service area of 
the main bus system to the area within the city limits and shows the main bus terminal, which is 
located at the Downtown Community Plaza. Several of the routes have common bus stops, but the 
only transfer station is the main bus terminal in the downtown plaza. Maps 7 through 16 show the 
current routes. 

Sixteen percent of the main bus fleet is handicapped accessible. Twenty percent of the routes are 
handicapped accessible (RTS, 1993). 

Demand R esponse System Service 

The Regional Transit system operates a demand-responsive, door to door service, which is 
designed to facilitate transportation for the elderly and the disabled. Actually anyone in Alachua 
County who does not have access to main bus service may utilize this service. Lack of access may 
be caused by income and geographic location, as well as a disability which cannot be 
accommodated by the existing main bus service. The demand-responsive service is funded 
through a combination of federal, state, and Alachua County funds. 

Coordinated Transportation Systems (CTS) administers demand-responsive service in Alachua 
County. RTS contracts with CTS to provide this service for both ambulatory and non- ambulatory 
persons. Persons using this service must request transportation from CTS by 12:00 noon one day 
in advance. CTS selects a route and indicates a general time frame for pick-up based on RTS 
schedules and then notifies RTS of the request. As a result of para-transit eligibility requirements 
of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 1990, there will be an effort to identify and give 
priority to disabled persons. An ADA certification program will be established by RTS. Alachua 
County has an estimated 2,270 persons eligible for ADA Para-transit services. 

The demand-responsive service consists of ten routes (route nine only operates part-time) which 
are described in the analysis portion of this report. Service is provided Monday through Friday 
from approximately 6:00 AM to 7:00 PM. Saturday service is scheduled between 7:00 AM to 6:00 
PM. Fares for service vary based on three service zones (maps 17 and 18). The first zone 
encompasses the City of Gainesville. The second zone serves the Unincorporated Gainesville 
Urbanized Area (area determined by CTS) and the third zone is the remainder of Alachua Count>'. 

Campus Shuttle and other Ca mpus Services 

The University of Florida contracts with RTS to provide on-campus shuttles. Six buses shuttie 
students and university personnel between classes and from commuter lots (Map 19). The shuttie 
system operates between 7:00 AM and 5:30 PM on weekdays. Shuttles service does not run 
during semester breaks, and only four buses run during summer session. 

The UF campus is served by transit routes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Santa Fe Community College 
main campus is served by routes 6 and 10. The SFCC downtown campus is served by route 2 and 
is within walking distance of route 10. The University of Rorida subsidizes main bus fares for 
students who hve at Tanglewood Apartments, a married student complex. Demand-responsive 
services are available to handicapped students on the same basis as the general public, tjniversity 



19 



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Organization (MTPO) 
January, 1989 


m County, July 1989 
August 1989 


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Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

of Rorida student government also finances and provides transportation for handicapped and 
temporarily disabled students. 

Coordinated Transportation System 

Chapter 427 Rorida Statutes (enacted in 1979 and amended 1989) requires that all federal, state 
and local moneys used to transport elderly and low income persons be coordinated through one 
transportation system to avoid duplication of services and costs. Coordinated Transportation 
Systems (CTS) is the designated agency serving Alachua County. 

CTS arranges transportation for the transportation disadvantaged population of the City of 
Gainesville and Alachua County. The chents include persons who, because of physical or mental 
disability, income status, age or remoteness from other public transit are unable to transport 
themselves. Total CTS Ridership was 149.209 in 1989. (CTS. Ridership Records. 1990.) 

CTS coordinates five types of transportation services: 

1 . 24 hour, non-emergency medical transportation to non-ambulatory (wheelchair and 
stretcher) clients. 

2. 24 hour, ambulatory transportation in Alachua County supplementing RTS demand 
responsive routes. 

3 . Transportation for clients of Mental Health Services (MHS) to and from MHS 
facilities, and Developmental Service clients to and from their training facilities. 

4. School Board sponsored transportation of residents from public housing 
communities. School buses are used to transport primarily elderly residents of four 
Gainesville communities and one Alachua County community for medical 
appointments and personal shopping. 

5 . Meals on Wheels and Gainesville Meals Transport by contract with MHS. 

CTS requests proposals to meet various transportation demands from providers. This procedure is 
carried out every one to two years. Currently, there are four providers under contract with CTS: 
RTS (demand responsive service), Medicoach, Inc., North Central Rorida Mental Health Services 
and School Board of Alachua County (CTS, February 1993). 

CTS also provides itemized bills to agencies and programs such as Medicaid Transportation 
Disadvantaged Commission, Developmental Services (HRS), the Division of BUnd Services 
(HRS), Foster Grandparents and Retired Senior Volunteer Program, whose clients use the RTS 
demand responsive system and other services. 

Private Transportation Systems 

Additional transportation for non-emergency patient transport is available through the private sector 
including Accent Medi-Van, Medicoach Incorporated and Southern Comfort (CTS, February 
1993). Area hospitals and nursing care facilities broker services from these sources for their 
patients. Many of these firms also provide limousine and charter bus service. 

Private carriers such as cab companies and Umousines also provide transportation opportunities on 
a demand-responsive basis. Limousine and taxi services tend to provide specialized services such 



23 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

f 

as transportation to airports and area tours. Table 1 shows these privately available transit 
services. 

TABLE 1 : Private Transit Services 

Bus Companies Limousine Services Taxi Services 

Boca Bus Company A Candies Coaches Gainesville Cab Company 

Breakaway Tours Adventure Limousines Gator Cab 

C & W Charters Inc. Airport Passenger Express Safety Cabs 

GMG Transportation Express Limousine Service Santa Fe Cab Company 

Greyhound Bus Lines Moring Enterprises Yellow Cab 

Source: City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development. Staff survey, January, 
1993. 

Finally there are a number of companies located outside the county that provide charter services in 
the Gainesville area. It should be noted that the providers listed above are subject to change, and 
are listed to indicate the variety of transportation alternatives available. 

Exclusive Mass Transit Rights-of-Way or Corridors 



At the present time, there are no exclusive mass transit rights-of-way or corridors in the RTS 
service area. 



Existing Major Trip Generators And Attractors 

There are 14 areas identified as major trip generators or attractors, shown on Map 20 which are 
identified based on the existing and future land use map series. These include activity centers 
within the city and those identified by the Count>' in the Gainesville Urban Reserve Area. Map 21 
shows existing and future industrial concentrations. Table 2 Usts these areas and the main bus 
route which serves them. In sum, these areas contain the vast majority of emplovnment 
opportunities, shopping, government facilities and other essential services needed by City 
residents. The only existing trip attractors/generators not served by transit are Northwood Village, 
the Gainesville Regional Airport and the Airpon Industrial Park. These are developing activity 
centers and RTS will assess the need for service to these areas as they develop. (RTS provided 
service to the airport in the 1980's, but service was discontinued upon evaluation of the ridership 
generated/attracted by the airport.) 

The Alachua County Comprehensive Plan Land Use Element lists a number of urban activity 
centers, rural activity centers and rural employment centers located outside the Gainesville Urban 
Reserve Area. At present these are outside the RTS main bus service area, but within the Demand 
Response System Zone 3 service area. They are indicated on map 18. Improvements within the 
existing main bus service area would have a higher priority than would extension of main bus 
service to these areas. 



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Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

TABLE 2: Existing Major Trip Generators/Attractors, 
Gainesville Urban Area 



Trip Generator/Attractor 

Existing Activity Centers (designated in the 
City of Gainesville 1980 Comprehensive Plan ) 

1 . Santa Fe Community College 

2. Oaks Mall 

3 . Archer Road/Butier Plaza Area 

4 . Westgate Regency 

5 . Millhopper 

6. Ridgeway Village 

7 . Northwood Village 

8 . N.W. 13th Street at 39th Avenue 

9 . Gainesville Mall Area 

1 0. University of Florida/ Alachua 

General Hospital 

1 1 . Shands and Veterans Hospitals 

12. S.W. 13th Street 

13. Downtown Gainesville 

1 4. Gainesville Shopping Center Area 

15. K-Mart Shopping Center 

1 6. Airport 

1 7 . Tacachale (Sunland Center) 

18. E. University at Waldo Road 

19. Eastgate Shopping Center 

Industrial Concentrations 

1 . South Main Street 

2. N.W. 6th Street 

3 . Koppers/North Main 

4. Hugh Edward's 

5 . Airport Park 

County Designated Activity Centers 
(RTS main bus service area only) 

1 . 39th Avenue and N. Main Street 

2. Springhill 

3. Nationwide Insurance 

4. N. Cent. Fl. Mental Health 



Main Bus Route(s) 



6, 10 




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NOTE: University of Florida only. 



SOURCES: City of Gainesville, 1980-2000 Comprehensive Plan: pp. 11.9 
Regional Transit System, August, 1990. 



11.12; Alachua Countv, July 1989; 



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Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities 

Map 22 shows in-street and off-street bicycle facilities. Map 23 shows sidewalk facilities. 
Existing Greenway and Rail-Trail development within Gainesville includes Alfred Ring Park, the 
Waldo Road Rail Trail and the Depot Avenue Rail Trail. Additional development of greenways 
(Map 24) is planned along Sweetwater Branch in the eastern portion of the city and along Hogtown 
Creek in the western portion of the City. The objective is to provide alternate travel routes 
throughout the City, using the creek system as a spine. This system will connect neighborhoods 
and activity centers which previously could only be reached by circuitous roadways. Pedestrian 
improvements are needed on University Avenue between the Sweetwater Branch Greenway and 
Hogtown Creek Greenway in order to link the two systems. The City is also acquiring property to 
link the Depot Avenue Rail Trail to the Hawthorne Rail Trail, which connects Paynes Prairie 
Preserve with the City of Hawthorne. For further discussion of the Greenway system please see 
the Recreation Data and Analysis Report. 

Ports, Airports and Freight and Passenger Rail Lines 

There are no port facilities or passenger rail lines within the City. Map 25 shows the freight rail 
lines and the location of the airport. The Gainesville Regional Airport is operated by the 
Gainesville-Alachua County Airport Authority. For further discussion of airport facilities see the 
Aviation Data and Analysis Report. 



Accident Frequency Data 

In Appendix A (Table A-1), monthly motor vehicle accident totals for the years 1982-1987 are 
presented along with information on the type of accident and associated property damage 
(dollars). 

Appendix B (Table A-2) contains a chart showing the 1986 collision frequencies for twenty 
problem intersections. The ranking of these intersections is based on the gross number of 
accidents, number of accidents per millions of cars, number and severity of associated injuries. 
and amount of associated property damage. Map 26 shows the locations of these intersections 
in the city. 

Pedestrian and bicycle accident locations are noted in Maps 27 and 28 respectively. 

Necessary Safety Improvements 

Making intersection improvements, repaving, increasing lane width, paving shoulders and 
installing sidewalk improvements are all safety related improvements. Currently scheduled 
safety improvements are shown in Table 3. 



28 



l) 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 3: Safety Projects 



ROADWAY 



FROM 



10 FUNDING YEAR* **Status of NOTES 

Project 



W. University Av NfW 22nd Dr 
W. 53rd Av NW 43rd St 



Main St 



Archer Rd 
Newberry Rd 



S 2nd Av 



NW 13th St FDOT 

NW 71st St Alachua Cty 



N8th Av 



FDOT 



North-South Dr Center Dr FIXlT 
NW 69th Ter NW 62nd St FDOT 



91-92 
91-92 

93-95 



90-91 
90-91 



Complete 
Complete 

Removed 
from TIP 



Complete 
Complete 



Skid hazard surface 
Widen, paved 
shoulders 
Resurface, remove 
parking and widen 
curb lane, install 
center left turn lane 
Sidewalks 
Sidewalks 



.1^ 



*Priorities for 1995-96 have been forwarded to FDOT for consideration but funding has not been determined. 
**Status of listed projects as of January 1994. Safety projects will be updated in the 1995-99 TIP, no projects 
are pending as of January 1994. 

Source: MTPO. 1991-96 Transportation Improvement Program. August 1990. 

It should be noted that the City does not have maintenance responsibility (see Map 5) for a majority 
of the intersections with frequent collisions (Appendix Table A-2). The City submits suggestions 
to FDOT for inclusion in the Transportation Improvement Plan (TIP). 

Transportation Mobility Element Analysis Report 

Peak Hour Level of Service for the Roadway Network 

Map 29 and Table 4 show the 1991 level of service of the roadway network within the City of 
Gainesville. Level of service has been calculated by the MTPO using the Rorida Highway System 
Plan, Level of Service Manual, April 1992, hereinafter referted to as the Generalized Tables. 
Additional analysis of the roadways which had service volumes of 85% of the maximum service 
volume at the minimum acceptable level of service using the Generalized Tables was performed 
using ART-PLAN. ART-PLAN analysis evaluates the various factors used to determine level of 
service for the specific roadway facility, such as green time, turning movements and directional 
flow. It is a more accurate representation of the level of service than can be determined by using 
the Generalized Tables. The roadway network level of service is differentiated between the State 



29 











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>?OSQOgOOO^^t»^ 




37 



TABLE 4 : 1991 LOS FOR STATE, ALACHUA COUNTY 
AND CITY OF GAINESVILLE ROADWAYS 

LEVEL OF SERVICE ON STATE ROADS 
WITHIK THE GAINESVILLE METROPOLITAN AREA BOUNDARY 



\ ANALYSIS 

A 

GROUP 


ASSiGNED 
ROADWAY 

NUMBER 


ROADWAY 


FROM SOUTH 
OR WEST 

TERMINI 


TO NORTH 
OR EAST 

TERMINI 


1991 

MEDIAN 
B 
AADT 


c 

LEVEL OF SERVICE 




TABLES ART-PLAN 




URBANIZED 

: 
;: 

■: 

1 


S-1 
S-2 
S-3 
S-4 

s-s 

S-6 

S-7 

s-« 

S-10 

s-n 

S-12 
S-13 
S-14 
S-1S 

s-ie 

S-17 
S-18 
S-18 
S-20 
S-21 
S-22 
S-S3 
5-24 
S-2S 
&-2S 
S-Z7 
S-2B 
S-» 
S-30 
S-31 
S-32 
S-33 
S-34 

s^as 

s-se 

S-37 
S-3« 
S~3S 

S-40 

S-*1 
S-*2 
S-O 


US4<1/Wl3thSl. 


Payne's Prajne 


SR 331/WiHiHor. Rd. 


8.335 


a 






US441/W 13th Si. 


SR331/Willition Rd. 


SR 24/Archer RS. 


21.370 


B 


_ 




US«4lAV13lhSl. 


SR24/Aicher Rd. 


SR 26/Univer»cTy Ave. 


32.600 


F 


F 




US*<l/W13thSL 


SR 26/Unrvertity Ave. 


NW28thRd. 


28.605 


E 







US*<1ftV13thSl. 


NW29thRd. 


N.W. 83rd Ave. 


21.495 


B 


_ 




SR 20/NW 6lh St. 


N.W. eih Ave. 


SR 222/N 39lh Ave. 


14.195 


B 


_ 




SR 20/NW 61h Si. 


SR 222/N 39th Ave. 


US441/W. 13th SL 


S.BOS 





_ 




SR 20/H«wihornt Rtf. 


SR 26/Unrvtfilty Ave. 


SE 43rd Sl 


12.155 


B 


_ 




SR 2t/Archer FU. 


SW7SthSl/Towtr Rd. 


lnler«lali 75 


17, MO 


6 


_ 




SR 24/Afeh«f Rd. 


Interciate 7S 


SR 226/SW 16lh Avt. 


36.680 


D 


. 




SR 24/Afehef Rd. 


SR 226/SW leih Avt. 


US44i/W13lh Sl 


24.665 


D 


. 




SR 24AV«ldo R<J. 


SR 26/Univer«iiy Ave. 


SR 222/E 39ih Ave. 


18.850 


B 


_ 




SR 24/WaJdo R<S. 


SR222/E3WiAve. 


CR2SSA/NE 77th Avt. 


13.170 


B 


_ 




SR Za/Newberry RS. 


NW 107lh St. 


NW75th SL/Tower Rd. 


17.780 


B 


_ 




SR 2«/Newberry Rd. 


NW76thStJTowetRd. 


NWethAve. 


50.180 


F 


E 




SR 2«/N»wb«rry Rd. 


NW 8th Ave. 


SRl2t/W34thSL 


28.435 


D 


C 




SR Zenjnivcrtlry Avt. 


SRt21/W34th Sl. 


North/South Dr. 


27,605 


C 


c 




SR Zenjn'rrtnitf Avt. 


North/South Df. 


US441/W13U1 Sl 


27,010 


E 


. 




SRZe/Unh-erjItyAvt. 


US441/W13th St 


SR20/HawlhorneRd. 


21.640 


D 


_ 




SR 26njnlverilty Av«. 


SR 20/H»wthorne Rd. 


CR 32»B/La)Le there Di. 


8.030 


B 


. 




SR26VSW2ndAv«. - 


SR 26/Newb«rTy Rd. 


SRl21/W34thSL 


16,84 5 


F 


D 




SR26A/SW2ndAvt. 


SRl21/W34thSt. 


SR 26/Univ«nity Ave. 


13,085 


E 


C 




SRl21/W34thSl. 


SR 331/WlIl«ion Rd. 


SR 24/Vch»r Rd. 


18.685 


F 


B 




SR121^V3«thSu 


SR 24;Ajch«r Rd. 


SR 26/Untv»r»ity Ave. 


34,410 


D 


. 




SRl21/W34thSl. 


SR 26/Unrveritty Avt. 


NW tClh Avt. 


24.000 


F 


F 




SR121/W34th Si. 


NWieih Av.. 


SR222/W3»th Avt. 


15.645 


D 


C 




SRl21/W3«lhSl. 


SR222/W3»Ave. 


US441/W13thSL 


13,960 


C 


D 




SRl2lAV34ih Sl 


US44i/W13thSt. 


N.W. 77th Av«. 


e.S25 


B 


. 




SR 222/N 3»th Ave. 


Iniertuii 75 (Eut) 


US441/NW13thSL 


21.315 


B 


_ 




SR 222/N 39th Av«. 


US441/NW13th SL 


SR 24/Waldo Rd. 


15.025 


B 






SRr22/N39lh Ave. 


SR 24/Wa)do Rd. 


Airport Envancc 


12,260 


B 


_ 




SR 222/N 3»th Avt. 


Airport Entrance 


N.E 27lh Ave. 


5.535 


B 


. 




SR226/S leih Avt 


SR24/Arct>er Rd. 


US*41/W131h SL 


18.740 


C 


- 




SR226/S 16m Avt 


US44i/W131hSu 


SR 329/Mair SL 


17,850 


C 


- 




SR226.'S 16lh Avt 


SR 32e/Main St. 


SR331/W.nifioi Rd. 


7.570 


B 


_ 




SR120A/N 23rd Avt. 


US44i/W13lh SL 


SR 24/Waldo Rd. 


16.880 


C 


- 




SR 32»/M«.n Sl. 


SR 331/WiUi«ion Rd. 


N. eih Av«. 


18.635 


C 


- 




SR331/SR121 


B«ai Archery Rd. 


US 44i/SWi3th Sl 


18,690 


B 


. 




SR33ir//inmonRd. 


US*41/SW13ih Sl 


SR 26/Univ»iiity Avt. 


15.435 


B 


- 




SR 20/NW »lh Avt. 


Nweth Sl 


N Main SL 


17.670 


D 


- 




Inlt'tlait 75 


SR331/SR121 


SR 24/Arch«> Rd. 


36,735 


C 


- 




lnl«r«tai* 75 


SR 24/A/ch«r Rd. 


SR 26/N»-b.rry Rd. 1 


45.630 


c 


C 




lnt*r*uit 75 


SR26/N..vt>»rry Rd. 


SR222/NW39lh Ave. I 


39.090 


c 






TRANSmONING 


S-44 

S-« 
S-«« 
S-«7 
S-»« 

S-4S 


SR121 


SW. 8 5th Ave. 


Bear Archery Rd. 


S.5SS 


B 


. 




SR ZS/Ntuvbtrry Rd. 


S W. 1S4ih SL 


NW 107lh SL 


10.880 


c 






SR 2ftAJrnvtrnty Ave. 


CR32eB 


N.E- 27th Ave. 


4.500 


B 






SR24/Ali:htt Rd. 


sweni Sl 


SW7Slh St/Towei Rd. 


10.6*5 


C 






SR 20/K>^hornt Rd. 


SEtardSL 


CR SSSBn-aktchct Dr. 


8.860 


A 






SR JO/Ht^hcnt Rd. 


CR32eB 


SW20 A 


8.860 


- 1 





SOURCE: North Cantral Florida Rrponai Planning Council 



jS/itpori/iotl wtl 



38 



TABLE 4 Con't. 



level of service for alachua county roads 
Within the gainesvtlle metropolitan area boundary 



: AKALYSIS 

A 
GROUP 


ASSIGNED 

ROADWAY 

NUMBER 


ROADWAY 


FROM SOUTH 
OR WEST 
TERMINI 


TO NORTH 
OR EAST 
TERMINI 


1991 

MEDIAN 

B 
AADT 


C 
LEVEL OF SERVICE 


TABLES 


ART-PLAN j: 


• ARTERIAL 

i 

\ 

1 

i 

1 
] 


A-1 
A-2 
A-3 
A-4 
A-5 
A-6 
A-7 

A-8 
A-9 
A-10 
A-11 
A-1 2 
A-1 3 
A-1 4 
■ A-1S 
A-16 
A-1 7 
A-18 
A-1 9 


NW 53icl Ave. 


NW S 2nd Terr. 


US441/W 13th St. 


8.385 


B 


_ 


NW 53t() Ave. 


US4^1/W 13:hSt. 


SR 24/Waido Rd. 


7.245 


B 


:i 


NW43ri3St. 


NW Blh Ave. 


N.W. 23rd Ave. 


13.900 


E 


c 


NW43r(!Sl. 


N.W. 23'd Ave. 


SR 222/NW 39th Ave. 


16.175 


C 




NW43t«Sl. 


SR 222/NW39:hAve. 


NW 53rd Ave. 


13,215 


B 




NW<3rCSt. 


NW 53rd Ave. 


NW 77ih Ave. 


2.670 


A 




NW 3Ui Ave/ 
Glen Spfinps Rd. 


SR 121AV3*:hSt. 


NW 16th Terr. 


8.860 


B 




NW 22r<s Blvd. 


NW 16th Terr. 


US 441AV 13lhSt. 


10.4 70 


C 




NW 23r() Ave. 


NW 98th St. 


NW 55th St. 


10.720 


B 




NW23tflAve. 


NW 55th Sl. 


NW 43rd St. 


18.320 


C 




NW 16th Ave. 


NW 43rd Sl. 


US 441 /W 13th St. 


21,875 


b" 




N 16lh Ave. 


US441/W. 13:hSl. 


SR 24AValdo Road 


12.125 


C 


;: 


SW 75th Sl/TowB/ Rd. 


SR 25/Arcner Road 


W. Uruversity Ave. 


10.4 80 


B 




NW75thSl/Tower Rd. 


W. Urwersrty Ave. 


SR 26/New()«rry Rd. 


15.950 


c 




SW 20th Ave. 


SW 75th Si/Tower Rd 


SW 62rM) Blvd. 


8.3O0 


B 


. 


SW 20th Ave. 


SW 62nd Blvd. 


SR 121/W34thSl. 


21.960 


F 


f 


N Main Sl 


NW 8lh Ave. 


NW 23rd Ave. 


17.295 


C 


. 


N Main St. 


NW 23rd Ave. 


SR 222/N 39th Ave. 


14.635 


D 


c 


NW 39th Ave. 


NW nOih St. 


Interstate 7S (East) 


7.820 


B 


5 


MAJOR 
COUWTY 


A-20 
A-21 
A-22 
A-23 
A-24 
A.2S 
A-26 
A.27 
A-2B 
A-29 


SW 24th Ave 


SWSIsiSt. 


SW 75th SlJTower Bd. 


4.155 


C 


? 


NWSIstSu 


NW 23rd Ave. 


SB 222/NW 39th Ave. 


8.885 


C 


: 


NW 98th St. 


SR 26/NewberrY Rd. 


SR 222yNW 39th Ave. 


4.135 


c 




NW 83rd St. 


NW 23rd Ave. 


SR 222/NW 39lh Ave. 


9.195 


c 




W 9Ut Sl. 


SW 24th Ave. 


SR 26/Nevvt>«fry Rd. 


3.710 


c 


. 


NW 39th Rd. 


SR 26/Newberi>. Road 


NW 8lh Ave. 


7,570 


c 


- 


SW 8th Ave. 


SW 91st St. 


SW 7Sth StJTower Rd. 


2.190 


c 




SW 23ra Teff. 


SR 331/WillotonRd. 


SR 24/Arehe( Rd. 


6,070 


c 


. 


Roekv Pt. Rd. 


SR331/WU)istoftRd. 


US441/SW 13lhSL 


3.865 


c 


. 


Kincaid Loop 


SR 20/Hav/thofne Rd. 


SR 20/Havvthorne Rd. 


3,075 


c 


- 


OTHEH 


A-30 
A-31 


SW 43fd StJSW 40ih Blvd 


SR 24/Arctier Rd. 


SW 20th Ave. 


2.075 


c 




MonieocTx Road 


NE S3rd Ave. 


NE 77th Ave. 


2.270 


c 




; T-ARTERIAL 


A-32 


SW 143fdSi-/CR24l 


SR 26/Newl>efrY Road 


NW 39th Ave. 


3,580 


B 




T-MAJOR 


A-33 
A-34 
.A-35 
A-36 
A.37 
A-3« 


SW 24th Ave 


SW 1 22nd St JParkei Rd. 


SWSIst St. 


4,155 


c 


15 


NW 53td Ave. 


NW 98th St. 


NW 52nd Terr. 


7,785 


c 


. 


SW 122nd Si./Parke> Rd. 


SW 24th Ave. 


SR 26/Newt)errY Rd. 


2,800 


c 


i 


SW 8lh Ave. 


SW 122r>dStJParker Rd. 


SW 91st St. 


2.190 


c 


i 


NW 39lh Ave. 


CR 241 


NW 1 10th St. 


8,860 


c 


. 


SE 43id St. 


SR 20/Hawttiofrw Rd. 


SR 26/E. UniveriiiY Ave. 


2,770 


c 


- 


T-OTHER 


A-39 
A-40 
A-*1 

A-«2 


W91»t Sl. 


Archer Road 


SW 41st Blvd. 


NO COUNT 




. 


SW 46th Blvd. 


SW9Ut Sl. 


Tower Road 


NO COUNT 




. 


SW 62nd AveJ 
SW 63rd Blvd. 


SR121 


SR 24/Arch«r Road 


NO COUNT 


- 


• 


CR 329BAjkeshore Dr. 


SR 20/HaMrthorrw Rd. 


SR 26/E. Universilv Ave. 


1,095 


c 


_ 



SOURCE: North Cemral Florida Ragiorut Planrvng Couricil 



J5/REP0RT/1.0S.W1C1 



iU; 



39 



Table 4 Con't. 



LEVEL OF SERVTCB FOR CITY OF GAINESVILLE ROADS 
WITHIN THE GAINESVILLE METROPOLITAN AREA BOUNDARY 



ANALYSIS 

A 
GROUP 


ASSIGNED 

ROADWAY 

NUMBER 


ROADWAY 


FROM SOUTH 
OR WEST 
TERMINI 


TO NORTH 
OR EAST 
TERMINI 


1991 

MEDIAN 
B 
AADT 


C 
LEVEL OF SERVICE 




TABLE 


ART-PLAN 1 




ARTERIAL 


G-1 


NW SSlh Si. 


SR 26/NevvberrY Rd. 


NW 23rd Ave. 


12.170 


E 


C 




G2 


N 8 th Ave. 


SR 26/Newberrv Rd. 


W 22nd St. 


14.145 


8 






G3 


N 8lh Ave. 


NW 22nd St. 


NW 6th St. 


15.095 


D 


B 




G-* 


SW 62n(J Blvd. 


SR 26/Newt)erT> Rd. 


SW 20in Ave. 


16.145 


B 


B 




















MAJOR 


G-5 


NW 22na Si 


SR 26AJnivefsttv Ave. 


NW 16th Ave. 


4.940 


C 








G^ 


N 8 th Av«. 


N Main St. 


SR 24/Waldo Rd. 


10,380 


C 








G-7 


S Ina Ave. 


US 441AV 13th St. 


SE7thSt. 


7.535 


c 




























OTHER 

i 


G-8 


W 6lh St. 


SW 16lh Ave. 


SW 4ih Ave. 


3.405 


c 








G-9 


W 6th St. 


SW 4th Ave. 


1^ 8th Ave. 


6.915 


o 








C-10 


NE 9th St. 


SE 2nd Ave. 


NE 3 lit Ave. 


5.180 


c 








G-11 


NW 38th St. 


NW Bth Ave. 


NW 1 6th Ave 


2.650 


c 








G-12 


NW 24tn Blvd. 


SR 222/NW 39th Ave. 


NW 53rd Ave. 


2.165 


c 








G-13 


N Mam St. 


SR 222yNW 39th Ave. 


NW 53rd Ave. 


3.530 


c 








G-14 


NE 15th St. 


SR 26/E Univerjity Ave. 


NE Sih Ave. 


5.080 


c 








G-1S 


NE 15th St. 


NE 16th Ave. 


SR 222/NE 39th Ave. 


4.235 


c 








G-16 


NE 25th Su 


SR 26/E University Ave. 


NE Bth Ave. 


2.650 


c 








G-17 


SE 4th St J 
SE 22nd Ave. 


Depot Ave. 


SR331/WaEjtonRoad 


3.120 


c 








C-18 


SE 4th St7 
SE 22nd Ave. 


SR 331/WaE$ton Road 


SE ISthSL 


3.775 


c 








G-1 9 


N 8ch Ave 


SR 24/W*ldo Rd. . 


NE2SthSu 


6.185 











G-20 


S 4th Ave. 


US441/SW13thSt. 


SE 15lhSt. 


4.965 


c 








G-21 


Depot AvtJ 
SE 7th Ave. 


SWISthSU 


SET 5th St. 


5.330 


c 








G-22 


S 2nd Ave. 


SE 7th Su 


SR 331/waijtonRd. 


2.290 


c 








6-23 


NE 3Ut Ave. 


N Ma.n Su 


SR 24/Waldo Rd. 


2,675 


c 








G-24 


NW 17th St. 


SR 26/E Universitv Ave. 


NW 8th Ave. 


4.755 











G-2S 


W 1 2th St. 


SW 4th Ave. 


NW Bth Ave. 


3.495 


c 








G-26 


W lOtn St. 


SW 4th Ave. 


NW Bth Ave. 


3.745 


c 








G-27 


SW 16ihSt. 


SW 16th Ave. 


SR 24/Archef Rd. 


4.200 


c 








G-28 


NW 5in Ave. 


NW 22nd St. 


US 441/NW 13th St. 


2.365 


c 








G-29 


W. 3id St. 


SW 4ih Ave. 


NW Bth Ave. 


1,055 


c 








G-30 


W. 2nd St. 


SW 4th Ave. 


NW 8th Ave. 


1.615 


c 


- 




G-31 


Nonh/Souih Dr. 


SR 2*/A/ch<r Rd. 


SR 26/W Unrversitr Ave. 


. 




■ 




G-32 


Museum Rd. 


SR 121/S 34inSt. 


US 441/S 13th St. 


- 


■ 


■ 





SOURCE: Nonh Central Florida Be jionaJ Planning Council 



J2/REPORT/DATA3. WK 1 



i 



40 



() 







Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Highway System and non-state roadways which also make up the local roadway network. These 
non-state roadways function as arterials, major or minor collector roads and are those roadways 
that have been functionally classified by the state and are identified as the roadway network 
modeled for the 2015 Gainesville Urban Area Transportation Suidy (GUATS). The State 
Highway System is further differentiated between the Intrastate System and other state roads. The 
Intrastate System includes limited access, controlled access and intrastate designated highways. 
The Intrastate System is required to maintain Level of Service C. The Intrastate System serving 
Alachua County consists of three routes: 

1 . Interstate 75; 

2. East- west route: SR 20 (Hawthorne Road) to SR 331 (Williston Rd) west to 1-75, 
and SR26 west from 1-75; and 

3. US 301 (located outside the City of Gainesville and urbanized area). 

The first two routes pass through the city limits of Gainesville and currently meet level of service 
requirements. Other state two-way roads (all state highways that are not part of the Intrastate 
System) are required to maintain Level of Service D. The level of service for non- state roadways 
may be set locally. Currently Alachua County requires level of seivice D for all functionally 
classified roads that are county maintained, and the City has established level of service E for all 
city maintained roadways in the network. 

A review of the 1991 figures indicates that the roadway network performs v^ithin the statewide 
standards when reviewed overall. There are several roadway segments which individually do not 
meet the standards. The 1991 City of Gainesville Comprehensive Plan addressed level of service 
deficiencies by the adoption of a Interim Special Transportation Area. The revised FDOT 
generalized tables, adopted in 1992, and the subsequent review of these facilities using ART- 
PLAN analysis has removed the majorit>' of these roadways from deficient status. The following 
roadways that were in the Interim STA still have LOS deficiencies: 

1991 STA 

Roadway Segment LOS AADT Capacity 

U.S. 441 (W. 13th St). SR 24 (Archer Rd.) to SR 26 (W. University Ave.) F 32,801 35,188 

SR 26 (University Ave.) North/South Dr. to US 441 (W. 13th St.) E 27,012 33,509 

The following roadways were not included in the Interim STA but are included in the 
Transportation Concurrency Management Area discussed below. The 1991 Average Daily Traffic 
Volumes (AADT) is over maximum allowable service volumes for these facilities: 



41 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Art-Tab 1991 

Roadway Segment LOS Capacity AADT 

*SR 26 (Newberry Rd.) 1-75 to N.W. 8th Avenue E 40,800 50,178 

SR121 (NW 34ih Sl) SR 26 (University Ave.) to N.W. 16th Ave. F 19,600 24,000 



Modal Split and Vehicle Occupancy Rates 

The total number of trips for all modes is 495,104. The non-auto trips represent 2.6 percent of all 
trips, leaving 482,(XX) auto trips to be assigned to the highway network. The modal split of the 
non-auto trips is shown in Table 5; 

TABLES: Modal SpUt 

Mode % of Areawide Vehicle Trips 

Fixed Route Transit 1.1% 

UF Shuttle Bus 0.7% 

Bicycle 0.8% 

The modal split varies throughout the city, with the concentration of bicycle and transit trips being 
highest on the University of Florida Campus and in surrounding areas. (FDOT. Proposed 
Revisions to Technical Memo 6 Mode Choice and Auto Occupancy Model, July 5, 1989). The 
average auto occupancy is 1.36 persons per vehicle. (Harland Bartholomew and Associates, Inc. 
Technical Memorandum 6 Modal Choice and Auto Occupancy, Draft January 1989.) 

Mass Transit Peak-Hour Service and Frequency 

Main Bus Peak-Hour Service Area and Frequency 

Those areas within the main bus service area not receiving main bus peak hour service are shown 
on Map 27. Off peak weekday service area and Saturday service area are shown on Map 28 and 
29 respectively. Peak hour frequency is minimum one hour headways during peak hours. Peak 
hours of service are operating hours before 9:00 a.m. and between 3:30 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. Table 
6 shows the service frequency (headway), hours of operation, number of peak hour round trips 
per day, mileage and peak hour capacity per route. Analysis of maps 27 through 29 show that the 
Central City Transportation Concurrency Management Area (discussed later) does receive peak and 
off-peak service throughout the designated area which meets level of service standards. 



42 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 6: Main Bus Service by Route 



Route Number and Name 


Auractor/ 

Generator 

Served 


Hour? of 
Operation 


Peak Hour 
(North or 
West) 
Headway 
(Minutes) 


Peak Hour 

North or 

West bound 

Trips 


Round Trip 

Mileage on 

Route 


-Number of 
Buses Assigned 
(W/C indicates 
lift equipped) 


Peak Hour 
Capacity 
(Number of 
Passengers 
@49 persons 
trip) 


















1 Courthouse to S.W. 8th 
Ave/Cedar Ridge 


Alachua General 

Buder Plaza 

Courthouse 

Shands and VA 

UF 


6:00a -7:30p 


45 


4 


25.4 


2 


196 


2 Kennedy Homes/SH 
ISthSTtoGainesviUe 
MaU 


Courthouse 
SFCC DnTwn 
G'ville HS 
G'viUe MaU 


5;55a ■7:05p 


30 


5 


12.4 


5 W/C 


245 


3 Mental Health 
Center/S13thSttoN'E 
llTer. and NE 31st Ave. 


Alachua General 
Courthouse 
HRS Complex 
Shands 
Tachachle 
UF and VA 


5:55a- 7: I5p 


45 


4 


19.15 


2W/C 


196 


4 Eastwood 
Meadows/SE43rd St to 
Radio Rd' or Oaks MaU 


Loften Center 
Alachua General 
Courthouse 
Easiside HS 
Williams Elem. 
UF 


5:55a -7:i5p 


30 


4 


27.65 


3 W/C 


196 


5 North EL Evaluauon 
and Treatment Center to 
SW 20ih Ave/Sugarfoot 


Loflen Center 
Dntwn Plaza 
RoyaU'ark Mall 
Oaks MaU 
Tower Center 


i:2ia - ^:45p 


30 


i 


37.1 


4W/C 


24^ 


6 PK Yonge/Depot Rd to 
SFCC/NAV 83rd St. 


SHCC 

Millhopper 
Buchholz HS 
UF and Westgate 


5:55a -6:25p 


4^ 


3 


19.7 


2 


147 


7 1 albot/NW43rd St to 
Cambridge ViUage/N. 
Main St. 


Courthouse 
G'ville Shop. Ctr, 
K-Mart Plaza, 
Millhopper, UF and 
Westgate 


6:00a- 
7:00p2 


Vanes 


3 (partial 

trips arrive 

at Court 

house) 


17.9 


2 


147 


8 Creekwood 
ViUage/SR121 to 
SugarhillAVilliston Rd. 


G'ville .MaU 

UF 

Shands and VA 


6:00a - 7:30p 


4^ 


4 


24.6 


2 W/C 


196 


9 Butler Plaza/Archer Rd 
to Newell Dr. and 
University Ave. 


Butler Plaza 
Flonda Farm 
Bureau, Shands, 
VA, and UF 


5:55a- 
7:10p2 


60 


3 


18.6 


1 


147 


10 Vista Pavillion/ .NW 
39ih Ave to Courthouse 


Millhopper 

SPOC 

UF 


8:l5a-5:30a 
and 12:30 - 
4:30p 


60 


2 (partial 

trips arrive 

at Court 

house) 


[U 


1 


98 


















lotal 








37 




21 


1813 



1 Eastbound trips begin at Radio Rd and W. 34th St. before 12:30p. 



43 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Demand Response System Service Area and Frequency 

Table 7 describes the weekly schedule of the Demand Response System. The table indicates that 
the frequency of this service decreases as the service area becomes more rural. The smallest 
communities are served only once a week. Demand Response System service throughout the 
county is supplemented by other providers through CTS. The D>emand Response System is 
considered a county-wide service. As such it is mainly funded by fares and Alachua County. Of 
the estimated 2,270 persons eligible for ADA Para-transit services approximately 38.9% are served 
by RTS through its contract with CTS (RTS, 1993). 

TABLE 7: RTS Demand-Response System Routes 



Route Number 


Monday 


Tuesday 


Wednesday 


Thursday 


Fnday 


1 


Alachua, High 
Springs, Bland, 
Hague, Wade 


Orange Heights, 

Earlton, Mekose, 

Hampton, 

Waldo, Louise, 

Monteocha, 

Fairbanks, 

Copeland 


Windsor, 
Rochelle, Lach- 
loosa, Haw- 
thorne, Camp- 
ville. Grove 
Park, Cross 
Creek,Micanopy, 
Evinston 


Alachua, High 
Springs, Bland, 
Hague, Wade 


Archer, 

Newberry, 

Jonesville, 

Halfmoon, 

Watermelon 

Pond. 


2 


Gainesville, 
Fairbanks 


Gainesville, 
Fairbanks 


Gainesville, 
Fairbanks 


Gainesville, 
Fairbanks 


Gainesville 


3* 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


4 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


5** 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


6** 


Gainesville 


Gainesville, 
Hague, Lacrosse, 
Alachua, High 
Springs 


Gainesville, 
Hague, Lacrosse, 
Alachua, High 
Springs 


Gainesville 


Gainesville, 
Hague, Lacrosse, 
Alachua, High 
Springs 


7* 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


8** 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


8X** 


Gainesville 
County 


Gainesville 
County 


Gainesville 
County 


Gainesville 
County 


Gainesville 
County 


9** 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 


Gainesville 



NOTES: Service to indicated cities depends upon client schedules. 

Gainesville. 

* Pnmarily Developmental Service, Foster Grandparents, 
**Lift equipped 

SOURCE: CTS, Febniary 1992 



Route 1 provides daily roundtrips to 
Retired Seniors Volunteer Program. 



44 



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47 



t- 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Shuttle Bus Service Area and Frequency 

Frequency of the shuttle service is determined by contract between the City of Gainesville and the 
University of Florida. The nature of a campus shuttie requires very short headways. Current 
headways range between 10 minutes from commuter parking lots and Fraternity Row to 30 
minutes for service to on-campus married student housing. Shuttle bus service does not extend to 
the School of Veterinary Medicine, Norman Hall (College of Education) or to Sorority Row. 
Shuttle bus routes are shown on Map 20. 

Inventory of Facilities and Vehicles 

Table 8 shows the bus vehicle inventory for the Main Bus System and the Campus Shuttie. There 
are 43 buses in the Main Bus/Campus Shuttie Fleet. Additional bus purchases are planned for FY 
1992 and 1993 in order to meet requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This required 
deobligating $800,000 (FY 92) approved in Capital Grant X-187 to retrofit seventeen buses with 
wheel chair lifts in order to purchase 4 new lift equipped buses. RTS filed a Capital Grant Request 
(FY 1993 operating budget) for five (5) 40 foot buses with lifts and three (3) vans for demand 
response service. Table 9 shows the Demand Response System fleet. 

TABLE 8: Inventory of Main Bus Reet 



Number of 


Year 


Make 


Model Length 


Seating 


Standing 


Total 


Vehicles 








Capacity 


Capacity 


Capacity 


17 


1986 


Bluebirds 


30 feet 


34 


9 


731 


9 


1989 


Orion I 


30 feet 


33 


20 


477 


5* 


1989 


Orion I 


35 feet 


37 


40 


385 


5 


1989 


Orion I 


35 feet 


45 


20 


325 


7 




Orion II** 


25 feet 


21 


10 


217 



43 Total 



2135 



Notes: *Designed to accommodate a large number of standing riders, used primarily for campus shuttles. 

**Lifi-equipped buses are the Orion II models which are mid-sized buses seating 21 passengers. These 
buses cannot be assigned to heavy ridership routes. Up to four wheel chairs may be accommodated, 
however capacity is reduced lo eight regular seats and standing for five persons. 

Sources: RTS, 1993 AND 1991 Mass Transit Element 



TABLE 9: Demand-Responsive Fleet 

Quantity Year 

7 1990 

1 1986 

2 1987 
2 1988 

Source: RTS. 1993. 



Model 

Goshcns 

Thomas 

RAM350 

Ford Ooan from CTS) 



(* 



48 



J 



0' 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Ridership 

Main Bus and Campus Shuttle Bus Ridership 



Ridership is based on Regional Transit System Monthly Reports as published by the North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council and is shown in Tables 10 and 1 1. 

TABLE 10: Ridership, Main Bus System 



Route Number 


1989 Ridership 


1991 Ridership 


1 


127,071 


158,175 


2 


171,962 


194,294 


3 


165,495 


189,593 


4 


183,176 


204,289 


5 


309,435 


327,307 


6 


102,969 


129,996 


7 


34,984 


31,365 


8 


116,861 


122,432 


9 


19,515 


26,228 


10 


22,509 


28,964 


11* 


32,762 





Total 1,286,739 1,412,643 

Note: Route 1 1 was eliminated in August 1989, increasing the length of Route i, and reducing the number of 
w trips Route 1 operated per day. 

I f Source: 1991 Mass Transit Data and Analysis Report, p. 38. 

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. Regional Transit System, (Draft ) Transit 
Development Plan, May 1992, p. 42. 

TABLE 11: Ridership, Campus Shuttle System 



Route Number 


1991 Ridership 


12 


189,144 


13 


121,133 


14 


55,295 


19 


326,181 


20 


90,324 



Note: Ridership per route was not calculated in previous years. 

Source: North Central Horida Regional Planning Council. Regional Transit System, (Draft ) Transit Development 
Plan, May 1992, p. 42. 

Demand Response System Ridership 

Table 12 presents the average daily ridership and capacity for the RTS mini-bus service. 
Currendy, there appears to be adequate capacity to meet demand. 



49 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 12: 



Demand Response System Ridership and Capacity 



Route 



Average 



Daily 



Daily 



Percent 



Number 



Ridership 



Capacity 



Excess 



24 



32 



15 



57 



65 



44 



52 



26 



34 



J4 



.31. 



43 



45 



53 



25 



30 



8x 



24 



32 



Total 



280 341 



li 



NOTES: 



These figures are based on buses used in January 1990. New buses have been bought since that 
time, and capacity has not yet been recalculated. 



SOURCE: 



RTS. January 1990 



An average of 5.800 to 6,000 riders use this service each month. Table 1 3 presents ridership by 
year for the Mini-Bus system. 



TABLE 13: 



Demand Resjx)nse System Ridership by Fiscal Year 



Year 



Ridership 



Percent Change 



1985/86 



67.266 



1986/87 


62.900 




-6 


1987/88* 


61.700 




-2 


1988/89 


63 J 29 




+2 


Total Change fpercent) 


-6 





Note: 



*Ridcrship records were unavailable for October through December 1987. so these figures were 
estimated based on data from January through September. The resulting ndership figure is vcr\ 
close to the estimated riders totals on RTS's UMTA Section 15 report for that year: 63.949. 



Source: CTS ridership records. February 1990. 



50 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Revenue and Operating Expenses 

Main Bus Revenue an d Operating Expenses 

At this time adult cash fares are 50 cents and 10 cents for a transfer. Handicapped and senior 
citizens may ride for 25 cents. Transfers are 5 cents for these citizens. "Easy Rider" (adult) passes 
are available at $5.00 for 12 rides. Students (excluding college students) may purchase a $5.00 



picture identification pass and ride for 10 cents, 
passes and tokens since fiscal year 1984/85. 



TABLE 14: Main Bus Revenues from Fares, Passes and Tokens 



Table 15 presents revenues received from fares. 



Fiscal 
Year 




1984/85 


1985/86 


1986/87 


1987/88 


1988/89 


Fares 


$ 


634.550 


434.933 


383.368 


366.252 


394.380 


Student 
Passes 


$ 


12.146 


4.422 


3.618 


3.652 


2.549 


Adult 
Passes 


$ 


52.432 


75.464 


54.250 


52.384 


40.910 


Tokens 


$ 


6.542 


5,084 


4.944 


5,344 


6.742 



M 



Total 


S 


705.670 




519.903 


446.180 




427.632 




444.581 


-26 




Percent 
Change 








-14 





-4 +4 


Riders 


1.194.497* 1.250.048 1.105.021 1.063.016 1.281,780 


Fare/Rider 


S0.44** S0.42 S0.40 S0.40 S0.35 


Notes: 


* 9 month total 

**Based on 75 percent of total fares to account for 9 months of available data 



i) 



Source: City of Gainesville Accounting Office: RTS Monthly Ridership and Revenue Reports: and 

Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. Nov. 23. 1989. 

Reductions in fares received generally follow reductions in ridership; however, fares received 
during fiscal year 1988/89 did not increase with the increase in ridership. In fact, fares decreased 
by 5 cents a rider during that year. This decrease is largely explained by the Free Student Pass 
program, which was instituted during fiscal year 1988/89. This program was widely abused, 
resulting in student identifications being passed to unauthorized persons and vandalism to vehicles. 
The picture identification system and 10 cent per trip charge are expected to reduce abuse. 

RTS has greatly improved its ability to account for ridership during the period. Improvements 
have included the purchase of automated fare boxes that perform this task, and management and 
training improvements to ensure that the fare boxes are properly used. It is possible that the 
continued reduction in reported fares per rider is in part the result of more accurate ridership 
reporting. 

Table 15 shows expenses for the main bus system by fiscal year since 1985. The table compares 
the expense figures with fare figures from Table 15 to determine the costs which must be covered 
from other sources. The costs are divided by the ridership figures in Table 10 to produce a cost 
per rider. 



51 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



These figures were taken from Section 15 reports, which are required each year by UMTA. These 
repons do not separate the costs of the university shuttle from the rest of the main bus system. 
Because this shuttle is provided to the University on an hourly, contractual basis, charges to the 
university are assumed to cover its costs. Charges to the university are subtracted from total costs 
to yield expenses for the main bus system. (It would be appropriate to analyze shuttle costs further 
to ensure that the university shuttle does cover its costs, or if it even subsidizes the main bus 
svstem.) 

Table 15 shows that expenses, costs and costs per rider have all increased. Vehicle maintenance 
has increased about twice as much as other expenses. This may be due to aging vehicles which 
were replaced in fiscal year 1988/89. It could also be due to an increase in the number of 
handicapped-accessible vehicles, which require more maintenance. A hopeful sign is the fact that 
cost per rider actually decreased between fiscal years 1987/88 and 1988/89. This was probably 
due to the slight increase in ridership during fiscal year 1988/89. 

Table 16 presents revenues (cash fares only) by route for the year from January 1989 through 
December 1989. Lower revenues per rider could represent routes which have a preponderance of 
elderly, handicapped, student and adult pass or token riders. 

TABLE 15: Main Bus Operating Expenses by Fiscal Year 















Change 


Year 


1985/86 


1986/87 


1987/88 


1988/89 


(percent) 


Vehicle 
Operations 


$ 


1.631.900 


1.594.279 


1.741.969 


1.906.348 


+ 17 


General 
Administ.* 


$ 


573.791 


677.057 


656.041 


737.101 


+28 


Vehicle 
Maintenance 


$ 


398.952 


484.880 


498.793 


576.967 


+45 


Shuttle 


$ 


(370.547) 


(378.307) 


(350.628) 


(458.172) 


+24 


Total 




$2,234,096 


2.377.909 


2.546.175 


2.762.244 


+24 



Yearly Percent 

Change +6 +7 +8 

Fares $519.903 446.180 427.632 444.581 J4 

Difference 

(cost) $1.714.193 1.931.729 2.118.543 2.317.663 +35 

Riders 1.250.048 1.105.021 1.063.016 1.281.780 ±1 

Cost/Rider $ 1.37 Ll^ L99 1.JJ +32 

Notes:* Administrative costs were not all allocated between motor bus and demand response categories on RTS's 

UMTA Section 15 reports. Unallocated administrative cosLs were divided at the same rate as allocated 

administrative costs. 
Source: RTS and City of Gainesville Accounting Office. Section 15 Report^;: RTS Monthly Ridership and Revenue 

Reports: and Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. Transit 

Ridership. November 23. 1989. 



52 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Repon 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 16: 


Cash Fares and Cash Fare net Rider bv Route. 




Januarv to 


December 1989 






Cash Fares 




Cash per 


Route 


(-Dollars) 


Riders 


Rider 


1 


37.294 


127.071 


S0.29 


2 


37.990 


171.962 


.22 


3 


38.223 


165.495 


.24 


4 


48.094 


183.176 


.26 


5 


77.834 


309.435 


.25 


6 


22.020 


102.969 


.21 


7 


7.920 


34.984 


.23 


8 


30.414 


116.861 


.26 


9 


5.913 


19.515 


.30 


10 


5.179 


22.509 


.23 


* 




32.762 




11 


9,571 


.29 


Totals 


320.452 


1.286.739 


S0.25 


Note: 


* 

-Eliminated August 27. 1990. 




Route 1 1 service area is now served bv Route 1. 



t) 



Source: RTS Monthly Ridership and Revenue Reports: and Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan 

Transportation Planning Organization. Transit Ridership. November 23. 1989. 

A major source of the difference between fares and total operating expenses is the City of 
Gainesville's share of the Lxx:al Option Gas Tax. This is significant because if transit operating 
expenses were to increase as a result of annexation, the City would have to renegotiate the 
allocation of this tax. 



Mini-Bus Revenue and Operating Expenses 

Mini-bus fares are based on 3 zones. The first zone encompasses the Gainesville city limits. Trips 
within this zone are $1.75 cash or $2.00 if billed. A second zone covers the Gainesville urban area 
for $3.50 cash or $4.00 if billed. The third zone, which extends to rural communities, is $5.25 
cash or $6.00 if billed. Table 17 details the fares received by the mini-bus system per year since 
fiscal year 1984/85. Fares do not always rise in the same proportion as ridership. This is 
probably due to changes in the distribution of trips among zones. It is interesting to point out that 
the fare per rider is less in fiscal year 1988/89 than in fiscal year 1984/85. 



O 



53 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 17: Demand Response System Fares Received by Fiscal Year (Dollars) 



Year 


1984/85 


1985/86 




1986/87 


1987/88 


1988/89 


Fares and 
Fees 


180.174 


169.875 




138.108 


164.739 


152.232 


Tokens 


2.793 


6.066 




10.817 


5.800 


10.636 


Total 


182.967+ 


175.941 




148.925 


170.539 


162.868 


Percent 
Change 




4 


-15 




+ 15 


-4 


Riders NA 




67.266 


62.900 




61.700* 


63.529 


Fare/ 
Rider NA 




2.62 


2.37 




2.7^ 


2.56 



r 



Note: Ridership records were unavailable for October through December 1987. so these figures were 

estimated based on data from January through September. The resulting ridership figure is very 
close to the estimated riders on the Section 15 report for that year 63.949 (see Table 13). 

Source: City of Gainesville Accounting Office: RTS Monthly Ridership and Revenue Reports: CTS 

Ridership Reports: February 1990: and Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation 
Planning Organization. Transit Ridership. November 23. 1989. 

Table 18 presents expenditures per year for the mini-bus system. Total expenditures are compared 
with fare revenue to determine the costs which must be covered from other sources. These costs 
are then compared to ridership to determine cost per rider. Costs per rider increased 25% between 
fiscal vear 1985/86 and fiscal year 1988/89. 



54 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 18: 


Mini-Bus Exoenditures, 


Costs and Cost 


Der Rider bv 


Fiscal Year 


Total Change 


Year 


1985/86 


1986/87 


1987/88 


1988/89 


(percent) 


Vehicle 
Operation 


S370.102 


411.235 


404.194 


413.886 


+ 12 


General 
Administ.** 


S117.523 


136.258 


144.009 


119.994 


+2 


Vehicle 
Maintenance 


S7.190 


11.528 


7.385 


6.197 


-14 


Total 


S494.815 


559.021 


555,588 


540.077 


+9 



Change 
(percent) 



Fares 



$ 175.941 



+ 13 



148.925 



170.539 



162.868 



Difference 
(costs) 



S 318.874 



410.096 



385.049 



377.209 



■18 



Riders 



67.266 



62.900 



61.700^ 



3.529 



^ 



Cost/Rider 



4.74 



6.52 



6.24 



5.93 



+25 



Notes: *Ridership records were unavailable for October through December 1987. so these Figures are 

estimated based on data from January through September. TTie resulting ridership figure is very 
close to the estimated riders on the Section 15 report for that year: 63.949 (see Table 13). 

** Administrative costs were not all allocated between motor bus and demand response on the Section 
15 Reports. Unallocated administrative costs were divided at the same rate as allocated 
administrative costs. 



Source: 



City of Gainesville Accounting Office: RTS Monthly Ridership and Revenue Reports: CTS 
Ridership Reports: February 1990: and Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation 
Planning Organization. Transit Ridership. November 23. 1989. 







Integration Between Modes 

The Campus Shutde Bus provides mode integration at the University of Florida. The six bus 
system circulates with headways ranging between 10 and 30 minutes, depending on the 
destination. This system provides integration for commuter from the park and ride lot at S.W. 
34th Street, as well as serving pedestrian as a means to go from distant parts of campus who 
would otherwise need a vehicle. 

RTS provides special park and ride services for major events such as University of Florida football 
games and the Gator National Stock Car Races. These temporary services have been provided for 
several years. 



55 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

The Central Business District of the downtown has been undergoing streetscape and street lighting 
improvements as part of downtown revitalization efforts which were started in 1985. The 
Downtown Redevelopment Agency has completed a downtown design plan which is directed to 
further pedestrian improvements, and improvements to encourage additional street activity. 

Coordinated with downtown improvements, the City's Cultural and Nature Operations Department 
schedules events for the downtown throughout the year. New investment in the downtown area 
includes the Matheson Historical Museum, multi-family infill residential development, the main 
branch of the Public Library and expansion of the County Administration Building. Proposed 
investment by the State in offices for the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services has been 
studied carefully by the City and several downtown sites have been proposed. The City and 
County have taken a very active role in maintaining the concentration of cultural, residential and 
government facilities in the central business district and proceeding with a pedestrian streetscape 
system. The downtown has a number of parks and public spaces. Currently a greenway is being 
developed through the heart of the downtown area, which will connect the downtown core and the 
Northeast Historic District, the Southeast Historic district to the city-wide greenway system. All of 
these events and improvements promote the downtown as a vibrant pedestrian-oriented activity 
center. 

The City received a 1 .5 million dollar grant from the Rorida Department of Natural Resources to 
be matched locally for a total of 3 million dollars for the development of the seven-mile Hogtown 
Greenway System on the western side of the city. The Hogtown Greenway will provide a 
generally northeast to southwest route from approximately N.W. 39th Avenue near N.W. 13th 
Street to Kanapaha Park at S.W. 41st Avenue and S.W. 63rd Boulevard. A segment of this 
greenway, called Alfred Ring Park, has already been completed from N.W. 23rd Avenue to N.W. 
16th Avenue. 

While the greenway network offers off-road transportation, the bikeway program emphasizes the 
development of in-street bike facihties for the commuting cyclist. New development is required to 
provide bicycle parking as a part of the on-site traffic circulation plan. Because this requirement 
has only been implemented since 1982, many sites do not yet have bicycle parking. As stated 
previously, all new arterials and collector roadways include bike lanes. Bike lanes or wide curb 
lanes are also installed whenever feasible when existing roads are resurfaced. 

There are no passenger rail or seaport facilities in Gainesville. The Gainesville Regional Airport is 
not currently served by bus because ridership was too low to sustain that service. There is taxi 
service and van service from some hotels to the airport. Bike lanes on N.E. 39th Avenue and the 
Waldo Road Rail Trail provide bike access to the vicinity of the airport. 

Population Characteristics 

The 1990 estimated service area pxjpulation was approximately 148,000 (North Central Regional 
Planning Council, November 1987). The service area is divided between the City of Gainesville 
and the unincorporated urbanized area. The City of Gainesville annexed 9.53 square miles of the 
urbanized area in September 1992. The 1992 City population, including the annexed area, is 
estimated as 90,573. Approximately 56,000 persons reside in the unincorporated urbanized area 
(City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development, October 1992). Demographic 
information is not currenUy available for the annexed area. This information will be provided for 
the update of the City of Gainesville Comprehensive Plan scheduled for 1996. The information 
provided concerning the household size, income, age and special needs groups was prepared for 
the Mass Transit Element of the 1991 Comprehensive Plan. It can be assumed to be an accurate 



56 



>} 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

representation of the population characteristics of the the city. The annexed territory includes areas 
in the southwest that are within the main bus service area, and areas in the northwest that are more 
sparsely populated and are not within the main bus service area. It must also be noted that the 
Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization adopted revised boundaries in 1992, as shown 
on Map 34, for its future planning area. These new boundaries include urbanized areas and areas 
transitioning from rural to urban uses. The service area population used above is based on the 
urbanized area prior to the 1992 annexation. 

TABLE 19: City of Gainesville and Unincorporated Gainesville Urbanized Area Existing and 
Projected Population** 

Unincorporated 
Year City Urbanized Area Total Urbanized Area 

1990 85,075* 60,944 148,000 

1996 92,732 70,408 163,140 

2001 97,116 77,744 174,860 

NOTES: 

* 1990 Census Population for City of Gainesville (estimated population of 87,056, was used in 

preparation of 1991 Comprehensive Plan. Alachua County census information is unavailable at 
this lime.) 
** Projected Population using 1990 City limits. Updated projections to be prepared for 1996. 

SOURCES: 1990 Bureau of Census (FDOT) and City of Gainesville 1991-2001 Comprehensive Plan. 

Persons per Household 

The estimated number of persons per household is 2.3436 (BEBR, 1992). This figure is smaller 
than the figure derived from the 1990 census, which was 2.46 persons per household. 

Population by Age 

Table 20 presents the existing and projected population for the City of Gainesville by age group. 
The data in this table show the largest population increase will occur in the 25 to 44 age group. 
The 15 to 24 age group will remain the largest single group, with 34 percent of the total 
population. Although elderly residents (65 years and older) will experience a large percentage 
increase, their increase is numerically minor. The projected changes in age distribution indicate a 
greater number of work trips and continued high numbers of students. Increases in student and 
elderly populations are a potential source of increased transit ridership. 



57 



Transf)ortarion Mobility Data and Analysis Repon 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

TABLE 20: Existing and Projected Population by Age Group, City of Gainesville: 

1980, 1996 and 2001 







Percent 




Percent 




Percent 


Change 


Percent 


Year 


mo 


of Total 


1996 


of Total 


2001 


of Total 


in Number 


Change 


Under 14 


14,048 


17 


13.388 


14 


13,133 


14 


-915 


-7 


15 to 24 


28,272 


35 


32,028 


35 


33,478 


34 


+5,206 


+ 18 


25 to 44 


23,023 


28 


28,738 


31 


30,943 


32 


+7,920 


+34 


45 to 64 


10,329 


13 


11,379 


12 


11,785 


12 


+1,456 


+ 14 


Over 65 


5,699 


7 


7,199 


8 


7,778 


8 


+2,079 


+36 


Total 


81,371 


100 


92,732 


100 


97,116 


100 


+15,745 


+ 19 


SOURCE: 


Bureau of the Census, 


July 1983; 1 


Deparimen 


t of Communit 


y Developm 


ent staff calculations. 



Projections are based upon a shift share model explained in the Housing Element (HSG: Appendix 
A). Numbers do not always total due the use of samples and rounding error. 

Table 21 provides estimated and projected population by age group for the unincorporated GUA. 
Projections are based on projected percentages for the county, as the unincorporated GUA is 
expected to more closely resemble the remainder of the county than the City in terms of age 
distribution. 

In contrast to the City, the unincorporated urban area is expected to show an aging trend. All age 
groups are expected to increase in number, however, a disproportionate increase is expected among 
the 45 to 64 age group and elderly. As peak earners, the 45 to 64 year olds are expected to rely 
less on transit. The elderly are expected to include robust elderly and those residing in 
communities planned for the elderly. Many of these communities provide transportation services. 
Thus, the elderly in the unincorporated urban area may rely less on transit than the elderly as a 
whole. Despite these expected trends, the absolute increase in the number of 15 to 24 year olds 
and elderly is expected to generate some increased demand for transit. As indicated earlier, the 
absolute increase in the total population of the unincorporated urban area should be a source of 
increased transit ridership. 

TABLE 21 : Population bv Age Group, Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area: 

1980, 1996 and 2001 







Percent 




Percent 




Percent 


Change 


Percent 


Yjar 


1980 


of Total 


19% 


of Total 


2001 


of Total 


in Number 


Change 


Under 14 


6,645 


18 


13,378 


19 


14,383 


18.5 


+7,738 


+ 116 


15 to 24 


12,442 


33 


17,602 


25 


19,436 


25 


+6,994 


+56 


25 to 44 


11,992 


32 


21,122 


30 


21,768 


28 


+9,776 


+82 


45 to 64 


4,648 


12 


11,265 


16 


13,994 


18 


+9,346 


+201 


Over 65 


1,937 


5 


7,041 


10 


8,163 


10.5 


+6,226 


+321 


Total 


37,664 


100 


70.408 


100 


77,744 


100 


+40,080 


+ 106 



Note: 



Sources: 



Total does not agree with that in Table 1 1 for 1980 due to slight differences in area included in 
Unincorporated GUA. 

Bureau of the Census, July 1983; University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, May 1987; Department of Community Development staff calculations. Numbers do not 
always exactly total due the use of samples and rounding error. 



( 



58 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Existing and Projected Income 

Table 22 shows the number of low or very low income households in the city. Despite the 
presence of a large low and very low income population, transit ridership is small. Two 
characteristics of Gainesville's population may be inflating these low income figures. First is the 
presence of college students whose low reported income is supplemented by unearned and non- 
monetary support from parents and the University. Many, if not most, college students come to 
Gainesville with cars. The second characteristic is the fact that the average household size in 
Gainesville is smaller than the family of 4 for which median income was determined. 

The existing pattern of development in the urban area has been low density, single use in character. 
This situation makes it difficult for most persons, including low income persons to depend on the 
mass transit system and non-auto modes of transportation. It is not known how high the costs of 
fuel, parking, taxes, etc. associated with auto operation will have to rise before transit is perceived 
as a good transportation value. 

TABLE 22: Estimated and Projected Households by Income, City of Gainesville 









1980-96 


1996-2001 




Income Group 


mo 


1996 


2001 


Change 


Change 


VeryLx)w 


5,699 


13,332 


14,092 


+7,633 


+760 


Low 


5,920 


3,820 


4,038 


-2,100 


+218 


Moderate 


4,534 


8,357 


8,833 


+3,823 


+476 


MiddleAJpper 


12,240 


7,972 


8,426 


-4,268 


+454 


Total 


28,393 


33,480 


35,389 


+5,087 


+ 1,908 



NOTES: 1996 and 2001 projections are in 1987 dollars. Methodology used for household projections is 

explained in Housing Element (HSG: Appendix A.) Numbers do not always total due to rounding 
error. 

SOURCES: Urban Decision Systems of Los Angeles, CA, October 9, 1987.; City of Gainesville Department 
of Community Development staff calculations. 

Table 23 below paints a similar picture of the unincorporated urban area. In fact, the proportion of 
households in the very low and low range is even high for this area. The same factors are 
probably inflating low and very low income households figures and the same conclusions can be 
drawn regarding auto ownership by low income households in the unincorporated area. 



n 



59 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 23: 


Estimated and 


Projected Households 


by Income, 








Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area 














1980-96 


1996-2001 


Income Group 


1980 


199$ 


2001 


Change 


Change 


Very Low 


3,713 


12,128 


13,393 


+8,415 


+ 1,265 


Low 


3,376 


3,284 


3,627 


-92 


+343 


Moderate 


2,716 


6,630 


7,322 


+3,914 


+692 


Middle and 












Upper 


6,728 


6,675 


7,371 


-53 


+696 


Total 


16,533 


28,717 


31,713 


+ 12,184 


+2,996 



NOTES: 1996 and 2001 projections are in 1987 dollars. Methodology used for household projections is 

explained in Housing Element (HSG: Appendix A). Numbers do not always total due to rounding 
error. 

SOURCES: Urban Decision Systems of Los Angeles, CA., October 9, 1987; City of Gainesville Department 

of Community Development staff calculations. 



f 



Persons with Public Transit Related Disabilities 

RTS provides two services to disabled riders. The demand responsive mini-bus service provides 
handicapp)ed-accessible buses county-wide. The main bus service includes limited handicapped- 
accessible buses serving the urban area. CTS and other private providers supplement this service. 
Table 24, presents estimates and projections of persons with public transit related disabilities for 
the City and the unincorporated portion of the urban area. 



r 



TABl ,F 24: 


Perso 


Year 


City 

16 tQ 64 


1980 


843 


1996 


993 


Change 


150 


2001 


1,050 


Change 


57 


Total 
Change 


207 


SOURCE: 


B ureal 



Persons with Public Transit Related Disabilities 

City 
65 & Older 

1,040 
1,314 

274 
1,419 

105 

379 311 



nine. GUA 


Uninc. 


GUA 


Total 


10 to 64 


65 & Older 




CUA 


336 


330 




2,549 


585 


1,200 




4,092 


249 


870 




1,543 


647 


1.391 




4,507 


62 


191 




415 



1.061 



1.958 



Bureau of the Census, July 1983; Department of Community Development staff calculations. 
Numbers do not always total due to the use of samples and rounding error. 



( 



60 



n 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Special Needs Populations 

The population groups considered to have special transportation needs include the elderly, low 
income persons and persons with public transportation related handicaps. Each of these groups 
have been discussed in the preceding sections. Studies by the Florida Department of 
Transportation (July 1984) and the Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation 
Planning Organization (February 1990) estimate the total of these groups to comprise 34 percent of 
Alachua County's population. Analysis by City staff indicates that this total could be above 50 
percent for the City and unincorporated urban area. 

The actual number of transportation disadvantaged persons is probably lower than the range of 34 
to 50 percent. The Rorida Department of Transportation study defines elderly as over 60, and 
assumes all elderly are transportation disadvantaged. Clearly there are many in this group who 
own and operate cars without any difficulty. This report has already discussed how the presence 
of college students inflates the number of low income households, and the fact that students and 
other low income residents often own cars. Based on actual ridership totals and the numerous 
programs which assist special needs populations, these groups receive adequate service to meet 
minimal basic travel needs. During 1993, the price for service was lowered due to the availability 
of additional funds. At the lower price demand escalated outstripping the ability of Coordinated 
Transit Systems to provide service. 

Number of Vehicles per Household 

Tables 25 and 26 present information regarding the access of households to vehicles for private 
transportation purposes. These tables show that in 1980 the City had almost three times the rate of 
households with no vehicles compared to the unincorporated area. The City also had a 
correspondingly smaller rate of households with two or more vehicles- 
Estimates for 1985 were obtained from the Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan 
Transportation Planning Organization (MTPO: 1987). These estimates assumed one rate for 
vehicles per single-family residences, and another for multi-family units throughout the urban area. 
Because of this, differences berv^,een the City and unincorporated area are a function of the 
proportion of multi-family development in each area. This procedure may not yield a true 
representation of auto availability in the City. 

Census findings from 1980 suggest other factors, such as income are at work. Transit dependent 
persons may choose to live in the City where access to transit is more convenient. When the entire 
Gainesville urban area is examined (Table 27). there is little change in the proportions of 
households having access to no. one and more than one vehicle over time. It is highly possible the 
differences between the Ciry and unincorporated area in access to vehicles are more closely 
represented by the 1980 census findings than the 1985 estimates. 



61 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 25: Vehicles by Occupied. Year Round Housing Units.City of Gainesville 



Year 


1980 


Percent 


1985 


Percent 


Number of Vehicles 
None 


3.134 


11 


2.680 


8 


1 


12.006 


42 


12.947 


41 


2 or More 


13.167 


47 


16.213 


51 



Number of Occupied 

Housing Units 28.307 31.838 

Note: In both sources vehicles are generally deHned as automobiles, vans, or trucks not exceeding 1 ton 

capacity whether leased or owned; company vehicles and private vehicles ordinarily in running 
condition which are kept at home for use for noncommercial purposes by persons in the 
household. Numbers do not always total due the use of samples and rounding error. 

Source: Bureau of the Census. July 1983: Gainesville Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. 

November 1987; Department of Community Development staff calculations. 



TABLE 26: Vehicles by Occupied, Year Round Housing Units 
Unincorporated Gainesville Urbanized Area 



Year 


1980 


Percent 


1985 


Percent 


Number of Vehicles 
None 


586 


4 


2.240 


10 


1 


6.147 


42 


9.737 


45 


2 or More 


7,938 


54 


9.627 


45 



( 



Number of Occupied 

Housing Units 14.643 21.603 

Note: In both sources vehicles are generally defined as automobiles, vans, or trucks not exceeding 1 ton 

capacity whether leased or owned; company vehicles and private vehicles ordinarily in running 
condition which are kept at home for use for noncommercial purposes by persons in the 
household. Numbers do not always total due the use of samples and rounding error. 

Sources: Bureau of the Census, July 1983; Gainesville Metfopolitan Transportation Planning Organization. 

November. 1987; Department of Community Development staff calculations. 



r 



62 



i) 



Transponation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 27: Vehicles by Occupied, Year Round Housing Units 
Total Gainesville Urbanized Area 



Year 




1980 


Percent 


1985 


Percent 


Number of Vehicles 
None 




3,730 


9 




4.920 


9 


1 




18.153 


42 




22.684 


42 


2 or More 




21.105 


49 




25.840 


48 


Number of Occupied 

Housing Units 




42.950 






53.441 




Note: In both 


sources vehicles 


were general 


1y defined as 


automobiles, 


vans, or trucks not exceeding 1 ton 



capacity whether leased or owned: company vehicles and private vehicles ordinarily in running 
condition which are kept at home for use for noncommercial purposes bv persons in the 
household. Numbers do not always total due the use of samples and rounding error. 

Source: Bureau of the Census. Julv 1983: Gainesville Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. 

November. 1987: Department of Community Development staff calculations. 



Analysis of the Projected Transportation Network Levels of Service 
and System Needs 

The development of an effective and efficient multi-modal system that is integrated and coordinated 
among the various modes is the goal of the City's transportation planning effort. Use of public 
transportation and increased reliance on non-motorized forms of transportation will require 
behavioral changes. Such change is expected in part as a result of congestion in the central city 
area, in part as a result of transportation demand management strategies undertaken by the MTPO 
in cooperation with private and public entities, and in part due to an increased awareness of the 
costs associated with building cities to support the use of single occupancy vehicles. 

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 is tiie federal act which 
allocates funding for transponation purposes. This act differs from previous federal funding 
formulas because its stated purpose is to provide for a multi-modal transponation system, rather 
than segregating funding for highways and transit modes. Additionally, it provides funding for 
pedestrian and bicycle system and addresses the synergistic affect of land use and transportation 
decisions. The new direction of this act allows localities to take a greater pan in the shaping of 
communities by determining an appropriate mix of transportation modes. 

Land Use 

The Future Land Use Map Series (Appendix B) show a multi-centered land use pattern. The 
FLUM reflects an existing urban development pattern that is projected to increase in density and 
intensity through redevelopment and infill development. Tables 17 and 18 show designated future 
land use by acreage and percentage of the city. 



63 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABT ,F, 28: Acreage and 


Density of Use for City 


of Gainesvil 


Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 


Agriculture 


171.91 


0.87 


Commercial 


325.68 


1.65 


Conservation 


1,125.94 


5.71 


Education 


1,485.26 


7.53 


Industrial 


968.27 


4.91 


Mixed Use High 


133.37 


0.68 


Mixed Use Low 


570.90 


2.89 


Mixed Use Medium 


405.53 


2.06 


OfTice 


274.00 


1.39 


Public Facilities 


4,064.70 


20.61 


Planned Use DisUict 


147.89 


0.75 


Residential High Density 


303.28 


1.54 


Residential Low Density 


1290.50 


6.54 


Residential Medium Density 


880.58 


4.46 


Recreation 


354.11 


1.80 


Single Family 


7188.66 


36.44 


Total 


19726.65 


100.00 



Source: City of Gainesville, Future Land Use Data and Analysis Report, 1991. 
TABLE 29: Acreage and Density for Area Annexed 1992 



Land Use 


Acreage 


% of Total 


Agriculture 


1,504.24 


25.78 


Commercial 


341.06 


5.84 


Conservation 


574.69 


9.85 


Education 


64.32 


1.10 


Industrial 


1,453.53 


24.91 


Mixed Use Low Intensity 


45.76 


0.78 


Office 


52.95 


.91 


Public Facilities 


27.49 


0.47 


Planned Use District 


5.82 


0.01 


Recreation 


15.13 


0.26 


Residential Low Density 


404.22 


6.93 


Residential Medium Density 


550.40 


9.43 


Single Family 


794.04 


13.61 


Total 


5833.65 


100.00 



r 



Housing and Employment Patterns 

The Future Land Use Map designates residential districts as Single Family (8 or fewer dwelling 
units per acre). Residential Low Density (12 or fewer dwelling units per acre). Residential Medium 
Density (8-30 dwelling units per acre). Residential High Density (21 to 100 dwelling units per 
acre). Mixed Use districts combine residential and non-residential uses. These land use districts 
are Mixed Use Residential (up to 75 dwelling units per acre). Mixed Use Low Intensity (10 to 30 
dwelling units per acre). Mixed Use Medium Intensity (14 to 30 dwelling units per acre), and 

C 

64 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

Mixed Use High Intensity (up to 150 dwelling units per acre). The Office district also allows 
combinations of multi-family at up to 20 units per acre. 

It can be noted that the highest concentrations of residential density are planned for the areas 
immediately surrounding the University of Florida and for the central business district. Additional 
multi-family densities are found along arterial roadways and surrounding activity centers which 
have been designated for mixed use development. The existing mixed use designated areas are 
primarily commercial and office and are significant employers. The largest employment 
concentration is the Central City core, with the University of Florida, Shands Hospital, Veterans 
Administration Hospital, Alachua General Hospital and government offices. 

Projected Levels of Service 

M^thQdQlQgy 

Projected service volumes for 1996 and 2001 (see Appendix C) were computed using a straight 
line extrapolation, based on FDOT traffic counts taken over a ten-year pjeriod, 1979 to 1989. 
In cases where FDOT counts were not available, Alachua County or City of Gainesville counts 
were used. This methodology was chosen in preference to using the 2005 Gainesville Urban 
Area Transportation Study (GUATS) projections, which are outdated because they rely on pre- 
1980 census data. The 2015 GUATS Plan completed in 1992 relies on 1980 census data and 
1985 socio-economic data. These projections were prepared for the Traffic Circulation 
Element. That data is also old at this point. The levels of service identified in those projections 
are no longer valid, although the projected service volumes remain the best available data. The 
level of service for 2(X)1 has been calculated using the April 1992 FDOT Level of Service 
Manual and a map of 2(X)1 projected levels of service is included in the appendix. The April 
1992 Level of Service Manual allows somewhat higher service volumes in the various level of 
service categories (A through F) than was the case in 1991 when the Traffic Circulation 
Element was prepared. The projected levels of service are straight line projections, they do not 
reflect any changes in choice of travel mode, nor do they include changes in the network that 
are not currentiy in the 5-year Transponation Improvement Program. 

Projected Svstem Needs 

Several factors shape the City's need for future transportation facilities with regard to the Future 
Land Uses shown on the Future Land Use Map. These factors are: 

1 . Amount of vacant land. Eighty-three percent of the land area of the City is 

currently developed (pre 1992 boundaries). Only 3356.21 acres of unimproved 
land remains. Most of the vacant land is limited in its development potential by site 
constraints, such as floodplains, creeks, wetiands, uplands and irregular shape. 
Although the future land use map shows increased densities and intensities within 
the city, it is unreasonable to expect any significant change in the current pace of 
development. The 1980-2000 plan also included land use designations at greater 
density than the actual built condition. While the 1991 Plan may provide some 
incentive for redevelopment as result of the relatively high allowable densities, it is 
not expected that the amount of redevelopment will significantiy alter the straight 
line projections used to predict level of service needs for traffic circulation in 1996 
and 2001. 



65 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

2. Rate of growth. The population projections indicate a 0.58 percent annual growth 
rate through the year 2005. The growth rate in the City has been less than one 
percent per year since 1980. 

3 . Development areas. The Future Land Use Map is similar to the 1980-2000 Land 
Use Map. The differences between the two can be summarized as increased 
flexibility in non-residential areas and greater allowable densities in the central city 
core. A Transportation Concurrency Management Area is included in this plan to 
address the traJFfic volumes that result from these more intense land use 
designations. 

4. Existing Capacity. Although certain roadways have been found to be 
backlogged or constrained, there is existing capacity on many of the roadways 
serving the city. Sufficient developable area, which allow a variety of land 
uses, can be accessed by roadways meeting LOS standards. Appendix C 
(Table C-1) provides an assessment of service volumes expected in years 1996 
and 2001 if current trends continue. 

Roadway Needs 

The MTPO's 1993-97 Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) indicates those roads which 
were identified as cost-feasible in the 2005 GUATS Plan and which have since been funded for 
project development and construction in the next five years. 

Because identification of needs, engineering studies and funding take nearly ten years to 
complete for most improvements, it is not feasible to substitute other projects for those shown 
in the current Five Year Transportation Improvement Plan (TIP). The Future Traffic 
Circulation Map (Map 33) shows that N.W. 43rd Street (Alachua County Roadway 
functioning as an arterial) and North Main St. (Alachua County Roadway functioning as an 
arterial) from N. 23rd Avenue to N. 39th Avenue are the only roads within city limits for 
which additional lanes (2 lanes with bikeway) will be constructed in the next five years. 
Additional lanes on N.W. 43rd Street will probably divert trips from both N.W. 34th Street 
and N.W. 13th Street. No collectors are proposed for construction in the 1993-97 TIP. Also 
shown on Map 33 are intersection improvements. Capital improvements shown on Map 34 are 
also shown in the Capital Improvement Element. 

A list of currently scheduled Project Development and Environmental (PD&E) studies are 
shown in Table 30. These studies are necessary prior to determinations to construct roadway 
improvements. 

TABLE 30: Schedule of Project Development and Environmental Studies 



ROADWAY 


FROM 


TO 


FUNDING 


YEAI 


N.W. 34th Sl 


W. Univ. Ave. 


U.S. 441 


FOOT 


92-93 


W. 6ih St. 


S.W. 4th Ave. 


N.W. 8th Av. 


FDOT 


96-97 


N. 16th Ave. 


N.W 13th St. 


Waldo Rd. 


FOOT 


96-97 


S.W. 20th Ave. 


S.W. 75ih St. 


W. 34th St. 


FDcrr 


93-94 



Source: MTPO, 1993 97 Transportation Improvement Program. Sept. 1992. 

Those State roadways which are currendy backlogged or constrained and functioning below the 
Statewide standards (LOS D for Other State Roadwavs and LOS C for the Intrastate Highway 

1 

66 















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67 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

System) must maintain current operating conditions. Maintaining current operations requires 
mitigation efforts when new development or redevelopment is proposed. Mitigation is 
necessary to return the facility to acceptable op>erating standards. Mitigation efforts can include 
closing poorly located or multiple curb-cuts, installation of pedestrian and bicycle access to the 
site, and transportation demand management strategies for employees/clients if significant 
impacts are expected. Land use regulations limit the type of development and/or traffic 
circulation impacts of development within one quarter mile of backlogged or constrained 
facilities. The 1992 FDOT Level of Service Standards and Guidelines Manual states that a 
peak hour increase in traffic of ten percent or a decrease in average op)erating speed for the peak 
direction in the 100th highest hour of ten percent can be used as a reasonable indicator of 
deviation from the "maintained condition." Level of service degradation is defined as 
allowing the LOS to fall below the "maintained condition" on those facilities which are 
backlogged or constrained (and below the adopted LOS on all other facilities). Level of service 
is monitored using annual average daily traffic counts (biennial counts for minor collectors) in 
accordance with FDOT methodology for each roadway section identified in this report (see 
Table 4). This assessment can be used to identify those roadways facilities on which level of 
service deficiencies can be expected in the near fuUire unless additional regulation, road 
improvements, or other traffic management programs are undertaken. The level of service is 
reviewed annually by the North Florida Regional Planning Council for the MTPO. 

Need for new facilities and expansion of alternative modes 

The 2015 Gainesville Urban Area Transportation Study (GUATS) identified transportation needs 
throughout the urban area that are anticipated to be needed by 2015, see Map 34, Table 31. The 
projects have been ordered to meet existing demands and then anticipated needs as these needs are 
expected to occur. A high priority has been allocated to analysis of multi-modal solutions for five 
corridors within the urban area. These corridors are: 

1. Newberry RoadAJniversity Avenue from W. 75th St. to Waldo Rd.; 

2. Archer Road from W. 75th St. to US 441; 

3. S.W 20th Avenue/Hull Road from W. 75th St. to S.W. 16th Ave.; 

4. W. 34th Street from US 441 to Williston Rd. 

5. US 441 from W. 6th Street/SR20 to Williston Rd. 

These corridors each have projected future trip demand which could not be accommodated by 
adding additional travel lanes. In some instances segments of the roadways are constrained 
because they are at maximum buildout (six-lane facilities). In some instances portions of the 
roadways are not at maximum width, but environmental, cost, and px)litical constraints preclude 
resolving the needs by road widening alone. Additional parallel facilities are of limited feasibility 
due to the concentration of the demand around the University of Florida. In response to these and 
other factors the MTPO created the Transportation Demand Management Task Force to recommend 
implementation strategies such as enhanced transit services, placement of park and ride facilities, 
pedestrian improvements, and formation of the Transportation Demand Management Association. 

Mass Transit Trip Generation and Future System Capacity 

The location of future primary' trip generators and attractors for the City was discussed in the 
Service Area and Coverage section. That discussion showed that almost all anticipated attractors 
and generators are served by mass transit. In 1985 there were an estimated 664.365 person-trips 
generated per day in the GUA (Table 32). By the year 20(X) this figure is projected to be 859.235 
person-trips per day (Table 33). Main bus ridership in fiscal year 1985/86 represented 1 percent of 
the total daily person trips in 1985. 



68 



r) 




69 



TABLE 31 



YEAR 2015 NEEDS AND COST FEASIBLE PLAN 



Pace 1 of 2 


• 






Adopted November 18. 1S92 




PRIORnY 
NUMBER 


ROADWAY 


FROM 


TO 


PROJECT 

COST IN 

MILUONS 


PROJECT 
DESCRIKIION 




: 




COMMITTED PROJECTS 








- 


N. Main Street 


N.W. 23rd Avenue 


N.W. 39th Avenue 


i 44 


Four-Uning 




- 


N.W. 43fd Street 


Newberry Road 


N.W. 23rd Avenue 


5.1 


Four-laning 




- 


N.W. 43rd SUeet 


N.W. 73rd Avenue 


U.S. 441 


0.0 


New Two Lane 




- 


Fort Clarke Boulevard 


Newl>erry Road 


N.W. 23rd Avenue 


0.7 


New Two Lane 




- 


S.E 8th Avenue 


S.E. 15th Street 


Hawthorne Road 


0.5 


New Two Lane 




- 


S.E. 24th Street 


Hawthorne Road 


E. University Avenue 


0.5 


New Two Lane 




~ 


S.W. 34lh Street 


Wiinston Road 


Archer Road 


4.4 


Six-)aning 




- 


Rocky Point Road 


Farm Bureau 


Williston Road 


0.8 


Four-laning 




- 


Hawthorne Road 


C.R. 3298 


EGUA Limit 


5.9 


Four-laning 




- 


Newberry Road 


W. 143rd Street 


End ot Four Lane 


1.8 


Four-laning 




1 




UNCOMMI i 1 ED PROJECTS 








1* 


Corridor Development Studies 


$ 0.5 


Study 




2** 


S.W. 20th Avenue 


S.W. 62nd Boulevard 


S.W. 34th Street 


1.1 


Enharwement* * * 




3** 


Hull Road Extension 


S.W. 20th Avenue 


S.W. 34th SUeet 


6.2 


New Four Lane 




4 


N.W. 34th SUeet 


W. University Avenue 


N.W. 16th Avenue 


4.6 


Four-laning 




5 


S.W. 2nd Avenue 


Newberry Road 


S.W. 34U> SUeet 


2.5 


Four-laning 




6 


Newberry Road 


N.W. 8th Avenue 


S.W. 2nd Avenue 


10.8 


Six-laning 




7 


W. University Avenue/ 
S.W. 2nd Avenue—* 

A. Reversible Lane 

B. Four Lanes 

C. One-Way Pairs 

D. Do Nothing 


W. 34th Street 


North/South Drive 


0.8 
5.9 
0.4 
0.0 


Reversible 

Four-4anmg 

One-way Pair 

No Change 




8 


N.W. 39th Avenue 


N.W. 98th Street 


Interstate 75 


0.4 


Four-laning 




9 


W. 75lh Street 


Archer Road 


University Avenue 


60 


Four-laning 




10 


Hull Road 


S.W. 34th Street 


S.W. 16lh Avenue 


2JJ 


Four-laning 


: 


11 


Depot Avenue 


S.W. 13th Street 


Williston Road 


4.6 


Four-laning 




12 


Archer Road 


S.W. leth Avenue 


S.W. 13th SUeet 


£.4 


Six-laning 




13 


W. 6th Street 


S.W. 4th Avenue 


N.W. 8th Avenue 


35 


Four-laning 




14 


N.W. 83rd Street 


N.W. 23rd Avenue 


N.W. 39Ui Avenue 


$ 1.7 


Four-laning 





70 



YEAR 2015 NEEDS AND COST FEASIBLE PLAN 



Page 2 of 2 


. 






Adopted November 18. 1992 




\ PRJORrTY 
i NUMBER 


ROADWAY 


FROM 


TO 


PROJECT 

COST IN 

MILUONS 


PROJECT 

oescRipnoN 




15 


S.E. 16th Avenue 


Williston Road 


Hawthorne Road 


$ 8.3 


New Two Lane 




16 


S.W. 62nd Boulevard 


S.W. 20th Avenue 


End of 4 lane 


3.4 


Four-4anino i 




17 


N. Main Street 


Un'tversity Avenue 


N. 1 6th Avenue 


4.6 


Enhartc«inent8 




18 


N.W. 16th Avenue 


U.S. 441 


N. Main Street 


7.3 


Riur-taning 




19 


Newberry Road 


Fort ClarVe Boulevard 


Interstate 75 


6.0 


Sb(-laning 




20 


S.W. 20th Avenue 


S.W. 75* Street 


Hull Road Extension 


5.4 


Four-laning 




21 


N.W. 83rd Street 


N.W. 39th Avenue 


Millhopper Road 


1.3 


New Two Lane 




22 


N.W. 23rd Avenue 


N^W. 98th Street 


N.W. S5th Street 


6.4 


Four-taning 




23 


Archer Road 


S.W. 91st St 


Tower Road 


7.6 


Four-laning 




24 


N.W. 34th Street 


N.W. 16th Avenue 


U.S. 441 


17.0 


Fbur-laning 




25 


N.W. 43rd SUeet 


N.W. S3rd Avenue 


U.S. 441 


4.5 


Four-taning 




26 


Parker Road 


Newt)eny Road 


N.W. 39th Avenue 


1.8 


New Two Lane 




27 


e. 27lh Street 


Hawthorne Road 


N.E 39th Avenue 


2.5 


New Two Lane 




28 


Williston Road 


Interst^e 75 


S.W. 13th Street 


16.8 


Sb(-laning 




29 


S.W. 91 « Street 


S.W. 44th Boulevard 


S.W. 24th Avenue 


0.9 


New Two Lane 




30 


Willislon Road 


Bear Archer Road 


Interstate 75 


^JZ 


FouT-laning 




31 


Newberry Road 


N.W.75«h Street 


N.W. 8th Avenue 


7S 


Efthancements 


i 


L 32 


S.W. 40th Blvd. ExL 


S.W. 34th Street 


Archer Road 


0.5 


New Two Lane 




33 


S.W. $2nd Blvd Ext. 


S.W. 40th Street 


S.W. 20th Avenue 


$ 1.1 


New TwK) Lane 




NEEDS PLAN PROJECTS NOT INCLUDED IN COST FEASIBLE PLAN 




34 


Interstate 75 


South GUA Limit 


North GUA Umit 


23.9 


Bght-laning 


: 


35 


Archer Road 


S.W. 75th SUeet 


Interstate 75 


17.4 


Six-Caning 




36 


N.W. 51 St Street 


N.W. 39th Avenue 


Millhopper Road 


0.9 


New Two Lane 




37 


S.E 16th Ave. ExL 


WiOiston Road 


Hawthorne Road 


$ 8.7 


Four-taning 


I 



jlO/ciplan.wkl 
When projects needed to implement the mutti-moda] corridors are identified, funds for these projects will be programmed. 
These projects should be considered joint projects. 

The enhancements to S.W. 20th Avenue include four-laning from S.W. 62nd Boulevard east to the Hull Road Extension 
and a divided facility with in-street bicycle facilities from the Hull Road Extension east to S.W. 34th Street 
For this project the cost of four-laning. $5.9 million, was used in the cumulative total. 



71 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 32: Standard Daily Person Trip Rate. City of Gainesville and Unincorporated 
Gainesville Urban Area. 1985 

Number Of Daily Person Trips 



Trip Type 


Ciiv 


Unmc. GUA 


Total 


Home-based Daily Person Trip 
Work Attraction 


82.825 


18.776 


101.601 


Shopping Attraction 


53.875 


20.514 


74.390 


Social/Recreation 


79.869 


24.827 


104.695 


Other Attraction 


75.392 


26.699 


102.091 



Non-home-based Daily Person Trip 
Production/Attraction 



112.743 



35.790 



148.533 



Subtotal 



404.704 



126.606 



531.310 



*Special Activity Generators 
**University of Florida 



108.201 



108.201 



Santa Fe Community Coll. 



21.888 



21. 



Gainesville Reg. Airport 



2.966 



.966 



Subtotal 



111.167 



21. 



133.055 



Total Daily Person Trips 



515.871 



148.494 



664.365 



Notes: -Special Activity Generators were identified in the Gainesville Urbanized Area Transportation 

Study (Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. 1988) as "major activity centers 
which have a rate of trip activity significantly greater or less than that which is estimated bv 
using the standard daily person trip rate equations." 



— The number of daily person trips estimated for the University of Florida is based on an 
enrollment cap of 36.000 students- 



Sources: 



Numbers do not always total exactly due to rounding error. 

Socioeconomic data is from the Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation Planning 
Organization. 1988. Trip Generation model is from John Harris. Florida Department of 
Transportation Regional Coordinator. Julv 21. 1986: Department of Community Development 
staff calculations. March 1990. 



72 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 33: Standard Daily Person Trip Rate City of Gainesville and Unincorporated 
Gainesville Urbanized Area. 2000 



Number of Daily Person Trips 



Trip Type 



City 



Uninc. GUA 



Total' 



Home-based Daily Person Trip 



Work Attraction 


87.937 


42.476 


130.414 


Shopping Attraction 


58.304 


36.399 


94.703 


Social/Recreation 


88.474 


54.396 


142.870 


Other Attraction 


82.458 


54,075 


136,532 



Non-home-based Daily Person Trip 
Production/Attraction 



124.453 



75.972 



200.424 



Subtotal 



441.625 



263.317 



704.942 



^Special Activity Generators 



***Universitv of Florida 


108.201 




108.201 


Santa Fe Community Coll. 




39.420 


39.420 


Gainesyiile Reg. Airport 


6.672 




6.672 


Subtotal 


114.873 


39.420 


154.293 


Total Daily Person Trips 


556.498 


302.737 


859.235 



Notes: 



-Special activity generators were identified in the Gainesville Urbanized Area Transportation 
Study as "major activity generators that have a rate of trip activity' significantly greater or less 
than that which is estimated by using the standard daily person trip rate equations." 



— The number of daily person trips estimated for the University of Florida is based on an 
enrollment cap of 36.000 students. 



Source: 



Numbers do not alwavs total due to rounding error. 

Socioeconomic data is from the Gainesville Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. 
1988. Trip Generation model is from Mr. John Harris. Florida Department of Transportation 
Regional Coordinator. July 21 . 1986. Department of Community Development Staff 
Calculations. March 1990. 



73 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



If daily person trips are assumed to increase a constant amount each year, trips for 1989 would 
equal 716.330. Table 10 shows that ridership for 1989 was 1.286.739. or about 4.219 per day. 
This is approximately 0.6 percent of the estimated daily person trips for that year. If transit 
ridership remains 0.6 percent of total daily person-trips, the average daily ridership in the year 
2000 will be 5.155. Increasing ridership to the 1 percent level by 2000 would result in a daily 
average of 8.592. At this time the RTS main bus system has adequate weekday capacity to 
accommodate 15.925 person-trips, or approximately 1.85 percent of the projected year 2000 total 
daily person-trips. 

In 1985 the GUA MTPO adopted a long range modal split goal of 5% transit for the year 2005 
(MTPO: March 1986). This goal was to be met incrementally as presented in Table 34. This g oal 
is being reviewed by the MTPO at this time. The goal for 1990 was 1.02 percent. The preceding 
paragraph shows that, while the modal split has not reached 1.02 percent for transit, the existing 
RTS system can accommodate this level of ridership. The existing RTS system could also 
accommodate the 1995 goal of 1.73 percent, particularly when one considers the 6 excess buses 
available for service expansion. 

Additional buses would be needed to accommodate the 2.93 percent of year 2000 person trips 
(25.175). If the existing system can accommodate 15.925 person-trips a day (or 724 trips for each 
of 22 buses), it is estimated that the 6 excess buses could accommodate an additional 4.343 person 
trips. This would leave 4.907 person trips unaccommodated. An additional 8 buses (including the 
20 percent bacioip) would be required for these person-trips. Realistically, more than 8 buses 
would probably be required to accommodate peaks in ridership throughout the day. The City 
would also have to identify sources of operating funds. 

It would be inapropriate to establish this service level as a goal until efforts to increase transit 
ridership between now and 1995 are evaluated. Instead, the City of Gainesville should continue to 
provide a system which can accommodate at least 1 .75 percent of all daily person-trips, as 
estimated by the MTPO. until 1997. During this time, efforts will be made to encourage increased 
transit ridership. In 1996 system capacity will be re-evaluated. 

TABLE 34: Gainesville Urban Area MTPO 

IvOng Range Transit Ridership Goals 

Year Percent Transit 

1990 LQ2 

1995 L72 

2000 im 

2£m IQQ 

SOURCE: MTPO:March 1986 

The distribution of trips is expected to change by the year 2000 as development intensifies in some 
areas and levels or declines in others. Changes in the distribution of trips will have implications 
for the configuration of routes in the future. Although the overall capacity of the RTS system is 
adequate to handle trips in the year 2000. additional capacity may be required in particular areas. 
In 1985. 78 percent of all main bus trips were in the City of Gainesville. By the year 2(X)0 this 
percentage is expected to decline to 65 percent. The largest single trip generator either year is the 
University of Florida with 16 percent of all trips in 1985 and a projected 13 percent in the year 
2000. 



74 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Rep)ort 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Bicycle Needs 



The 1993-97 TIP identified the following independent bicycle priorities as needed in the urban 
area shown in Table 35 and Map 35. Bike lanes or wide curb lanes are planned as an integral part 
of each road construction project. Therefore many projects that would be desirable are not listed 
below because they will be included as part of a road widening or resurfacing project. 

TABLE 35: Bicycle Project Priorities for Gainesville Urbanized Area 



Priority 
Number 


Road 
Segment 


From 


To 


Type of 
Improvement 


Implementing 
Agency 


1 


W. 75ih St. 


Archer Rd./SR24 


University 
AV./SR26 


Bicycle lanes 


County 


2 


SW 2nd AV./SR 
26A 


Newberry 
Rd./SR26 


University 
AV./SR26 


Bicycle lanes 


State 


3 


Newberry 
Rd./SR 26 


Interstate 75 


N.W. 8th Av. 


Bicvcle lanes 


State 


4 


W. University 
Av./SR 26 


N.W. 23rd St. 


North/South Dr. 


Bicycle lanes 


State 


5 


N. Main St. 


N. 8ih Av. 


N. 16th Av. 


Bicvcle lanes 


County 


6 


N.W. 23rd Av. 


Interstate 75 


N.W. 55th St. 


Bicvcle lanes 


County 


7 


N.W. 53rd Av. 


U.S. 441 


Waldo Rd. 


Bicycle lanes 


County 


8 


N.E. 16th Av. 


Main St. 


Waldo Rd. 


Bicycle lanes 


County 


9 


S.E. 15lh St. 


S.E. 41st Av. 


S.E. 14th Av. 


Bicycle lanes 


County 


10 


Milihopper Rd. 


The Hammock 


N.W. 43rd St. 


Bicvcle lanes 


County 



SOURCE: North Central Rorida Regional Planning Council, 1993-1997 Transportation Improvement 
Program, Sept. 1992. 

A bicycle crossing on Archer Road in the vicinity of S.W. 16th Avenue has been studied. 
Recominendations for crossing improvements and/or reahgnment of the S.W. 16th Avenue and 
Archer Road intersection may be eligible for inclusion in the TIP by amendment because of the 
hazardous conditions that are created by large number of cyclists crossing in this area. 

Pedestrian Needs 

The MTPO has identified needed sidewalk projects in the 1993-97 Transportation Improvement 
Program (see Map 36, Table 36). Many of these projects are needed to complete sidewalks that are 
discontinuous, or where sidewalks only serve one side of the street. Additionally, new sidewalks 
are needed to serve schools which are newly built or planned for construction in the next five 
years. Sidewalk improvements must have a federal functional classification of arterial or collector 
to be eligible for federal funding under ISTEA. 



75 





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77 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



TABLE 36: Need Sidewalk Projects Within City Limits 



PROJECT 
DESCRIPTION 


From 


To 


TYPE WORK 


FUNDING 
SOURCE 












Archer Rd./SR 24 


Newell Dr. 


S.W. 13th St./ 
US441 


Sidewalk, South 
side 


Federal 
Stale 


S. 13lh St./US 441 


S.W. 16lh 
AV./SR226 


S.W. 14th Av. 


Sidewalk, West side 


Federal 
State 


N. Main St. 


N. 8th Av. 


N. 23rd Av. 


Sidewalk, West side 


FedCTal 
State 


N.W. 41st St./28th 
Lane 


N.W. 16lh Blvd. 


N.W. 43rd St. 


Sidewalk, both sides 


City 


S.E. 16th Av. 


Main St. 


Williston Rd. 


Sidewalk, both sides 


Inderal 
State 


Waldo Rd. 


N.E 23rd Av. 


N.E. 39th Av. 


Sidewalks, West 
side 


Federal 
State 


S.W. 20lh Av. 


S.W. 75lh St. 


S.W. 34lh St. 


Sidewalk, both sides 


Federal 

State 

Local 


Depot Av. 


S.W. lllh St. 


S. Main St. 


Sidewalks, Asphalt 
Path, both sides 


Federal 

State 

Local 


N. 34th St. 


N.W. 39th Av. 


N.W. Indusuial 
Park 


Sidewalk, West side 


Federal 
State 


S.W. 2nd Av./ 
SR26A 


Firestation 


University Av./ 
SR 26 


Sidewalk, North 
side 


Federal 
State 


S.W. 62nd St. 


S.W. 20lh Av. 


Newberry Rd./ 
SR26 


Sidewalk, West side 


Federal 

State 

Local 


W. 13th Sl/US 441 


S.W. 14th Drive 


N.W. 8th Av. 


Sidewalk ramps, 
both sides 


Federal 
State 


SR26AJniversity Av. 


W. 22nd Sl 


E. 9th St. 


Sidewalk ramps, 
both sides 


Federal 
State 


S.W. 13th St./ 
US 441 


Willision Rd./ 

US 441 


S. W. 14th Av. 


Sidewalks, both 
sides 


Federal 
State 


N.W. 6lh St. 


University Av./ 
SR26 


N.W. 8th Av. 


Sidewalk, both sides 


P^ederal 

State 

Local 


N.W. 53rd Av. 


N.W. 43rd St. 


Waldo Rd./SR24 


Sidewalk, both sides 


Federal 

State 

Local 


N. lOlh Av. 


N.W. 6th St.SR20 


Waldo Rd./SR24 


Sidewalk, both sides 


Local 


University Av./SR26 


Fircsialion 


W. 36lh St. 


Sidewalk, both sides 


Federal 
State 


N.W. 6lh St./SR20 


End of Curb and 
Gutter 


U.S. 441 


Sidewalk, West Side 


Federal 
State 



SOURCE: North Florida Regional Planning Council. 1993 - 1997 Transportation Improvement Program, Sept. 
1992. (r*rojects outside City limits not listed.) 



78 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

Transportation Strategies 

Walking 

Cun-ently, pedestrian activity in the City is more likely to have been initiated for exercise or leisure 
than to accomplish a utilitarian trip. Low pedestrian activity is direcdy related to low density, 
homogeneous land use. Pedestrian trips are most feasible when destinations are within 1/4 to 1/2 
mile from home or work. In contrast, much of Gainesville is suburban in character, with a 
walkers destination usually exceeding 1/2 mile in distance. Pedestrians in Gainesville face several 
additional obstacles: buildings distanced fi-om the street and nearby buildings by large parking 
lots, streets that are uncomfortable for the pedestrian because there is a lack of shade trees, 
inadequate sidewalk width or inadequate separation from the street, traffic volumes that are too 
high, crosswalk distances that are too long, too many driveways crossing the sidewalk and poor 
pedestrian Ughting. Redevelopment of a vibrant city core will fail unless these pedestrian obstacles 
are corrected. . Improved pedestrian activity has been shown to be a key factor in revitalizing 
existing commercial areas and older neighborhoods. Most people will only choose walking over 
driving if they have attractive, safe areas to walk; areas that provide convenient access to work, 
school, shopping, parks and nearby neighborhoods. 

In addition to the several citywide sidewalk projects listed previously, the City has identified two 
major projects to increase pedestrian activity. The first project is the development of the Greenway 
System. This system will eventually contain 23 miles of trails throughout the city, using creeks 
and abandoned trail corridors as focal points. Initially, greenways will most likely attract users as 
a result of their recreational attractiveness. Over time, however, the ability of the Greenway 
System to connect neighborhoods and activity centers in new ways will enable large numbers of 
people to make greenway trips for shopping, leisure activities, and commuting to work or school. 
One of the primary benefits will be to get city residents out of their cars and into an environment 
where they can discover the pleasures of walking. 

The second project is redevelopment of the central city area. Activities on the part of the City 
include a design plan for the College Park area and for the Central City Core. This include the 
design plan for the downtown by the Downtown Redevelopment Agency and additional work by 
the City to integrate this planning for the central business district with the larger downtown area 
that extends to the University of Florida. Pedestrian activity is a key feature in any solution to the 
present separation between the central business district and the University. In recent years 
improved streetscaping and downtown development have improved the central business district. 
Curtent plans will extend these improvements along University Avenue to W. 3rd Street and North 
along Main Street to N. 4th Avenue. Improvement of pedestrian facilities along University Avenue 
and W. 13th Street are needed to truly connect the University with the central business district and 
with neighborhoods that can provide housing to students, faculty and staff Historically, these 
roadways have been seen only as primary auto commuter routes and has received little attention as 
pedestrian routes. As auto routes they have reached capacity. Improvements to capacity have 
traditionally meant construction of additional travel lanes. The 1991 Comprehensive Plan, Traffic 
Circulation Data and Analysis Report found that construction of wider roadways would be 
detrimental to the character of the area and that further widening of the roadways through this part 
of the city could lead to less pedestrian and bicycle activity. Instead of additional travel lanes, 
transportation planning is now focused on the need to develop multi-modal routes. "Multi-modal" 
means that the pedestrian, transit users and bicyclist are considered equal to the single occupant 
auto in the allocation of right-of-way. University Avenue, in particular, has significant multi- 
modal opportunities. The College Park Plan has already identified a serious deficiency in sidewalk 
widths and streetscaping along the north side of University Avenue. Wider sidewalk space is 
clearly needed. A reallocation of right-of-way space could involve the redesign of University 



79 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

Avenue as a two- lane facility from North-South Drive to the Matheson Historic Museum. Such a 
redesign would accommodate cyclists in wide travel lanes, and would involve the introduction of 
traffic calming devices to slow traffic through this corridor. Enhancement of University Avenue as 
a pedestrian corridor would also link the City's two greenways. The Matheson Museum located 
on East University Avenue is the focal point of the Sweetwater Branch Greenway. The Hogtown 
Greenway connects with University Avenue just west of W. 34th Street, at the west side of the UP 
Campus. A greenway connector could also be established through the UF campus. Pedestrian 
improvements throughout this area, with special treatment of University Avenue from North- 
South Drive east to the Matheson Center, would tie the entire pedestrian system together at the city 
center. 

What will become of the traffic now using University Avenue? Many people who could walk, but 
now drive, may fmd that they will enjoy using alternate travel modes. Additionally, the 
improvements made to University Avenue will attract more students, faculty and staff to make 
more convenient housing choices, thus increasing the number of trips that can be made by 
pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users. Also some of the traffic will be re-routed through town 
on parallel routes. For example, the planned widening of Depot Avenue and extension of Hull 
Road westward to make an improved connection with the campus at S.W. 34th Street and recent 
improvements to N.W. 39th Avenue will provide good access across the city. University Avenue 
is pan of a grid street system on the north side of campus, so access to the area from the nonh 
would continue as it has been. Traffic circles may be installed to improve the intersections, thus 
maximizing traffic flow while minimizing conflict p)oints. 

The design of pedestrian features is essential. Landscaped strips between the on-street parking and 
pedestrians should accommodate the necessary street furniture, lighting fixtures, bus shelters and 
traffic control devices. Design standards are needed to assure that sidewalk space throughout the 
city is not compromised by the inappropriate location of poles, signs and traffic control devices, 
and that the widtii of sidewalk is appropriate to the intended capacity. Pedestrians, especially the 
disabled, must not be forces to thread their way through a gauntiet of obstacles when using public 
sidewalks. Pedestrian activity will be encouraged when the pedestrian is made to feel welcome, 
comfortable, and secure and when destinations are at a convenient distance. 

Biking 

The MTPO has supported bicycle planning through its Bicycle Usage Trends Program. The 
purpose of this program is to establish a historical record of bicycle activity within the Gainesville 
Urbanized Area by collecting, monitoring and reporting bicycle activity information. The Trends 
program began in 1982. Bicycle count stations include 12-hour weekday counts (7:00 A.M. to 
7:00 P.M.), 4-hour evening counts (7:00 to 11:(X) P.M.) and 12-hour weekend counts. Generally, 
bicycle volume increases at count locations in close proximity to the University of Florida. These 
locations represent seventy percent of the current total 12-hour weekday volume of 13, 292 
bicycles. The highest volume, 2,484 observations, was located at N.W. 17th Street and 
University Avenue. The lowest volume, 52 observations was located at S.W. 34th Street and 
Williston Rd. Bicycle volume is fairly constant after 8:00 A.M at the 12-hour weekday count 
stations (Map 37), with peak volumes observed between 4:00 and 5:(X) P.M. Peak hour 
observations were 1,330 bikes, representing ten percent of the total 12-hour weekday volumes. 
Seventy-four percent of the cyclists were observed traveling consistent with morning and afternoon 
peak directions. (NCFRPC: 1989 Bicycle Usage Trends Program, May 1989.) 

The City has dedicated a full-time planning position in the Traffic Engineering Division to the 
position of Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator. That position promotes bicycle safety, school trip 



80 



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August, 1993 

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safety, pedestrian planning and greenway planning. The MTPO receives advice on bicycle 
planning issues from the Urban Area Bicycle Advisory Board (UABAB). 

The Bicycle Coordinator is working with each school in the city to identify home-to-school 
pedestrian and bicycle routes and to coordinate parent monitoring of these routes. This project is 
intended to reduce the number of auto trips for school drop off by increased awareness of safety 
issues on the part of children, parents and school administration. At present, the large number of 
auto trips associated with school drop off presents a safety hazard for the children who do bike or 
walk to school. 

Design and program strategies to encourage increased bicycling should address the following: on- 
street bike lane discontinuities; lack of secure, convenient parking at locations developed prior to 
1982; hazards such as sewer grates, debris, rough pavement; high posted speed limits; narrow 
traffic lanes; ever increasing number of driveways; traffic signals which are designed to change 
when traffic is detected, but do not detect bicycle traffic and the lack of showers and bicycle 
lockers at destinations. 



Parking 

The largest parking demand in the City is at the University of Rorida. Parking at UF is generally 
by permit, except that there are 80 metered space and 580 paid visitor spaces at the Health Center 
and an additional 250 metered spaces on the remainder of campus. Parking for commuting 
freshmen and sophomores is limited to the park and ride lot at Hull Road. Freshmen and 
Sophomores living on campus are limited to lots west of North-South Drive and the storage lots at 
the commuter lot, south of Museum Road. Juniors, seniors and graduate students living on 
campus are restricted to residence hall parking. The total number of parking spaces available on 
campus was 18,385 in 1992, (up 825 since 1990). In January 1993, 26,808 parking decals were 
sold (up 408 since 1990). A parking decal program is offered which discounts the cost of the 
decal by 67 percent and guarantees a parking space if three or more staff members are transported. 
Parking restrictions are enforced by fines, suspension of parking privileges and impoundment of 
vehicles. 

Parking pressures on neighborhoods near the University resulted in the need for a neighborhood 
parking decal program, which was initiated in the early 1980's and which regulates parking on 
neighborhood streets surrounding the University weekdays until 4:30 P.M. Under this program, 
residents in these areas may buy an on-street parking decal for $10 per year. This program has 
been effective in limiting commuter traffic impacts on these neighborhoods. 

In addition, the City operates a parking decal program involving the lease of downtown parking 
lots to business and governmental agencies. Approximately 500 parking spaces are leased through 
this program. The price of parking varies depending on the desirability of the location. Most lots 
are priced at $90 for six months. Some lots are priced at $30 per month. Individuals, 
governmental agencies and businesses purchase these spaces for commuter parking purposes. A 
decal must be displayed inside the vehicle. The primary purpose of this program is to hmit the 
expenses associated with operating coin-operated parking meters. A privately operated 4(X) space 
garage is also available in the southeast quadrant of the central business district. 

Increasingly, parking garages are necessary to meet the parking demand of larger development 
projects. While parking garages accommodate the propensity for the individual to make single- 
occupancy car trips, they do begin to change the convenience of door-to-door parking, and 



82 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

generally are expensive enough that either the individual or the business/institution are more aware 
of the large financial, social and environmental costs associated with parking. 

Transportation Management Systems 

Si gnal Ti ming Studies 

DOT has funded a series of system timing studies and implementation of improved timing systems 
within the City. System timing has been completed on W. 13th StreetAJS 441 from N.W. 29th 
Road south to Archer Road and on Newberry Road/SR26 from Tower Road to N.W. 8th Avenue. 
Additional work is in progress on N. Waldo Road and on W. 6th Street 

Studv of Parallel lan es along Newberrv Road 

FDOT examined the use of number of alternatives for adding additional lanes to SR26/Newberry 
Road from 1-75 to N. W. 8th Avenue. The study indicated that the addition of lanes in this area 
was cost prohibitive. Alternatives studied included parallel service drives, and grade separation. 
The results of this study have contributed to increased awareness that multi-modal strategies are 
needed to improve this corridor. 

Vehicle Detector Data Collection Project-Permanent Traffic Count Stations 

The City of Gainesville, the University of Florida, Alachua County PubUc Works and FDOT are 
working together on a project to utilize the Gainesville Traffic Signal System (GTSS) to obtain 
traffic data necessary for several different projects in the GUA. These projects include access 
management studies, comprehensive plan information, Artplan information to determine LOS; and 
possibly to run the GTSS in a traffic responsive mode. This project will include the upgrading of 
existing and installation of new Permanent Traffic Count Stations within Sub-systems of the 
GTSS. (Letter from Brian Kanely, City Traffic Engineer to Ms. Joye [Gable] Brown, FDOT 
Regional Planning Administrator, February 7, 1992.) 

Transportation Demand Management 

Transportation Demand Management is a strategy which involves that partnership of employers 
and local government in efforts to reduce peak-hour single occupant auto trips. A combination of 
strategies by TDMA can include modification of work schedules; flexible work hours; 
telecommuting; monetary incentives for van pooling, use of public transit, bicycling, and walking; 
the institution of shuttie services; park and ride services; and monetary disincentives for use of 
company parking facilities. 

The MTPO initiated an effort to establish transportation demand management by creating the 
Transportation Demand Management Task Force in 1992. This Task Force is composed of 
representatives from the City and County, FDOT, the University of Florida, Shands Hospital, 
Veterans Administration, the Chamber of Commerce and the Regional Planning Council. The 
Task Force has been assisted by the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR). Funding 
is available through the FDOT for certain expenses in the first three years of operation for 
Transportation Demand Management Associations (TDMA). Currentiy the Task Force is 
reviewing the bylaws and activities of other TDMAs. The University of Rorida, Shands Hospital 
and the Veterans Administration are spearheading efforts to create a TDMA serving Gainesville. 
Boundaries of the organizations service area are being considered that are consistent with areas 
which were included in the Transportation Concurrency Management Area discussed below. 



83 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Transportation Concurrency Management Area 

Definition 

A Transportation Concurrency Management Area (TCMA) is a geographically compact area 
designated in a local comprehensive plan where intensive development exists or is planned in a 
manner that will ensure an adequate level of mobility and further the achievement of identified 
important state planning goals and policies, including discouraging the proliferation of urban 
sprawl, encouraging the revitalization of existing downtowns or designated redevelopment areas, 
protecting natural resources, protecting historic resources, maximizing the efficient use of existing 
public faciUties, and promoting pubic transit, bicycling, walking and other alternatives to the 
single-occupant automobile. 

Designated Area 

The Central City TCMA designated in this plan (Map 35 and legal description Appendix E) 
addresses areas of the City of Gainesville that are intensely developed, including the central 
business district, the University of Florida, commercial and residential areas serving the downtown 
and University and the Oaks Mall Activity Center. These areas are generally compact, and 
represent the main corridors leading to and from the University of Florida, which is the largest 
employer and trip attractor/generator in the County. Other major employers located in the TCMA 
include City, County and State governmental offices, Gainesville Regional Utilities, Alachua 
General Hospital, Santa Fe Community College Downtown Campus, the Veterans Administration 
Hospital and Shands Hospital. Included in this area are the city's three historic districts, areas 
designated for redevelopment, and most of the Enterprise Zone. Much of the land area within the 
TCMA is developed. Remaining undeveloped acreage has been passed over as a result of site 
constraints, or because it has not previously been offered for development. Infill development of 
passed over parcels and redevelopment of existing under-utilized parcels is the expected 
development pattern for the TCMA. 

Primary Reasons to Implement TCMA 

The primary reasons for implementing the TCMA in Gainesville are listed below. 

1 . Revitalization of the urban center is essential to the health of the entire city and urban area. 
Research shows that the entire urban area is economically stronger when the central city is 
healthy. 

2. The traffic patterns in Gainesville are heavily concentrated around the downtown and 
University of Florida. 

3. A multi-modal solution to future traffic congestion is needed due to the inability to solve 
transportation needs by the addition of travel lanes. 

4. The special needs population comprises 34 percent of Alachua County's population and 
therefore, demands that multi-modal systems be maintained. 

5. There is a need to redevelop areas within the Central City TCMA that could appear to be in 
conflict with concurrency requirements unless a resolution of these issues is adopted 
through this TCMA. 

6. The TCMA promotes infill development and discourages urban sprawl. 



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Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



7 . Redevelopment and infill development in the Central City Core minimizes the public costs 
associated with growth because public infrastructure and pubhc services are already 
existing in these areas. 

The adoption of the TCMA provides a method to balance these issues and adopt clear goals, 
objectives and policies which will shape the review process for land use, housing and 
transportation decisions. 

Condition of Existin g Roadway System 

The roadway segments within the TCMA that do not currently meet statewide minimum level of 
service standards include segments of Newberry Road, West University Ave., N.W. 34th St. and 
S.W. 13th Street. They are indicated in Table 37 as those roads having 1991 Levels of Service of 
'E' and 'F'. LOS 'D' is the statewide minimum acceptable LOS for Two-way State Anerials. 
When looking at these roadway facilities in comparison to the total network serving the City, these 
level of service deficiencies are put in perspective. Ninty-two percent of state roadway lane miles 
within the city comply with statewide standards. Table 38 shows that 8 1 percent of the state 
roadway lane miles in the Central City TCMA comply with statewide standards, and that 100% of 
the deficient lane miles are within the TCMA. 

TABLE 37: 1991 Level of Service by Lane Miles City-Wide 



Level of Service 


Number of Lane Miles 


LOS D or belter 


233.0 


LOSE 


10.4 


LOSF 


6.4 



Note: Mileage calculated by length of entire segment of all segments 

partially or wholly within the city. 

SOURCE: City of Gainesville Department of Community Development. 

See Appendix D for further detail. 



TABLE 38: 1991 Level of Service by Lane Miles of Roadway 
Segments included in the Central City TCMA 



Level of Service 


Number of Lane Miles 


LOS D or better 


89.4 


LOSE 


10.4 


LOS F 


6.4 



Note: Mileage calculated by length of entire segment of all segments 

partially or wholly within the TCMA. 

SOURCE: City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development, 1993. 

TCMA Levels of Service 

Table 39 shows all roadway segments in the TCMA and also indicates the 1991 level of service, 
expected future level of service and the level of service to be implemented in the TCMA. For many 
roadways no reduction in the statewide minimum standards is sought. These roadways are shown 

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88 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

to maintain a level of service 'D' for two way state arterials and a level of service 'C for roadways 
on the Intrastate system. For most roadways, where a reduction in the statewide standard is 
sought it is expected that LOS 'E' can be maintained. The four segments now operating below or 
at LOS E shall be maintained within 10 percent of their current service volumes. These are: 

W. 13th SL/US441 Archer Rd. to University Av. TCMA Service Volume 36,100 

Newberry Road/SR26 W. 75th St. to W. 8th Av. TCMA Service Volume 55,200 
W. University Av/SR26 North-South Dr. to W. 13th ST/ 

US441 TCMA Service Volume 33,500* 

W. 34lh St./SR121 University Av. to N.W. 16th Av. TCMA Service Volume 26,400 

*(West University Avenue between North-South Drive and University Avenue had an inconsistently low count in 
1991, compared to previous years. The City believes that if the count had been the median of the previous of three 
years it would register at LOS E. This methodology for adjusting abnormal counts in any particular year is the 
policy of the MTPO for future LOS Reports.) 

It is expected that W. 34th Street from University Avenue to N.W. 16th Avenue will show 
increased capacity in the next few years as a result of additional travel lanes constructed on N.W. 
43rd Street, but this is not expected to satisfy volumes projected in tiie 2015 GUATS Plan. A 
PD&E study of this facility is scheduled for FY 92-93 

Strategies for Implementation of TCMA Goals 

Addressing mobility needs within the TCMA requires a strategy targeted to specific areas. Specific 
analysis of each corridor will enable decisions to be made about appropriate transit enhancements, 
transportation system management strategies, the viability of high-occupancy vehicle lanes, and 
appropriate locations for park and ride facilities. Land use and housing needs differ throughout the 
TCMA. For this reason the TCMA should be considered to have three sub-areas, the sub-areas 
are shown on Map 39. 

1 . Downtown/University of Florida 

2. North 13th Street 
3 Newberry Road 

Discussion of Sub- Area Character 

Downtown/University 

The downtown and university-oriented sub-area identifies the area within the TCMA which 
has the highest densities and the most urban character. This area currentiy has the highest 
bicycle usage and is the hub of the mass transit system. In-street bicycle facilities and quiet 
neighborhood streets organized in a grid system promote cycling and pedestrian modes. 
Additional pedestrian improvements are needed in the residential neighborhoods 
surtounding UF and Santa Fe Community College Downtown Campus. The Future Land 
Use Map has designated high density residential and mixed use development for the 
majority of this sub-area. It is expected that there will be continued concentration of 
governmental services and significant growth in ancillary medical facihties serving Shands 
Hospital, the Veterans Administration Hospital and Alachua General Hospital. New multi- 
family development in this sub-area should provide housing both for students and 
employees in this sub-area. A key feature of this sub-area is the emphasis on urban 
activity. The Downtown Urban Design and Market Study and The College Park Special 
Area Plan identifies certain design requirements that are intended to enhance the mixed use 
character and encourage the street life that is essential to creating a vibrant urban space. A 



89 



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90 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

special area plan is also being prepared for the area from the central business district to the 
UF campus. A primary concern in this area is to restructure University Avenue as a 
pedestrian and bicycle facility. 

Although high density housing is permitted in areas adjacent to the UF campus, there will 
remain a commuting traffic demand. The MTPO is preparing for the adoption of a 
Transportation Demand Management Association (TDMA) to serve this sub-area. It is 
expected that a TDMA can begin operation in late 1993. The first priority of such an 
organization will be to identify potential participants, identify the transportation needs of 
participating entities, and design a transponation program to meet the identified needs. The 
Rorida Department of Transportation has funding available for implementation costs for the 
first three years of operation. Experience of other TDMAs indicates that the organization 
fees can cover the cost of services once the association has developed a service program for 
its members. The University of Florida and S hands Hospital draw a large number of 
employees from surrounding counties. It is hoped that programs can be developed to 
reduce the number of such commuters arriving by single occupancy vehicles. 

North 1 3th Street 

The North 13th Street area identifies an area which is poised to provide many of the 
services and consumer needs of the downtown-university sub-area. This area has been a 
concern because many of the commercial structures were underutilized. Within the last 
four years new investment, such as Kash and Karry, Sam's Club, Office Depot, and K- 
Mart, has begun to revitalize this activity center. The mixed use land use designation 
allows the introduction of additional housing opportunities when sites within this area are 
redeveloped and a freer reuse of structures for office, commercial and light fabrication uses 
is established. This activity center is surrounded by a mixture of medium density and 
single-family housing with the potential for improved pedestrian activity. Some new 
development has already resulted in the closing of poorly located driveways and improved 
landscaping along sidewalks. Development strategies in this area should be directed to 
improvements in the operation of N.W. 13th Street through limitation of driveways, joint 
access and improved transit connections. 

This sub-area includes residential areas extending westward to N.W. 34th Street which are 
within bicycling distance of campus. These areas are strong urban neighborhoods which 
are not intended to be disrupted by increasing flows of traffic toward the urban core. A 
number of schools and parks are existing in this area that would be benefited by enhanced 
sidewalk facilities and traffic calming strategies. The Greenway will provide increased 
north to south connections in this sub-area. Roadways throughout this area are 
inappropriate for additional travel lanes. 

Newberry Road 

The third area is the Newberry Road area from N.W. 34th St. to 1-75. This corridor has 
the highest development potential and presents the most serious transportation challenges. 
The nature of this area is much more auto dependent. This sub-area includes a regional 
mall and does not relate to surrounding residential areas in the way that other commercial 
areas within the TCMA do. The North Rorida Regional Medical Center and associated 
medical office park is also accessed by Newberry Road and is adjacent to the sub-area, 
outside of city limits. The highest ridership of the main bus system is the route serving the 
Oaks Mall. Transportation strategies within this corridor will be determined as a result of 
the corridor studies. The present land use designation for mixed use development of 
approximately 50 acres of undeveloped land along the corridor provides the potential for 
significant additional work-related trips. Current zoning and special area plan overlays are 



91 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

designed to direct the impacts of development of this land to a limited number of points on 
Newberry Road and the extension of N.W. 43rd Street. It is hoped that the number of 
work-trips along the corridor will increase and become sufficient to allow the mass transit 
headways in this corridor to be reduced. 

Improvements are needed throughout this area to enhance pedestrian activity. While the 
area is intended to serve the commercial needs of the interstate highway, the conflict 
between cars and pedestrians could be greatly improved. The current {pedestrian facilities 
are inadequate. There is little or no shading, msny intervening driveways, and 
development often does not connect to the sidewalk. This area is designed to attract 
tourists. Hotel guests are often desirous of an opportunity to get out of their vehicles to 
access restaurants, entertainment and shopping. Improved pedestrian facihties would also 
benefit the large number of office and medical personnel working in this activity center. 
Roadway service volumes in this area are over the maximum service volume allowable at 
LOSD. 



Regulatory Strategies for the TCMA 

(1) Drive-through facilities and motor fuel dispensing facilities attract a proportionately 
larger number of vehicle tuming movements than other types of uses. These facilities are 
inherentiy auto-oriented, and by their nature discourage the use of alternate modes of 
transportation. The development of drive-though facilities and motor fuel dispensing 
facilities should be discouraged within the TCMA, except in areas serving interstate 
exchanges. These facilities should be permitted only by special use permit and new and 
expanded drive-throughs should not be permitted in the DowntownAJniversity Sub Area. 

In consideration of any special use the following criteria should be used: Drive-through 
facilities, motor fuel dispensing facilities with retail, or restaurant use should provide a 
service window oriented to pedestrians and bicycle access, that can be reached safely from 
public right-of-way. Drive-through eating places should provide, at a minimum, an 
outdoor eating area for non-motorized customers. The design for drive-through facilities 
should minimize access points on the state highway system, and should be incorporated in 
the internal circulation of surrounding development. Drive -through facihties should not be 
permitted in neighborhood areas not adjacent to an arterial or collector roadway. A 
minimum separation of 400 feet from center line to center line of the ingress to the drive- 
through shall be required for any drive through use with access to the state highway 
system, unless such access is hmited right turn in and out by driveway design or raised 
medians or accessed internally from a shopping center or mixed use development. 

(2) Parking and concurrency requirements should be lowered in the 
Downtown/University Sub-area. Many of the uses in this sub-area serve clients who can 
reasonably be expected to be users of alternate modes of transportation. Land development 
regulations should be amended to require fewer on-site parking spaces for both business 
and residential uses. This must be coupled with strict enforcement of the neighborhood 
parking decal program. 



92 



Transportation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 



Financial Feasibility 

The long term strategies discussed above have a number of funding sources. 

(1) Funding for acquisition of the first seven miles of Hogtown Creek greenway 
properties is pending acceptance of the management plan by the Rorida Communities 
Trust. Additional funding for this and other city greenways may be available through 
ISTEA. In order for greenway development to become eligible for ISTEA funding the 
greenways must become part of the MTPO planning process and be placed in the 5-year 
Transportation Plan. 

(2) ISTEA enhancement dollars are also available for other pedestrian and bicycle 
improvements. Many of the improvements needed to complete the sidewalk system have 
been identified and can be scheduled as funds become available. The concepts proposed 
for University Avenue would need to be presented through the MTPO planning process 
and placed in the 5-year Transportation Plan. 

(3) The 1991 Mass Transit Data and Analysis Report identified that the bus system 
currently has capacity to serve 175 percent of its current demand. Improvements in 
ridership are not expected to be so dramatic as to eliminate that excess capacity within the 
next five years. 

(4) Sidewalk improvements and maintenance on City streets is the responsibility of the 
City. The City will need to reconsider its present allocation of dollars in this area. 

(5) The Transportation Demand Management Association is eligible to receive funding 
from FDOT to cover start-up costs for the first three years. A fifty percent local match, 
which can include in-kind, services is required. This contribution is spread among the 
members of the TDMA. Experience of other TDMAs is that membership fees are able to 
cover expenses after the services begin to be offered. 

(6) The 5-Year Schedule of Capital Improvements shows all capital expenditures which 
are related to improvements or changes in the level of service standards adopted in this 
plan. Capital expenditures for regular maintenance, updating equipment which does not 
result in a change of level of service standards, such as replacing older buses with lift- 
equipped buses, are not shown. Roadway improvements to city and county roadways not 
currently shown as part of the GUATS network are not shown. In some cases these 
roadways may later become part of the network. 

Maintenance of Level of Service Standards 

Level of service standards on the Intrastate Highway System are not compromised by the adoption 
of the TCMA and will be maintained at LOS C. As shown previously most state roadways 
through the Gainesville Urban Area will be maintained at LOS D. Traffic projections for year 2001 
show most roadways within these parameters (see appendix C). The roadways within the TCMA 
serve the University and the Central Business District. Alternate routes are available for trips 
through the urban area. In addition to tiie Intrastate Highway (Hawthorne Rd. SR20 and Williston 
Road SR331 to Interstate 75) running east to west through the city, there is N.W. 39th Avenue, 
SR222 also accessed on the west by 1-75 and connecting to SR24 and SR26 on the east side of 
Gainesville. South to North routes through the city include Main St., SR329 and N.W.6th Street, 



93 



Transponation Mobility Data and Analysis Repon 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

SR20. The City would recommend that SR26 be designated as N.W. 39th Avenue, and that 
SR26A be designated as University Avenue. By changing these designations, persons using 
SR26 with no destination in Gainesville would be routed away from the Central City. The 
University is also served by SR24, which in the future should be redirected to Depot Avenue, and 
should be the primary east-west route serving the Central City. 

Improvements planned as a result of the 2015 Gainesville Urban Area Transit Suidy are directed 
toward improving facilities around the University. Improvements that are scheduled for study 
within the 5-year TIP (FY 93-97) include a four-lane facility to replace Depot Avenue and connect 
more directly with Archer Road and with improved connections to Williston Road. A PD&E 
study (FY 93-97) of additional lanes is scheduled for W. 6th Street from S.W. 4th Avenue to 
N.W. 8th Avenue. It has been noted that W. 6th Street is underutilized most likely because the 
two-lane section between S.W. 4th Avenue and N.W. 8th Avenue is perceived to be inadequate. 
Both of these improvements are expected to alleviate pressure on S.W. 13th Street between Archer 
Road and University Avenue. The S.W. 20th Avenue corridor study involves consideration of a 
parallel route to S.W. 20th Avenue which would align with Hull Road and possibly connect to 
S.W. 16th Avenue. These improvements, if they are found to be feasible, are expected to 
improve access to the DowntownAJniversity Sub-area. They will also provide improved in-street 
bicycle facilities. As noted previously, the Transportation Demand Management Task Force is 
studying the potential for improved transit services. Potentially, funding for these improvements 
can be generated by the TDM association. One incentive that other TDMA's have found which 
induces auto users to change to mass transit facilities has been the guaranteed ride home program. 
This program provides assurance to employees that they can get home to deal with family 
emergencies. 

The maintenance of level of service within the TCMA in the next five years will be very difficult. 
Additional trips entering the area are not being generated by development activity in the City. Most 
projects proposed in this area since concurrency has been implemented have had a negligible affect 
on the system because they are, for the most part, reuse of existing structures. Steps that will 
begin to have an effect by 1996 include: 

1 . The introduction of the TDMA, which will probably not be fully underway for at 
least three years; 

2 . The proposed federal energy tax, which may dampen the propensity to make auto 
trips. 

3 . Reinvestment and construction of additional residential units in the residential areas 
in the downtown and surrounding campus. (Recent investment in this area has 
substantially improved the condition and appearance of multi-family units.) 

4. Increased usage of transit facilities, especially if funding can be found for improved 
service to the University, including longer hours and connections to local attractors 
for campus residents. 

Intergovernmental Coordination 

Transportation planning in the Gainesville Metropolitan Area is coordinated through the 
Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization (MTPO). The MTPO is composed of the five 
city and five county commissioners sitting together. The Nonh Central Honda Regional Planning 
Council provides staff for this organization. The MTPO is advised by three advisory committees 
and other committees as necessary. 

The Technical Advisory Committee is composed of staff of the Regional Planning Council, 
FDOT, city and county engineering and planning staff, Regional Transit System Director, 



94 



Transponation Mobility Data and Analysis Report 

August, 1993 

Revised January 24, 1994 

" Gainesville Regional Airport, Gainesville Regional Utilities, representatives from the State 

Department of Environmental Regulation, and the University of Florida. 

The Citizen Advisory Committee is composed of citizen appointees of the city and county. 

The Urban Area Bicycle Advisory Board is also a citizen board which provides advice on 
bicycle issues. These two committees are assisted by MTPO staff and FDOT staff. 

The Transportation Demand Management Task Force is composed of one city and one 
county commissioner, representatives from the University of Florida, Shands Hospital, the 
Veterans Administration, the Chamber of Commerce, FDOT, Rorida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, the Chamber of Commerce and the Regional Planning Council. 

The Regional Transit System is also assisted by the RTS Advisory Board which provides advice to 
the City Commission on transit issues. 

The MTPO makes all decisions on facilities receiving Federal and State funds. Additionally, there 
is coordination of the urban area transportation network through the completion every five to seven 
years, of the Gainesville Urban Area Transponation Study (GUATS). These studies have been 
performed by consulting companies in past years, but it is expected that MTPO staff, with the 
assistance of FDOT, will perform the next study. The Rorida Standard Urban Transportation 
Model Structure (FSUTMS) is utilized for these studies. The 2015 GUATS Plan completed in 
1992 is the basis of the current Cost-Feasible Plan. This plan provides the priorities for the 5 - 
Year TIP. The 5-Year TIP, published by the MTPO, provides a coordinated schedule for all 
transportation improvements, including airport, mass transit, bicycle facilities, pedestrian facilities 

i^ and city and county roadways which are components of the local transportation network but are not 

m state highways. 

The 2015 GUATS Plan will be updated as soon as possible by the MTPO. The land use and 
socio-economic data used for the 2015 plan was collected in 1985 and based on the 1980 census. 

Additional coordination in the urban area is facilitated by the fact that traffic signal management is 
conducted by the City tiiroughout the urban area under a contract with Alachua County. 

Conclusion 

The Transportation Mobility Element addresses existing conditions, system needs, level of service, 
and concurrency management strategies. The overall approach presented in this element for 
implementation throughout the city is to redesign existing development whenever possible and to 
ensure new development promotes a multi-modal transportation. All facilities should be as friendly 
as possible to pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users. Transportation systems can no longer be 
thought of as serving auto travel first and foremost. Parking facilities and other auto-oriented 
facilities, such as drive-throughs, must no longer be allowed to compromise access by other 
modes. A multi-modal transportation system is sustainable in terms of the expenditures necessary 
to maintain the transportation network, in terms of social and environmental systems, and in terms 
of the mobility of all residents. 



95 



Appendix A 



Florida Pedestrian Safety Plan 



11 



Coitttnitment 




This plan was developed by agencies and people who have 
every intent to see that this problem is solved In accepting 
this plan, we are each making financial as well as personal 
commitments. Within three years the FDOT will provide 
high levels of pedestrian related spending of state and 
federal dollars on all appropriate urban roadways. This 
commitment is for both concurrent construction, and 
independent group sidewalk development, where none have 
existed before. We will also do all we can to provide 
pedestrian safety programs and projects. Every local and 
regional government is asked to join this partnership to 
make an identical level of commitment. 

I look forward to working with you to implement this plan. 



Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee SL, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0450 

A-1 



o 



U^Deoarrment 
of Transponoton 

Federal Highway 
Admlnlstrotkjn 



F lorida Diviston Otfica 



227 N. Bronouph St. 

Room 2015 

lallanassee. Fiorioa 32301 

August 22, 1991 

IN REPLY REFER TO: HTS" FL 



Mr. Ken Morefield 
State Transportation Engineer 
Florida Department of Transportation 
Tallahassee, Florida 



Dear Mr. Morefield: ^^^ 

Subject: Florida - Simplified Procedures for Bicycle and 

Pedestrian Projects 

Our June 10, 1991, letter to Mr. Pat McCue of the Florida 
Department of Transportation (FDOT) expressed the Federal Highway 
Administrations ' s (FKWA's) strong commitment to providing safe 
accommodations for pedestrians and bicyclists on all Federal-aid 
highway projects. That letter also encouraged FDOT to identify and 
implement independent bicycle and pedestrian projects using 
Federal-aid funds. 

With some exceptions. States have not constructed many independent 
bicycle and pedestrian facilities with Federal-aid highway funds 
during the last few years. Federal-aid procedures are often 
considered too burdensome or complex for small projects, and thus 
State-only funds are used for such projects. 

Simplified procedures are available within Federal regulations for 
the administration of Federal-aid highway projects. Three means 
of simplification are: certification acceptance (which FDOT 
already uses), abbreviated plans, and project grouping. Each of 
these options is discussed in an enclosure to this letter. 

Since there is flexibility in the processing of Federal-aid 
projects, we again encourage the FDOT to develop needed independent 
bicycle and/or pedestrian projects using Federal-aid funds. We 
will be happy to assist you in any way in the development of such 
projects. 



Sincerely yours, 




J. R. Skinner 
Division Administrate: 



Enclosure 



cc: Mr. B. G. Morris, FDOT, w/encl 



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Appendix B 



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element the FLUM will be included in the Future Land Use Element. 



i 



Future Land Use Map to be Displayed 



# 



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D-1 



Appendix E 



^ 



1) 



4) 



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li^ 



Central City Transportation Concurrency Management Area 

Commence at the intersection of the EastAVest 1/2 section line of Section 12, Township 10 South, 
Range 19 East and the east Right-of-Way (a/k/a ROW) line of S.W. 34th Street as the Point-of- 
Beginning; thence run East along the south 1/2 section line to a point lying 23.52 feet west of the 
northeast comer of the southwest quarter (SW 1/4) of Section 7, Township 9 South, Range 20 
East; thence run South 21 degrees East a distance of 57.75 feet to the east line of said southwest 
quarter (SW 1/4); thence run South along said east line to its intersection with the south ROW line 
of S.W. 16th Avenue; thence run along said south ROW line of S.W. 16th Avenue to its 
intersection with a southerly extension of the west ROW line of S.W. 6th Street; thence run 
Northerly along said southerly extension and along the west ROW line of S.W. 6th Street to its 
intersection with the south ROW hne of S.W. 4th Avenue; thence run East along said south ROW 
line of S.W. and S.E. 4th Avenue and along the south ROW line of S.E. 3rd Avenue to its 
intersection with the west ROW line of S.E. 15th Street; thence run North along said west ROW 
line to its intersection with the south ROW Hne of S.E. Hawthorne Road (a/k/a State Road # 20); 
thence run Northwesterly along said south ROW line to its intersection with the north ROW line of 
East University Avenue (a/k/a State Road # 26); thence run West along said north ROW line to the 
east ROW hne of Waldo Road (a/k/a State Road # 24); thence run Northeasterly along said east 
ROW line to its intersection with the south ROW line of N.E. 3rd Avenue; thence run West along 
said south ROW line to its intersection with the west ROW line of N.E. 9th Street; thence run 
North along said west ROW line to its intersection with the north ROW hne of N.E. 8th Avenue; 
thence run West along said north ROW line and along the north ROW line of N.W. 8th Avenue to 
its intersection with the east ROW line of N.W. 12th Street; thence run North along said east ROW 
line to its intersection with the south ROW hne of N.W. 18th Avenue; thence run West along said 
south ROW hne to its intersection with the west ROW line of N.W. 12th Terrace; thence run North 
along said west ROW line to its intersection with the north ROW line of NW 19th Lane; thence run 
East 150 feet more-or-less (a/k/a MOL); thence run North 325 feet MOL; thence run East 30 feet 
MOL; thence run North 125 feet M.O.L. to its intersection with the north ROW line of N.W. 21st 
Avenue; thence run East along said north ROW line to its intersection with the west ROW line of 
NW 12th Street; thence run North along said west ROW line to its intersection with the North 
ROW hne of NW 25th Avenue; thence run east along said ROW line 690 feet MOL; thence run 
North and East along the easterly and northerly parcel lines of Parcels 1 and 2 as recorded in Minor 
Subdivision Book "1" page "72" of the Plat File as recorded with the Department of Community 
Development, City of Gainesville, Florida, to the northwest comer of Parcel 1 (being also on the 
east ROW line of N.W. 13th Street); thence run West and Northwesterly to its intersection with an 
easterly extension of the north ROW hne of N.W. 29th Road; thence run Westerly along said 
easterly extension and along the north ROW line of said N.W. 29th Road to its intersection with 
Hogtown Creek; thence run South along the centerline of said Hogtown Creek to the south ROW 
Une of N.W. 23rd Boulevard; thence run East along said ROW hne and along the south ROW line 
of N.W. 23rd Avenue to its intersection with the west ROW Une of N.W. 16th Terrace; thence run 
South along said west ROW line to its intersection with the south ROW hne of N.W. 16th Avenue; 
thence run West along said south ROW line to the west ROW line of N.W. 34th Street; thence run 
South along said west ROW hne to the north ROW hne of N.W. 8th Avenue; thence run West 
along said north ROW line to its intersection with the north ROW hne of State Road # 26; thence 
run West along said north ROW hne to its intersection with the east ROW line of Interstate 
Highway # 75 (a/k/a 1-75); thence run South along said east ROW line to its intersection with the 
north ROW line of S.W. 20th Avenue; thence run East along said north ROW hne to its 
intersection with the east ROW hne of S.W. 62nd Street; thence northerly and westerly along said 
ROW to its intersection with the east hne of Section 4, Township 10 South, Range 19 East; thence 
run north along said east section line to the south ROW hne of State Road # 26; thence run East 
along the south ROW line of State Road # 26, and the south ROW line of State Road # 26-A (a/k/a 



S.W. 2nd Avenue) to its intersection with the east ROW line of S.W. 34th Street; thence run South 
along said east ROW line to its intersection with the EastAVest 1/2 section line of Section 12, 
Township 10 South, Range 19 East, being the Point-of-Beginning, and close. Lxx:ated in the City 
of Gainesville, Florida. 



#.) 



i) 



References 



Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR). Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook. 
Florida Department of Transportation, 1992. 

City of Gainesville. City of Gainesville 1991- 2001 Comprehensive Plan, Mass Transit Data and 
A nalysis Report, 1 99 1 . 

City of Gainesville. City of Gainesville 1991- 2001 Comprehensive Plan, Traffic Circulation Data 
and A nalysis Report, 1991. 

Federal Highway Administration, National Park Service, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 
Bicycle Federation of America, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Scenic America and 
Surface Transportation Policy Project. Transportation Planning for Livable Communities, 
Conference Papers: Winter Haven Florida, April 1993. 

"Fewer Cars, Cleaner Air: Are we getting anywhere?" Governing, January 1993. 

Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). Florida Highway System Plan; Level of Service 
Standards and Guidelines Manual, 1992. 

Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). Florida Pedestrian Safety Plan, 1992. 

Morris, Marya. "New Transportation Law Benefits Planning" , ,American Planning Association 
PAS Memo, February, 1993. 

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 1991 Level of Service Report, 1993. 

Dunphy, Robert T. "Houston Takes a Businesslike Approach to Regaining Mobility" , Urban 
Land, March 1993. 

University of Florida, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Home-to-School 
Transportation Study, 1992. 

Walker, Helen M. and Lev, Joseph. Elementary Statistical Methods, New York: Holt, Rhinehart 
and Winston, 1969. 



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Chapter D 
Aviation Element 



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AVIATION 



DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



City of Gainesville 

1991 - 2001 
Comprehensive Plan 



Prepared by 

The Department of Community Development 

Comprehensive Planning Section 

November 1991 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Executive Summary 



^ 



PAGE 



Aviation Element Data and Analysis 1 

Introduction 1 

Background 1 

Existing Facilities 1 

Other Aviation and Transportation Facilities 3 

Aiiport Operations 3 

Aircraft Operations and Passengers 3 

Air Cargo 5 

Local Factors Affecting Airport Growth and Operations 6 

Population 6 

Local Economy 6 

Natural Resources 7 

Land Use 7 

Airport Noise Impacts 1 1 

Airport Clear Zones and Obstructions 1 1 

Obstructions to Local Air Traffic 12 

Traffic Circulation 12 

Future Airport Needs 12 

Future Airport Map 13 

Appendix A: Definitions A-1 

Appendix B: Tables B-1 



LIST OF TABLES AND MAPS 



Tables Title Page 

1 . Enplaned Passengers & Service Demand Activity 4 
Air Carrier (1975-1989) 

2. Enplaned Passengers & Service Demand Activity 4 
Air Commuter (1975-1989) 

3. Enplaned Passenger Demand Forecast 5 

4. General Aviations Operations Forecast 5 

5 . Total Freight and Cargo Tons ( 1 975- 1 989) 5 

6. Projected Population Growth (1985-2000) 6 

7. Workforce and Employment Trends B-1 

8. Airfield and Terminal Development B-2 



Maps Title Page 

1 . Rail and Airport Facilities 2 

2 . Natural Resources 8 

3 . Existing Land Use 9 

4 . Future Airport Facilities and Land Use Year 2003 10 

5 . Airport Clear Zones and Obstructions 14 

6. Traffic Circulation 15 



O 



AVIATION 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



The Gainesville Regional Airport is an asset to the City. It encourages industrial growth, 
facilitates trade, expands travel opportunities, and provides employment. The viability of the 
Airport directly affects the health of the community. It is therefore in the interest of the City to 
maintain an efficiendy run airport and to be able to expand faciUties when needed. 

The Aviation Data and Analysis Report examines how well the Gainesville Regional Airport 
serves the City and surrounding area and what measures are needed to ensure the Airport 
continues to provide quality service to passengers, commercial airlines and general aviation. 
The aim is to accommodate Airport growth without sacrificing any of the City's social and 
environmental concerns. To accomplish this task, the Aviation Element presents goals, 
objectives and pohcies to guide Airport operations in a manner which meets the State's 
9J-5.009 requirements and is consistent with the desires of the community. 

The report begins by covering general background information on the Airport, such as size, 
operations, facilities, and users. It looks at historical airline activity and forecasts how this 
activity will change by the year 2003. Local factors such as population, the economy, the 
natural environment, traffic circulation, and airport hazards were analyzed to see how they will 
affect Airport growth and operations. Attention also focused on airport noise and operations 
and their impact on the city and surrounding area. Lastiy, the report includes a discussion of 
future Airport capital improvement and land acquisition needs as recommended in the 
"Gainesville Regional Airpon Master Plan 1987". 

The "Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan Update 1987" and the "FAR Part 150 Study 
1986" were both prepared for the Gainesville-Alachua County Regional Airport Authority by 
CH2M Hill consultants and provided most of the source material for this element. This data 
was then updated by using the following sources: Gainesville Regional Airport authorities and 
reports, Alachua County and the 1989 Rorida Statistical Abstract.Economic Abstract 

MAJOR FINDINGS 

The following list highlights some of the major findings of the Element. 

* Economic growth of the region will continue to be moderate, fuehng the demand for air 
transportation at the Gainesville Regional Airpon through the year 2001. 

* With improvements to radar coverage and runways, and expansion of airport 
facilities such as terminals and hangars, the Airport will be able to meet this demand 
for air service. 

* All existing and future planned land uses within City boundaries are compatible 
with the Airport. 

* All incompatible land uses are within the jurisdiction of Alachua County. 



The Airport is working to eliminate conflicts with incompatible land uses by 
acquiring adjacent residential land. 

Alachua County is mitigating aircraft noise impacts by restricting incompatible land 
uses and requiring noise attenuation for residential uses within airport noise 
contours. 

Environmentally sensitive features such as Little Hatchett Creek, Murphree Well 
Field, the 100-year floodplain, wetlands and the Murphree Wellfield are located in or 
near the Airport and must be protected. 

Traffic circulation to and from the Airport is sufficient to meet existing and future 
traffic needs. 



I I 



Aviation 



> 



Aviation Data and Analysis Report 



Introduction 

The Airport serves a vital role in the City. It encourages industrial growth, facilitates trade, 
expands travel opportunities, and provides employment. The viability of the Airport 
directly affects the health of the community. It is therefore in the interest of the City to 
maintain an efficiently run airport and to be able to expand facilities when necessary. 

This element examines how well the Gainesville Regional Airport serves the City and 
surrounding area, and what measures are needed to ensure the Airport continues to provide 
quality service to passengers, commercial airlines, and general aviation. The Aiq)ort is 
analyzed for its ability to provide aviation service and its potential to do so in the future. 
This element also evaluates the impact the Airport has on the city and surrounding area. 
Goals, objectives and policies were developed to give direction to the City on matters 
affecting the Airport and to help meet the Airport's future aviation needs. 

The "Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan Update 1987" and the "FAR Part 150 Study 
1986" were both prepared for the Gainesville- Alachua County Regional Airport Authority 
by CH2M Hill consultants and provided most of the source material for this element. This 
data was then updated by using the following sources: Gainesville Regional Airport 
authorities and reports, Alachua County and the 1989 Florida Statistical Abstract.Economic 
Abstract. 

BACKGROUND 

The Gainesville Regional Airport is located in the northeast quadrant of the city (see Map 
1). The airport served as an Army base during World War 11 after which it became City 
property. The Gainesville Regional Airport was later established by the State as a 
dependent special district operated by the Gainesville-Alachua County Regional Airport 
Authority. The Authority is comprised of nine members—five from the City, three 
appointed by the Governor and one from the County. The City owns the land and 
improvements and the Authority leases and operates the facilities. 

The Airport is defined as a primary commercial service facility by the Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) and as a commercial service airport by the Florida Department of 
Transportation. The Airport also attracts a sizable number of general aviation aircraft and is 
one of several airports for general aviation in north central Florida. 

EXISTING FACILITIES 

The Airport has two active runways: Runway 10-28 and Runway 6-24. The larger 
runway. Runway 10-28, is 7,503 long and 150 feet wide, rated at 70,000 pounds, 
equipped with high intensity runway lights and a parallel taxiway on its south side. 
Runway 6-24 is 4,147 feet long and 100 feet wide, served by medium intensity runway 
lights and a parallel taxiway on its north side. This runway is rated at 30,000 pounds 
single wheel . The Airport has plans to extend and strengthen this runway to 60,000 
pounds single wheel. 

The principal terminal area facilities at the Airpon include a passenger terminal complex at 
3400 N.E. 39th Ave. on the south side and general aviation faciUties on the north side. 
The passenger terminal complex includes a passenger building and supporting airline apron 



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and automobile parking facilities. An engineering study addressing the expansion of the 
passenger terminal will be completed in late 1991. The general aviation fixed base operator 
areas include hangars and apron areas for aircraft storage and tiedown and support facilities 
located on approximately 48 acres of land. 

Other key faciUties at the Airport include an air traffic control tower and flight service 
station staffed by the FAA. The control tower is in operation from 6:45 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. 
while the flight service station is manned around the clock. 

The Airport occupies a total of about 1,642 acres of land; 1,357 acres are designated for 
aeronautical purposes such as runways, terminal facilities, and clear zones, and 285 acres 
are designated for the development of the Gainesville Regional Airport Industrial Park. 

OTHER AVIATION AND TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES 

There are no other airports located within the air traffic area and no low altitude airways 
pass within five miles of the Gainesville Regional Airport. The nearest pubhc-use airport is 
located in Keystone Heights, about 17 statute miles to the northeast , the relatively low 
amount of activity at that facility offers no constraint to operations at the Gainesville 
Regional Airport. However, three hospitals within the city have heUcopter flight pads 
(Shands, the Veterans Administration, and Alachua General) which add to aviation activity. 

The City has no ports, but it does have a freight rail line (see Map 1 ) bisecting the City. 
Map 1 illustrates that this rail line does not directiy serve the Airport. This rail line is 
owned and operated by CSX Rail Co. and makes eight scheduled stops in Gainesville. 

AIRPORT OPERATIONS 

Aircraft Operations and Passengers 

All aircraft operations are classified by functional activity into one of the following 
categories: air carrier, air taxi, general aviation and military. General aviation operations at 
the Airport are the most dominant and account for between 85 percent and 94 percent of 
total operations. General aviation consists of both business and personal aircraft which 
includes air taxi service and charter air service. This includes everything other than military 
or scheduled commercial airline traffic. 

The Airport does not have any military aircraft based at it The mihtary aircraft activity 
which does occur at the Airport consists of training flights from neighboring mihtary 
installations and accounts for less than two percent of total activity in recent years. 

The remaining aircraft activity comes from commercial air carriers and commuter air 
carriers consisting of the following: Delta (Delta Airlines replaced Eastern in of March 
1991), Comair, Atiantic Southeast, US AIR, and US AIR Express. Tables 1 and 2 provides 
information on enplaned passenger activity and number of air operations for air carriers and 
air commuters. 



) 



Aviation 



Table 1: Enplaned Passengers & Service Demand Activity 
Air Carrier (1975-1989) 





Enplaned 


Percent 


Aircraft 


Percent 


Year 


Passengers 


Change 


Operations 


Change 


1975 


95,550 




3,656 




1980 


177,153 


+S5% 


5,754 


+57% 


1985 


143,711 


-19% 


4,334 


-25% 


1989 


120,891 


-16% 


5,536 


+28% 


1990 


166,538 


+38% 


6,962 


+26% 



Includes nonscheduled air taxi aircraft operations. 

SOURCE: . City of Gainesville Regional Airport records for years indicated and the 
Department of Community Development, updated. May 1990 from the Gainesville 
Regional Airport Master Plan, October 1987. 



Table 2: Enplaned Passengers & Service Demand Activity 
Air Commuter (1975-1989) 





Enplaned 


Percent 


Aircraft 


Percent 


Year 


Passengers 


Change 


Operations 


Change 


1975 


3,798 




3,834 




1980 


656 


-83% 


3,531 


-8% 


1985 


12,154 


1,753% 


8,490 


140% 


1989 


54,449 


348% 


11,871 


40% 


1990 


50,186 


-8% 


13,426 


13% 



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SOURCE: City of Gainesville Regional Airport records and the Department of Community 
Development updated. May 1990 and the Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan, 
October 1987. 

By 1993, the Airport hopes to achieve a 300,000 annual passenger enplanement level with 
annual growth rates of 14 percent. This can only be attained with an aggressive and strong 
marketing program. Table 3 provides a forecast of passenger demand on both air carriers 
and air commuters to the year 2003. 



^ 



Aviation 

Table 3: Enplaned Passenger Demand Forecast 

Year Air Carrier Air Commuters Total 

1993 255,000 45,000 300,000 

1998 292,000 73,000 365,000 

2003 338,000 85,000 423,000 

SOURCE: The Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan 1987. 

The forecast for general aviation (Table 4) was based on an average ratio of about 630 
general aviation operations per based aircraft and increasing to about 700 by the year 2003. 
The forecast reflects the increased use of based multi-engine aircraft for business, and the 
Airport's continued ability to attract general aviation engaged in transient activity. 

Table 4: General Aviation Operations Forecast 

Year Local Itinerant Total 

1993 39,200 72,700 111,900 

1998 50,200 93,200 143,400 

2003 65,200 121,000 186,200 

SOURCE: The Gainesville Regional Airpon Master Plan, 1987. 

Air Cargo 

Cargo volumes including mail and freight have been steadily decreasing in recent years (see 
Table 5). Mail has plummeted from a high of 540 tons in 1987 to a low in 1989 of 40 tons 
due to the loss of mail contracts. Freight has experienced a constant decrease from 1980. 
Much of the problem is attributable to the lack of industries to form the "critical mass" 
needed to make cargo transport viable. Until Gainesville and Alachua County attract more 
industry, designated space for cargo aircraft will not be needed at the Airport. 



Table 5: 


Total Freight 
(1975-1989) 


and Cargo 
Pet. 


Tons 


Pet. 




Pet. 


Y?ar 


Mail 


Chg. 


Freight 


Chg. 


Total 


Chg, 


1975 


109.5 





464.5 


._. 


574.0 




1980 


0.0 


-100% 


501.7 


8% 


501.7 


-13% 


1985 


294.7 


100% 


277.1 


-45% 


571.8 


14% 


1989 


40.1 


-86% 


102.2 


-63% 


164.4 


-71% 



SOURCE: City of Gainesville Regional Airport records and the Department of Community 
Development, updated May 1990 from the Gainesville Regional Aiiport Master Plan, 
October 1987. 



Aviation 



LOCAL FACTORS AFFECTING AIRPORT GROWTH AND OPERATIONS 

Popularion 

The demand for aviation facilities and services depends on the number of people using 
them. In this case, the Gainesville Regional Airport marketing program has identified three 
counties (Alachua, Bradford, and Marion) that account for the majority of population which 
use air carrier services. The Airport is in direct competition with Jacksonville, Orlando, 
and Tampa Airports which offer a variety of services. According to a 1984 Gainesville 
passenger traffic survey, 55 percent of travel was for pleasure purposes by passengers who 
could ^ford to wait for the cheaper fares. While this may have been the trends in 1984, 
currentiy more passenger are using the Gainesville airport for both business and pleasure 
trips. 

Alachua County is the general aviation service area for the Airport. Almost all of the 
owners of aircraft based at the Airport reside in the City limits, with remaining owners 
residing in Alachua County. 

The Airport is expected to benefit from population growth in the air service area. Marion 
County is one of the fastest population growth areas in the country and Alachua County is 
expected to keep pace with the State and exceed that of the nation. The trend for Alachua 
County is expected to continue into the future. The following table compares projected 
population growth between Alachua County, the Tri-County air service area, and the State 
of Florida. 

Table 6: Projected Population Growth (1985-2000)(thousands) 

Year Alachua,Marion Pet Chg Alachua Pet Chg. Florida Pct.Ch. 

Bradford Counties County 

0.0 171.4 0.0 11195.6 0.0 

17.66 190.0 10.85 12623.9 12.8 

13.77 208.1 9.53 13838.2 9.6 

9.55 221.9 6.63 15052.5 8.8 

SOURCE: Popularion Projections Table 1.4, page 22, 1989 Florida Staristical Abstract, 
City of Gainesville Community Development Department, June 1990 and Gainesville 
Regional Airport Master Plan, 1977. 

Local Economy 

Gainesville is the largest city in Alachua County and the center of economic activity. The 
City's population comprises about half of the County's population. The Alachua County 
labor force is heavily employed in the service industry due to the presense of the 
University of Florida, Santa Fe Community College, and four major hospitals (Shands, 
Veterans Administration, Alachua General, and North Rorida Regional). Many of the 
employment positions provided by these employers are filled by professional and skilled 
workers who can command higher salaries and whose disposable incomes provide them 
with the opportunity to travel. See Table 7 in Appendix A for detailted information on 
employment by industry. Unemployment is lower in Alachua County than state and 
national levels due to the stability of these major employers. 



1985 


350.5 


1990 


412.4 


1995 


469.2 


2000 


514.0 



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Socioeconomic factors, such as population and employment characteristics indicate that the 
economy of the region will continue to grow at a moderate rate. Thus, demand for 
commercial and private air transportation is also expected to grow moderately in relation to 
this growth. 

Natural Resources 

The Airport and surroundings have natural areas which must be protected. More 
specifically, the airport area contains several environmentally important features (see Map 
2) including Little Hatchett Creek, wetlands, and Gum Root Swamp east of the airport 
(outside City boundaries). The airport also lies partially within the floodplain zone and 
falls within the Murphree Wellfield designated second^ and tertiary management zones. 

All of these conditions may make certain types of development inappropriate for 
environmentaUy sensitive areas surrounding the Airport Alachua County has adopted a 
Murphree Well Field Management Code to protect the community water supply. 
Development in the Airport Industrial Park must be in compliance with the code's 
requirements and restrictions. The City's "Regulation of Development Near Creeks" 
Ordinance provides standards for development along Little Hatchett Creek. It prohibits any 
activity within 35 feet of the centerline and requires prior approval for construction within 
150 feet Floodplain characteristics place further restrictions on development activity by 
limiting density and requiring sometimes cosdy mitigation measures. 

Land Use 

All designated existing and proposed future land uses within city boundaries are compatible 
with the airport (see Future Land Use Map). There are no residential land uses that fall 
within the airport noise contours. Future land use designations within city limits near the 
airport are industrial, transportation, public service, residential, agriculture and 
unimproved. The City of Gainesville Code of Ordinances, Chapter 3 (Airports and 
Aviation) provides height limitations and requires permits for future uses, existing uses, 
nonconforming uses, abandoned or destroyed structures, variances, hazard marking and 
lighting control of land uses within the airport vicinity. Furthermore, existing uses as of 
December 5, 1974 cannot be granted a permit that would allow the establishment or 
creation of an airpon hazard or to permit a nonconforming use, structure or tree to become 
a greater hazard to air navigation. 

The City of Gainesville Zoning Ordinance Section 29-172 estabUshes the AF: airport 
facility district. This section makes provisions for airport growth, development and 
management, in accordance with environmental concerns and public safety. An airport 
layout zoning map designating permitted uses has not yet been adopted and amended by 
ordinance. The future intent is to adopt the Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan as the 
guide for future development in and around the airport. Included in the Master Plan is the 
Off-Airport Land Use Plan 2003 which indicates future land uses within and near the noise 
contours. For this element, the map has been renamed the Future Airport Facilities and 
Land Use Year 2001 (Map 4). This map illustrates future land uses in Alachua County 
which include industrial, warehouse, tourist/entertainment, hotel,and recreation, to the 
west and north of the Airport, and residential to the east and south. 

Essentially all the land uses beyond the airport boundary affected by aircraft noise are 
within the jurisdiction of Alachua County. Existing residential land uses are located within 
the 65 Ldn contour east and west of Route 232, representing the only incompatible land 
uses. Industrial uses in the vicinity of the airpon fall within the 65 and 70 Ldn sound 
contours. Much of the land area east and west of the airport is unsuitable for significant 



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development due to its flood prone characteristics. Even though the incompatible land uses 
and airport noise affected areas fall outside city boundaries, they are of concern to the City 
because of potential liability issues and because future expansion of the City might entail 
annexing affected areas. 

The Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan identifies land targeted for acquisition to 
eliminate incompatible land uses and to allow airfield and terminal improvements. Table 8 
in Appendix B itemizes prospective land and capital improvements. Land acquisitions are 
planned for parcels south and east of the airport. 

Alachua County has cooperated with the City of Gainesville to minimize the potential for 
the development of incompatible land uses in the vicinity of the airport. The County has 
defined a noise attenuation area and a noise sensitive district to preclude detrimental noise 
impact on land uses and to protect the public's investment in the airport These provisions 
are contained in Section 1 3 of the Alachua County Airport Impact Ordinance. 

Airport Noise Impacts 

The subject of aircraft noise impact, mitigation actions, and surrounding land use was 
evaluated in detail in a Federal Aviation regulations (FAR) Part 150 Study, conducted in 
March 1986 for Airport. The existing and projected Ldn noise contours (year 2001) can be 
found on Maps 3 and 4 respectively. By the year 2001, the size of the Ldn contours will 
have increased. 

The Part 150 study indicated that the City has implemented appropriate noise abatement 
procedures to mitigate aircraft noise. Airplane pilots are cooperating by modifying their 
flight tracks using Newnans Lake and Gum Root Swamp as a noise buffer when operating 
east of the Airport. The Airport has implemented a preferential runway system, and has 
initiated negotiations to purchase land with incompatible uses. The County discourages 
housing and building east and west of the Airport due to floodplain characteristics. Sewer 
and water is not available there and any potential landowner in this flood plain is required to 
have at least five acres per housing unit. 

Airport Gear 2^nes and Obstructions 

FAA regulations in Part 77, Subpart C (Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace), provides 
standards for determining obstructions to air navigation. These regulations were utiUzed by 
the Gainesville-Alachua County Regional Airport Authority to define and provide for the 
establishment of various zones and the prescribed height limitations within them. The City 
of Gainesville and Alachua County have both adopted ordinances to provide height 
regulations in and around the airport. Basically, the City's regulations in Chapter 3, Article 
rv Airport Hazard Zoning protect the Airport and its users from any obstructions affecting 
aircraft movement. They govern the height and uses within zones near the Airport 



> 



11 



Aviation 

The zones designated include the following: 

1.) Conical Surface Zone 

2.) Horizontal Surface Zone 

3.) Transitional Surface Zone 

4.) Approach Surface Zone 

5.) Utihty Runway Visual Approach Zone 

6.) Runway Larger Than UtiUty Visual Approach Zone 

7.) Runway Larger Than Utility With A 

Visibility Minimum Greater Than Three-Fourths Mile 

Nonprecision Instrument Approach Zone. 

Map 5, updated February 1988, from the Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan, 
presents four surface zones. Zones 4, 5, 6, and 7 were incorporated into one approach 
zone on the map. 

Obstructions to Local Air Traffic 

Four man-made obstructions lie southwest of the Gainesville Regional Airport (see Map 5). 
All four are lighted. The fu^st is a 309' water tank located at the State of Florida HRS 
Tacachle Community. The second is a 305' antenna on a lookout tower operated by the 
Florida Division of Forestry at Smokey Bear Park. Both of these obstructions are within 
the Horizontal Surface Zone.There are two Ughted radio towers (428' and 431') located in 
the Conical Surface Zone along State Road 24, Waldo Road. City of Gainesville Code 
Section 3-171 describes precautionary marking and lighting measures to be taken at the 
owners expense for nonconforming uses. 

Traffic Circulation r 

Two principal arterials provide access to the airport , Waldo Road (SR 24) and N.E. 39th 
Ave. (SR 232) which serves as the main terminal entrance (see Map 6). Waldo Road 
primarily services General Aviation and the Airport Industrial Park from the following three 
points: N.E. 49th Road, a service road north of N.E. 49th Road, and service road N.E. 
46th Drive. Both Waldo Road and N.E. 39th Ave. are four lane roads and have a level of 
service of C. Refer to the Traffic Circulation Element for a more complete traffic analysis. 
Because traffic circulation to and from the airport is not deficient, no traffic circulation 
improvements are proposed by the City for this area through the year 2001. In 1989, the 
widening of 39th Ave., a major east- west corridor to the airport, was completed facihting 
even greater access to the airport. 

FUTURE AIRPORT NEEDS 

The Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan outlines a long-term strategy for meeting 
aviation demand and expanding aviation opportunities at the Airport. The Airport 
Development Program recommends planned airport improvements to address Airport needs 
to the year 2(X)1 . This plan schedules needed capital improvements and land acquisitions 
on an annual basis and provides cost estimates for each. Table 8 in Appendix B provides 
the Airport Development Program Plan. 



r 



12 



k 



Aviation 



Future Aviation Map 



Map 4 includes the future Airport Facilities and Land Use Map Year 2001. This map 
includes land uses and airport noise contours. Clear zones and obstructions, aiiport 
ingress and egress for surface transportation, and natural resources is expected to remain 
the same. These items can be found on maps 5, 6, and 2 respectively. 



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APPENDIX A 



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f) 



AVIATION DEFINITIONS 

Air Carrier: An air carrier certified in accordance with FAR Part 121 and 127 to conduct 
scheduled services on specified routes. These air carriers may also provide nonscheduled or 
charter services as a secondary operation. Four carrier groupings have been designated for 
statistical and financial data aggregation and analysis. 

Air Commuter: An air carrier certified in accordance with FAR Part 1 35 that operates aircraft 
with a maximum of 60 seats, and that provides at least five scheduled round trips per week 
between two or more points, or that carries mail. 

Air Taxi: An air carrier certified in accordance with FAR Part 135 and authorized to provide, 
on demand, public transportation of persons and property by aircraft. Generally operates small 
aircraft "for hire" for specific trips. 

Air Traffic Control Tower: A terminal facihty that through the use of air/ground 
communications, visual signaling, and other devices, provides ATC services to airborne 
aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport and to aircraft operating on the movement area. 

Aircraft Operation: An aircraft operation is defined as a takeoff or landing. All aircraft 
operations are classified by the following activities: air carrier, air taxi, general aviation and 
military. This airline activity is further classified into either local or itinerant. Local operations 
being those aircraft operating in the local traffic pattern, executing simulated instrument 
approaches, or those performing training activities within a 20-mile radius of the airport 
Itinerant operations consist of all those not local. 

Airport Clear Zone: A designated area of land which is subject to peak aircraft noise and on 
which there is the highest potential of danger from airpori operations. 

Airport Facihty: Any area of land or water improved, maintained or operated by a 
governmental agency for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, or privately owned paved runways 
of 4,000 or more feet in length, and any appurtenant area which is used for airport buildings, 
or other airport facihties or rights-of-way. 

Airport Obstruction: Any structure, object of natural growth, existing condition, or use of land 
which obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking off at an 
airport or which otherwise increases the risk of danger to aircraft operations. 

Airport Surveillance Radar System (ASR): An airport air space monitoring system which 
provides tracking of all aircraft airborne within the range of the system. 

Charter Air Service: Aircraft operating on a for hire per trip basis. 

Enplaned Passengers: The number of passengers boarding certified air carrier aircraft at an 
airport. 

Fixed Base Operator/ Based Operator: The number and type of aircraft stationed at an airport 
on an annual basis. An aircraft operated from one location where the aircraft is stored and 
maintained. 



A-1 



Aviation 



Flight Service Station: Air traffic service facilities within the National Airspace System provide 
preflight pilot briefing and in route communications with IFR flights; assist lost IFIVVFR 
aircraft; assist aircraft having emergencies; relay ATC clearances, originate classify, and 
disseminate notices to airmen; broadcast aviation weather and NAS information; receive and 
close flight plans; notify search and rescue units of missing VPR aircraft; and operate the 
national weather teletypewriter systems. 

General Aviation: All civil aviation activity except that of air carriers certificated in accordance 
with FAR Parts 121, 123, 127, and 135. The types of aircraft used in general aviation (GA) 
activities cover a wide spectrum from corporate multi-engine jet aircraft piloted by professional 
crews to amateur-built single engine piston acrobatic planes, and balloons. 

Heliport: A specialized airport for the exclusive operation and basing of rotocrafL 

Itinerant Aircraft: Arrival and departures of aircraft not stationed or based at the airport they are 
utilizing. 

Ldn Sound Corridor: Day and night sound level ratings from a land perspective. 

LOS Levels of Service: The measurable functional role of the airport. 

MSL: Mean Sea Level or MSL is referred to when measuring heights in relation to clearance of 
objects and aircraft 

Surface Zones: Critical areas where airport approach and departure paths might be impaired by 
natural vegetation or man-made obstructions. (See specific types of zones pages 4 & 5 of the 
Gainesville Aviation Element.) 



A-2 



>; 



APPENDIX B 



» 



i 



Table 7: WORK FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT TRENDS 

AIR SERVICE AREAS, STATE OF FLORIDA ANT) UNITED STATES 
1982 



Percent Distribution of Employment 



I) 



Major Industry Group 

Agriculture, Forestry, 
and Fisheries 

Mining 

ConsU^ction 

Manufacturing 

Transportation, Communications 
and Public Utilities 

Wholesale Trade 

Retail Trade 

Finance, Insurance, 
and Real Estate 

Services* 

Goverrunent 

Total Employment 

Total Unemployment 

Total Civilian Labor Force 



Alachua, Bradford Alachua State of 
& Marion Counties County Florida 



2.4 



0.7 



3.3 



United 
States 

3.3 



0.1 


0.0 


0.2 


0.9 


5.6 


5.3 


6.4 


5.2 


9.3 


6.1 


11.2 


18.4 


3.4 


3.4 


6.1 


6.0 


3.7 


2.5 


5.2 


3.7 


19 


17.6 


19.0 


15.1 


4.5 


4.3 


6.5 


5.7 


39.7 


51.2 


27.9 


27.3 


5.7 


4.6 


6.0 


4.7 


93.4 


95.7 


91.8 


90.3 


6.4 


4.3 


8.2 


9.7 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



*Includes employment in hospitals, schools, colleges and universities. 

Sources: University of Florida, Bureau of Economic Business and Research, 
1983 Florida Statistical Absu-act. 

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1984 
Statistical Abstract of the United States 

Gainesville Regional Airport Master Plan, 1987 



B-1 



Aviation 



Table 8: AIRFIELD AND TERMINAL DEVELOPMENT STAGING PROGRAM 
AND COSTS 

(Note: These are estimated costs and were updated to in-service date and present cost estimates, 
as they were available, May 1990. The total cost of each improvement is provided through 
FAA, FDOT and Airport funds. The Airport share of this total is noted to the right.) 



Improvements 


Year 


Engineering Study for 
Expansion of Terminal 
Building 


1991 


♦Extend Access Road in 
Corp. Aviation Area 


1991 


Replace 2 Fire Service 
Vehicles 


1991 


Improve N.E.49th Road 


1991 


Construct T-hangars 
(16 units) 


1991 


Extend Taxiway A 
Terminal Building 


1991 


Install ASR Aerial 
Surveillance Radar 


1992 


Terminal Building 
Expansion Construction 


1995 



Clear and Grub Runway 




Approaches 


1993 


Rehabilitate Service 




Road in Midfield Area 


1995 


Construct Access Taxiway in 




N.W. quadrant 


1993 


Acquire Land S.E. of 




Airport 


1994 


Drainage Rehab Study 




between Taxiway, E. & 




Runway 10-28 


1995 


Construct T-Hangars 




(16 units) 


1994 



Total Cost 


Airport 




Share 


600.000 


150,000 


40,000 


20,000 


600,000 


30,000 


140,000 


7,000 


190,000 


95,000 



400,000 20,000 



500,000 


-0- 


1,600,000 


400,000 


300,000 


15,000 


100,000 


5,000 


140,000 


7,000 


1,350,000 


67,000 


785,000 


39,000 


132,000 


66,000 



( 



B-2 



/'^^ 



Aviation 



Table 8 con't: AIRFIELD AND TERMINAL DEVELOPMENT STAGING 
PROGRAM AND COSTS 

(Note: These are estimated costs and were updated to in-service date and present cost estimates, 
as they were available. May 1990. The total cost of each improvement is provided through 
FAA, FOOT and Airport funds. The Airport share of this total is noted to the right.) 

Improvements Ygar Tl. Cost Airpgrt 

Share 



Construct Access Road 

from SR 24 1995 150,000 8,000 

Construct Taxiway 1995 240,000 12,000 

SOURCE: Regional Airport Master Plan March 1987, Updated Table 9 through Gainesville 
Regional Airport May 1990 and City of Gainesville Department of Community Development. 
Note, * indicates that this line item was placed into table. May 1990 by the City of Gainesville 
Department of Community Development and the Gainesville Regional Airport Authority. 



'D 



^ 



B-3 



r 



r 



f 



I 



^Chapter Ej 
Housing Element 



**=*<s. «^^i 



^%H 




q 



HOUSING 



DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



City of Gainesville 

1991 - 2001 
Comprehensive Plan 



Prepared by 

The Department of Community Development 

Comprehensive Planning Section 

November 1991 



"Preparation of this document was aided through fmancial assistance received from the State of Florida under 
the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program authorized by Chapter 87-98, Laws of 
Florida and administered by the Florida Department of Community Affairs." 



o 



o 



* ^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I 

HOUSING ELEMENT DATA AND ANALYSIS 1 



V 



V 



Introduction 


1 


Inventory of the Existing Housing Stock 


2 


Type of Dwelling Units 


2 


Residential Growth Trends 


2 


Owner and Renter Occupancy 


6 


Age of the Housing Stock 


7 


Housing Affordability 


8 


Renter-Occupied Units 


8 


Owner-Occupied Units 


9 


Monthly Gross Rent 


10 


Monthly Owner Costs 


11 


Value of Owner-Occupied Housing 


12 


Housing Stock Comparisons: The City of Gainesville/ 


12 


Alachua County 




Housing Condition 


14 


Subsidized Housing Developments 


14 


Group Homes 


20 


Mobile Homes 


21 


Housing Analysis 


24 


Projections 


24 


Projected Households and Average Household Size 


24 


Projected Households by Income 


26 


Projected Households by Income Group 


26 


Housing Needs 


28 


Number, Type and Tenure of Households 


28 


Size of Household 


29 


Housing Need by Income Group and Housing Cost 


29 


Vacancy Rates 


30 


Substandard Housing 


30 


Special Need Populations 


32 


Elderly 


32 


Handicapped 


32 


Female-Headed Household 


33 


Homeless Population 


33 


Rural and Faniiworker 


34 


University of Florida Students 


34 


Projected Housing Construction Needs 


34 


Land Use Requirements 


35 


Vacant T ^nd Use Inventory 


35 


Holding Capacity 


36 


Housing: The Private Sector 


37 


Existing Housing Market 


37 



Price of Housing 39 r 

Tenure and Type 40 

Income Group 40 

Housing Delivery Process 41 

Regulatory Framework 41 

Zoning and Subdivision Approvals, and Environmental 41 
Regulations 

Land Availability and Land Cost 42 

Financing 43 

Housing Programs 44 

Provision and Siting of Low and Moderate Income Housing 44 

Elimination of Substandard Housing Conditions 44 

Allow Sites for Mobile Homes 45 

Provisions for Group Homes and Foster Care Facilities 46 

Preservation and Conservation of Existing Housing Stock 46 

References 47 

APPENDIX A: METHODOLOGY FOR HOUSING PROJECTIONS A-1 

APPENDIX B: DEHNITIONS B-1 

APPENDIX C: TABLES C-1 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 



Page 



1. Housing Type Analysis 2 

2. Growth In Housing Units By Planning District 4 

3. Housing Growth By City Quadrant 4 

4. Tenure 6 

5. Housing Units By Year Built 7 

6. Rental Housing Costs As A Percentage of Income 8 

7. Owner-Occupied Housing Cost As A Percentage of Income 9 

8. Monthly Gross Rent Of Renter- Occupied Units 10 

9. Mortgage Status And Selected Monthly Owner Cost 1 1 

10. Value Of Owner-Occupied Housing Units 12 

1 1. Comparison Of Housing Types, City of Gainesville/Alachua County 13 

12. Housing Units By Year-Built, City of Gainesville/Alachua County 13 

13. Federally Subsidized Housing Units 19 

14. Group Homes 20 

15. Licensed Mobile Home Parks 21 

16. Projected Households And Average Household Size 24 

17. Households By Size 25 

18. Change In Household Size 25 

19. Households By Income Range 26 

20. Income Limits Of Various Income Groups 27 

21. Projected Households By Income Group 27 

22. Increase In Households By Income Group 27 

23. Percentage Of Households By Income Group 28 

24. Total Housing Need By Number And Type 28 

25. Housing Need By Tenure 29 

26. Housing Need By Size Of Households 29 

27. Housing Need By Income Group 30 

28. Housing Condition 30 

29. Age And Condition Of Housing Units 31 

30. Housing Units To Be Rehabihtated Or Demolished 32 

33. Housing Construction Needs 35 

34. Vacant Residential Land Use Inventory 36 

35. Residential Holding Capacity 37 

36. Housing Construction Activity 1980-1989 38 

37. Average Cost Of Housing Per Square Foot 38 

38. Single Family Homes For Sale, By Average Asking Price 39 

39. Average Sales Price 40 

40. Residential Zoning Changes 42 

41. Principal And Interest Payment 43 

42. Housing Affordability Appendix C 

43. Comparison Of Tenure, City of Gainesville/Alachua County Appendix C 

44. Value Of Owner-Occupied Housing Units, City of Gainesville/Alachua County Appendix C 

45. Housing Cost As A Percentage Of Income Appendix C 

46. Condition Of Housing By Planning District Appendix C 

47. Selected Housing Characteristics Appendix C 



LIST OF MAPS 



MAP Title Page 

1 . Planning Districts 3 

2 . City of Gainesville Planning Quadrants 5 

3 . Condition Of Housing 15 

4 . CDBG Neighborhood Project Areas 16 

5. Federally Subsidized Housing Units 18 

6. Mobile Home Parks 23 



O 



n 



a 



Housing Data and Analysis Report 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



Housing in addition to food and clothing, represents one of the three basic needs required 
for human survival. Housing does more than shelter us from the elements, it provides us 
with a place of comfort and promotes our sense of well-being. Unfortunately, many City 
residents are unable to obtain safe and adequate housing due to high housing costs, low 
incomes and special needs. In fact, housing cost usually represents the largest single 
expense for most households. Others must live in such substandard housing conditions 
that their shelter is considered uninhabitable by today's housing standards. For these 
reasons and others, the City of Gainesville must determine what kind of housing exists, 
who lives here, and whose housing needs are not being met. The City must not only 
consider the needs of its existing population but its future population as well. The City 
must ensure that residential land will be available to accommodate these new households 
and that existing households will be adequately housed. 

The City of Gainesville's Housing Element will analyze these issues and recommend 
programs and strategies to address them. The purpose of this Housing Element is to 
identify existing and future housing needs of the City and to provide solutions through the 
goals, objectives and policies. This Housing Element is also designed to meet the 
requirements of Chapter 163 F.S. and Rule 9J-5.010 , F.A.C. 

One key issue affecting the data and the eventual analysis of this data is the University of 
Florida. This report does not include the housing units in Planning District 15, the 
. University of Florida campus. These housing units were omitted in order to give an 

/ accurate account of housing units which are under the jurisdiction of the City of 

Gainesville. The University and the State of Florida are responsible for planning all 
aspects of the provision of on-campus housing. In all instances, the elimination of these 
housing units from the data is noted in the corresponding data tables. 

The following section lists some of the major findings identified in the Housing Element. 

Trends 

* Approximately 73% of all new housing construction since 1980 has located in the 
Northwest quadrant of the city. 

* The composition of the City's housing stock has not changed much since 1980. 
Currently, 56.2% of the housing stock is single-family, 41.8% multi-family, and 
1.9% mobile homes. 

Housing Affordability 

* Low-income households will continue to have a difficult time paying for housing as 
housing costs continue to rise. 

* In 1980, 73.6% of households whose annual income was below $10,000 had a 
monthly rental cost which consumed over 30% of their income. 

* Housing expense-to-income ratio for owners of mortgaged units was 35. 1 %, 
exceeding affordability hmits. 



* The City currently does not have enough subsidized housing units to meet the needs 
of current or projected very low and low income households. 

* Down payments and closing costs are a major problem for the first time home 
buyer, especially low and moderate income buyers. 

Housing Conditions 

* The City's 1982 Housing Conditions Survey determined that 64% of the housing 
units were in good condition and 36% of the units need minor or major repairs. 

* Planning districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 and 13 have the highest percentage of units that 
are dilapidated or need major repair. 

* The City must rehabilitate or demolish 225 substandard units each year to eliminate 
the estimated 2703 substandard housing units by the year 2001. 

Special Need Population 

* Low income households are projected to represent approximately 40% of the City's 
households between 1996-2001. This figure also includes the student population. 

* The elderly comprise 7% of the City's population, and 15% of them live in poverty. 

* Female-headed households earn approximately 57% of the median family income. 

* A 1987 Alachua County homeless survey found that 36% of this group involved 
children, indicating a need for more shelter space for famiUes. 

* Handicapped persons have difficulty finding an affordable barrier-free living 
environment. 



Land Use 



The Future Land Use Plan must provide a minimum of 850 acres of residential land 
to meet the projected housing need of 4253 units at 5 units per acre. 

The City must designate more than 850 acres to compensate for land affected by 
environmental constraints and to encourage infill development and to discourage 
urban sprawl outside City limits. 



) 



Housing 

Housing Data and Analysis Report 

Introduction 

Housing, in addition to food and clothing, represents one of the three basic needs required for 
human survival. Housing does more than just shelter us from the elements, it provides us with a 
place of comfort and promotes our sense of well-being. Unfortunately, many City residents are 
unable to obtain safe and adequate housing due to high housing costs, low incomes and special 
needs. In fact, housing cost usually represents the largest single expense for most households. 
Others must live in such substandard housing conditions that their shelter is considered 
uninhabitable by today's housing standards. For these reasons and others, the City of Gainesville 
must determine what kind of housing exists, who lives here, and whose housing needs are not 
being met. The City must not only consider the needs of its existing population but its future 
population as well. The City must ensure that residential land will be available to accommodate 
these new households and that existing households will be adequately housed. 

The City of Gainesville's Housing Element will analyze these issues and recommend programs and 
strategies to address them. The purpose of this Housing Element is to identify existing and future 
housing needs of the City and to provide solutions through the goals, objectives and policies. The 
City's Housing Element is also designed to meet the requirements of Chapter 163 F.S. and Rule 
9J-5.010, F.A.C. 

One key issue affecting the data and the eventual analysis of this data is the University of Rorida. 
This Element does not include the housing units in Planning District 15, the University of Florida 
campus. These housing units were omitted in order to give an accurate account of the housing units 
which are under the jurisdiction of the City of Gainesville. The University and the State of Florida 
are responsible for planning all aspects of the provision of on-campus housing. In all instances, the 
elimination of these housing units from the data is noted in the corresponding data tables. 



Housing 



HOUSING DATA 



INVENTORY OF THE EXISTING HOUSING STOCK 

Type of Dwelling Units 

Based on the 1980 Census data and an inventory of the Certificates of Occupancy issued since 
1980, the Department of Community Development estimates that there were 32,356 (not including 
773 University of Rorida units) housing units in the City of Gainesville as of April 1989. 

The City's housing stock includes a mix of both single family detached units and multi-family units 
(Table 1). Of the city's housing stock 56.9% are single family detached units while 41.8% are 
multi-family, and 1.9% are mobile homes. Since 1980, the composition of the housing stock has 
remained relatively stable. 



Table 1 



Housing Type Analysis 

















Year 


Single-family 




Multi- 
family 




Mobile Homes 






Detached 




























Number 


% 


Number 


% 


Number 


% 
















1980 


16474 


57.1 


11791 


40.9 


593 


2.1 
















1989 


18206 


56.2 


13549 


41.8 


601 


1.9 
















SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, and Dept. of Community Development 




Analysis excludes Planning District 15 (University of Florida) 







Residential Growth Trends 



New housing growth has been concentrated in the northwest quadrant of the city, mainly in those 
planning districts annexed in 1979 (see Map 1). Since 1980 over half of the housing units built 
from 1980-1989 in the City were located within these annexed districts. Recently, development has 
intensified in areas west of the city limits. It is likely this trend will continue since these areas have 
a substantial amount of desirable, vacant land and infrastructure support. 

Since 1980 the number of housing units has increased by 12. 12% (Table 2). A review of the 
percentage growth in housing units by Planning Districts indicate that the largest percentage growth 
has occured in those districts annexed in 1979 (Planning Districts 17a and 19a). Dividing the city 
into quadrants (Table 3 and Map 2) reveal that the northeast and southeast quadrant of the city has 
not experienced much growth. 

While vacant land within the city limits of Gainesville is becoming increasingly scarce in most 
quadrants of the city, growth in housing development within the city will probably be characterized 
by infill development, attached housing, and clustered development. This type of development 
should account for an increasing percentage of new housing starts in Gainesville, except the 
southeast quadrant where there is a substantial amount of vacant land for residential development. 



) 



) 




Housing 



Table 2 



GROWTH IN HOUSING UNITS BY PLANNING DISTRICT 



r 



T 



Planning Distnct 



1980 Units 



1980-1989! 



Total 1989] Percentag e 



Housing Const.] 



Units 



Growth 



Activity(Units) 



1980-1989 



315 



26 



341 



8.25% 



1681 



18 



1699 



1 .07% 



936 



11 



947 



1.18% 



1440 



55 



1495 



3.82% 



1214 



139[ 



13531 



1 1 .45% 



2638 



68 



2706 



2.58% 



1593 



404 



1997 



25.36% 



915 



173i 



1088 



18.91% 



2793 



114 



2907 



4.08% 



10 



2487 



93 



2580 



3.74% 



11 



2413 



1241 



2537 



5.14% 



12 



1500 



44l 



1544 S 



2.93% 



13 



2060 



16 



20761 



0.78% 



14 



2748 



638! 



3386 



23.22% 



16a 



546 



741 



620 



1 3.55% 



17a 



2670 



10651 



3735 



39.89% 



19a 



909 



436 



1345 



47.96% 



Total 



28858 



3498 



32356 



12.12% 



SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Census 1980. and the City of Gainesville Building 
Data excludes Planning District 15 (University of Florida) s 



Division 



Table 3 




HOUSING GROWTH BY CITY 
QUADRANT 


















1980-1989 










Housing Construction 


Total 1989 


Percentage 




1980 Units 


Activity (Units) 


Housing Units 


Growth 












Northwest 


15654 


2539 


18193 


1 6.22% 


Northeast 


6400 


261 


6661 


4.08% 


Southeast 


2060 


16 


2076 


0.78% 


Southwest 


4429 


656 


5085 


14.81% 


PD1 


315 


26 


341 


8.25% 












Total 


28858 


3498 


32356 


12.12% 












SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Census 1980, and the City of Gainesville Building 




Division 










Note: Data excludes Planning District 15 (University of Ftorida) 













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Housing 



Owner and Renter Occupancy 

In 1980, 49.3% of Gainesville's housing units were owner-occupied and 50.7% renter-occupied 
(Table 4). A comparison of Planning Districts indicates that owner occupancy rates vary 
significantly in Gainesville. Owner occupancy rates are lowest in planning districts 1,2,3,4, and 
14. These districts are located close to the University of Florida (Planning District 15) and 
Downtown Gainesville (Planning District 1) and have rental occupancy rates that range from 
69.3% to 88.4% in student dominated Planning District 14. In contrast, over 70% of the units in 
the areas annexed by the City in 1979 were owner-occupied. 



Table 4 






TENURE 


















Planning District 


Occupied 


Owner 


Percent 


Renter 


Percent 




Units 


Units 


Owned 


Units 


Rented 














1 


283 


37 


13.1% 


246 


86.9% 


2 


1556 


190 


12.2% 


1366 


87.8% 


3 


807 


248 


30.7% 


559 


69.3% 


4 


1362 


321 


23.6% 


1041 


76.4% 


5 


1185 


966 


81.5% 


219 


18.5% 


6 


2581 


1362 


52.8% 


1219 


47.2% 


7 


1598 


955 


59.8% 


643 


40.2% 


8 


866 


525 


60.6% 


341 


39.4% 


9 


2691 


1082 


40.2% 


1609 


59.8% 


10 


2345 


1542 


65.8% 


803 


34.2% 


11 


2257 


1092 


48.4% 


1165 


51.6% 


12 


1425 


762 


53.5% 


663 


46.5% 


13 


1943 


968 


49.8% 


975 


50.2% 


14 


2618 


303 


1 1 .6% 


2315 


88.4% 


16a 


580 


508 


87.6% 


72 


12.4% 


17a 


2521 


2081 


82.5% 


440 


1 7.5% 


19a 


750 


538 


71 .7% 


212 


28.3% 














Total 


27368 


13480 


49.3% 


13888 


50.7% 














SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Bureau of the Census 








Planning District 15 (University of Florida) was deleted from analysis. 





V 



Housing 



Age of the Housing Stock 

Almost 60% of the City's housing stock was built between 1960 and 1979. As shown in Table 5, 
18,551 of the existing housing units were built during those two decades. Even though much of 
Gainesville's housing development occurred during the sixties and seventies, the City takes pride 
in the large number of historically significant houses which still remain. Of the City's housing 
stock 8.1% is at least forty-five years old. In Planning District 11, which includes the Northeast 
Historic District, 26.6% of the housing units were built before 1940. This district contains the 
largest number of units (675) built before 1940. Planning Districts 1, 2, and 3 represent areas with 
the largest share of units being built before 1940. 



Table 5 




HOUSING UNITS BY YEAR BUILT 
























Planning 


Total Year-Round 


1980-1989 


1970-1979 


1960-1969 


1950-1959 


1940-1949 


Before Percent Built 


District 


Housing Units 












1940 ^Before 1940 


















1 


341 


26 


140 


7 


9 


22 


137 40.2% 


2 


1699 


23 


162 


420 


359 


365 


370 21.8% 


3 


947 


11 


88 


74 


107 


253 


414 43.7% 


4 


1495 


55 


164 


319 


368 


335 


254i 


17.0% 


5 


1353 


139 


176 


310 


458 


187 


83i 


6.1% 


6 


2706 


68 


838 


1271 


514 





15 


0.6% 


7 


1997 


404 


776 


770 


33 


7 


7 


0.4% 


8 


1088 


173 


354 


293 


175 


45 


48 


4.4% 


9 


2907 


114 


754 


565 


758 


418 


298 


10.3% 


10 


2580 


93 


701 


1090 


559 


111 


26 


1.0% 


11 


2537 


124 


339 


278 


566 


555 


675 


26.6% 


12 


1544 


44 


293 


645 


331 


165 


66 


4.3% 


13 


2076 


16 


421 


869 


322 


267 


181 


8.7% 


14 


3386 


638 


1025 


1422 


211 


53 


37 


1.1% 


16a 


620 


74 


192 


321 


33 








0.0% 


17a 


3735 


1065 


1959 


606 


83 


22 





0.0% 


19a 


1345 


436 


909 














0.0% 




















Total 


32356 


3498 


9291 


9260 


4886 


2805 


2611 




% of Total 


100.00% 


10.81% 


28.7% 


28.6% 


15.1% 


8.7% 


8.1% 








































SOURCE: U.S Breau of the Census, 1980 and City of Gainesville, Department of Community 


Development, 1989. 


Note: Planning District 15 (University of Florida) was deleted from analysis. 


1 



Housing 



HOUSING AFFORDABILITY 

Because housing satisfies the basic human need for shelter, its cost remains a matter of public 
concern. It is vital that Gainesville maintain an adequate supply of affordable housing. A housing 
unit is generally considered affordable if its associated monthly costs (gross rent or mortgage, 
taxes and insurance) do not exceed 30 to 35% of the household's gross income. 

Renter-Occupied Units 

In 1980, the Gainesville housing expense-to-income ratio for rental units was 23%. For 
mortgaged owner-occupied units, the same ratio was 35.1% (see Table 42 in Appendix C). The 
ratio of 23% for rental units is clearly considered affordable. However, low and moderate-income 
residents of the city must often devote a higher percentage of their income for rent. In 1980, low 
and moderate income households included those households whose annual income was less than 
$10,000 (approximately 80% of the City's median annual household income). As Table 6 
indicates, in 1980, 73.6% of those households whose annual income was below $10,000 had 
monthly rental costs which consumed over 30% of their income. 



Tables 


RENTAL HOUSING COSTS AS A PERCENTAGE OF INCOME | 












% of Households with i 


Household 


Median % of 


Monthly Housing Costs | 


Income 


Income for Housing 


at 30% or more of Income 1 








Less than 


50% 


73.60% 


$10,000 




1 






1 


$10,000- 


23.20% 


22.50% 1 


$19,999 




1 








$20,000 


15.70% 


1 .60% ! 


or more 




f 

! 






S 


Totals 




50.90% i 






1 


SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1980 \ \ 



8 



Housing 



Owner-Occupied Units 



The housing expense-to-income ratio for owners of mortgaged units was 35. 1% (Table 42 in 
Appendix C), exceeding the affordability benchmark. This indicates that homeownership causes 
economic hardship, especially for first-time homebuyers. Of the homeowners (mortgaged and 
unmortgaged units) earning less than $10,(XX), 55.4% paid over 30% of their income for housing 
(Table 7). 



) 



Table? 


OWNEROCCUPIED HOUSING COST 




AS A PERCENTAGE OF INCOME 












% of Households with 


Household 


Median % of 


Monthly Housing Costs 


Income 


Income for Housing 


at 30% or more of Income 








Less than 


35.80% 


55.40% 


$10,000 












$10,000- 


23.30% 


29.50% 


$19,999 












$20,000 


14.00% 


4.90% 


or more 












Totals 


- 


21.20% 








SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980 























Housing 



Monthly Gross Rent 

According to the U.S. Census, the median monthly gross rent (rent plus separate utilities) for 
renter-occupied housing units in Gainesville was $241 in 1980 (Table 8). Of the 14,551 rental 
units 17.28% had monthly rents below $150, while an additional 34.9% (5083 units) fell within 
the $150-$250 range. The remainder 48% of rent paying households spent over $250 a month on 
rent. 



Table 8 


MONTHLY GROSS RENT OF RENTER-OCCUPIED UNITS | 










City of Gainesville | | 






! 


Gross Rent 


Number 


Percentage 








Less than $80 


576 


3.96% 


$80 to $99 


350 


2.41% 


$100 to $149 


1588 


10.91% 


$150 to $199 


2132 


14.65% 


$200 to $249 


2951 


20.28% 


$250 to $299 


2478 


17.03% 


$300 to $349 


1640 


11.27% 


$350 to $399 


1018 


7.00%! 


$400 or nnore 


1517 


10.43%! 


No cash rent 


301 


2.07%! 








Median Monthly Rent 


$241 








1 


Total 


14551 


100.00% 








SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1980 


1 



10 



Housing 



Monthly Owner Costs 

According to the 1980 Census (Table 9), the median monthly owner costs (including taxes, 
insurance, and utilities) of an unmortgaged unit in the City were $1 19, while mortgaged units had 
median costs of $368. The majority (58%) of owners of mortgaged units had monthly owner 
costs in the $300-$600 range. Thirty-one percent of home owners with a mortgage paid under 
$300 per month while an additional 11% had monthly costs over $600. 

In 1980, 2,741 (23%) of the City's 1 1,810 owner-occupied housing units were not mortgaged. 
Of these 2,741 homeowners, 34.4% (944) paid less than $100 in monthly owner costs, while 
53.99% (1480) paid between $100 and $200. An additional 1 1.57% had monthly owner costs 
above $200. 



Table 9 i MORTGAGE STATUS AND SELECTED MONTHLY OWNER COST | 








Mortgage Cost Number 


Percentage 










With a mortgage \ 9069 


100.00% 












Less than $100 


60 


0.66% 




$100 to $199 


756 


8.34% 




$200 to $299 


2025 


22.33% 




$300 to $399 


2510 


27.68% 




$400 to $599 


2761 


30.44% 




$600 or more 


957 


1 0.55% 












Median 


$368 






Total Owner Occupied 


9069 


100.00% 




























Not Mortgaged 


2741 














Less than $100 


944 


34.44% 




$100 to $199 


1480 


53.99% 




$200 or more 


317 


1 1 .57% 












Median Cost 


$119 






Total Owner Occupied Unil 


11810 


100.00% 




















SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census 







1 1 



Housing 



Value of Owner-Occupied Housing 



In 1980, the median value of owner-occupied housing in Gainesville was $44,800. 
Approximately 40% of these housing units were valued between $30,000 and $49,999. An 
additional 30% fell in the $50,000 to $80,000 range. Table 10 illustrates the distribution of 
housing units by value. 



Table 10 


VALUE OF OWNER-OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS 




City of Gainesville 
















Value(l) 


Dwelling Units; 


Percent 








Less than $10,000 


244 


2.07% 


$10,000-14,999 


310 


2.63% 


$15,000-19,999 


425 


3.61% 


$20,000-24,999 


623 


5.29% 


$25,000-24,999 


719 


6.11% 


$30,000-34,999 


1092 


9.28% 


$35,000-39,999 


1242 


10.55% 


$40,000-49.999 


2365 


20.09% 


$50,000-59,000 


1615 


13.72% 


$60,000-79,999 


1946 


16.53% 


$80,000-99,999 


774 


6.57% 


$100,000-149,999 


321 


2.73% 


$150,000-199.999 


67 


0.57% 


$200,000 or more 


29 


0.25% 








Median 


$44,800 










SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Bureau of the Census 










Note: 1. The value of the owner-occupied unit represents the repondent's estimate of how 


much the property (house and lot) or condominium unit would sell for, if it were for sale. 



HOUSING STOCK COMPARISONS: THE CITY OF GAINESVILLE AND 
ALACHUA COUNTY 

The following section provides data on the significant housing characteristics of Gainesville and 
Alachua County. The Alachua County statistics do not include the housing stock of the City of 
Gainesville. The distribution of housing types reflects the fact that Gainesville is more densely 
settled than the rest of Alachua County. In 1980, 40.9% of the City's housing stock was 
composed of multi-family units. In comparison, multi-family units accounted for 24% of the 
County's dwelling units. In addition, this comparison reveals that mobile homes, which are a 
relatively insignificant source of housing in the City, make up nearly 20% of the County's housing 
stock (Table 11). 



12 



Housing 



Table 1 1 



COMPARISON OF HOUSING TYPES 



CIPi' OF GAINESVILLE AND ALACHUA COUNTY 



# and % 



# and % 



# and % 



Single Family Detached 



Multi-Fannily 



Mobile Homes 



City of 



16474 57.1% 



11791 40.9% 



593 2.1% 



Gainesville 







Alachua 



16437 



56.6% 



7017 24.1% 



5610 19.3% 



Cqunty 






SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980 



City of Gainesville figures do not include Planning District 15 (University of Florida). 
Alachua County figures do not include the City of Gainesville. 



Gainesville has a higher percentage of housing units built before 1970 than does Alachua County. 
This reflects the fact that Gainesville has many older, established residential neighborhoods. In 
addition, the 1980 Census confirms the intensification of new housing development west of the 
city limits. Fully 10% of the County's housing stock in 1980 was built between January 1979 and 
March 1980 (Table 12). 



Table 12 




HOUSING UNITS BY YEAR-BUILT 












CriY OF GAINESVILLE AND ALACHUA COUTY 




























Total Year-Round 


1979- 












Before 




Housing Units 


Mar-80 


1975-1978 


1970-1974 


1960-1969 


1950-1959 


1940-1949 


1940 




















City of 


29811 


1218 


2662 


5752 


9546 


5133 


2875 


2625 


Gainesville 


100.00% 


4.10% 


8.90% 


1 9.30% 


32.00% 


1 7.20% 


9.60% 


8.80% 




















Alachua 


29085 


2931 


6959 


7927 


5616 


2234 


1285 


2133 


County 


100.00% 


10.10% 


23.90% 


27.30% 


1 9.30% 


7.70% 


4.40% 


7.30% 




















SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980. 












Alachua County figures do not include the City of Gainesville. 











) 



While the City of Gainesville has a relatively equal number of owner and rental units, Alachua 
County's housing stock is 62.9% owner-occupied and 37.1% renter-occupied (see Table 43 in 
Appendix C). 

According to the 1980 Census, Alachua County had a larger share of relatively inexpensive owner- 
occupied housing than did the City of Gainesville. Approximately 34% of Alachua County's 
owner-occupied housing units were valued at under $30,000 versus only 19.7% of Gainesville's 
(see Table 44 in Appendix C). This difference can probably be largely attributed to the fact that 
mobile homes, which are usually less expensive than conventional housing, account for a greater 
percentage of the housing stock in the county than in the city. 



13 



Housing 

A comparison of housing cost-to-income between the city and the county indicates that lower 
income residents (incomes less than $10,000) who live in the city pay sUghtiy more of their income 
for owner-occupied units than do county residents ( see Table 45 in Appendix). The most 
significant point dealing with housing cost is the difference between the percentage of low income 
city residents(73.6%) compared to county residents(52.5%) that pay 30% or more of their income 
toward rental housing cost. 

HOUSING CONDITION 

Gainesville's Housing Conditions Survey, corhpleted in 1982, remains the most recent 
comprehensive assessment of the condition of housing in the City. The survey, which was 
conducted by the Code Enforcement Division of the Gainesville Public Safety Inspections 
Department, evaluated the exterior condition of the housing units. Surveyors evaluated both the 
extent of deterioration and the number of major and-or minor code violations detected in each unit 
Each unit was assigned to one of four categories; standard-good, standard-fair, substandard 
(needing major repairs), and dilapidated (to be demolished). The following briefly describes the 
City's adopted definition for substandard housing. A more detailed methodology for determining 
the assignment of each housing unit is located in Table 46 Appendix C. 

Standard Good — less than 3 minor violations. 

Standard Fair— 3 or more minor violations. 

Substandard -has numerous minor violations or a combination of major and minor violations, or 

major violations valued at 50% or less of the unit's value. 

Dilapidated -needs to be demolished, deterioration in excess of 50% of its value or numerous 

major violations. 

The Housing Conditions Survey determined that 1.7% of the housing units in Gainesville were 
dilapidated, 1 1.0% were substandard, and 23.7% were substandard- fair (needing minor repairs). 
Housing units which have been classified as either "dilapidated" or "substandard" present the most 
pressing health and safety concerns. A unit classified as "dilapidated" is considered beyond repair, 
and should be demolished. A unit which is "substandard" requires substantial rehabilitation. 

Map 3 illustrates the percentage of units which have been classified as either "dilapidated" or 
"substandard" by Planning District. Planning Districts 1,2,3,4,11,12, and 13 have the highest 
percentage of units falling into these two categories(see Map 3). In each of these districts at least 
23% of the units are classified as either dilapidated or substandard. For example, over 60% of the 
housing in Planning District 3 is either dilapidated or substandard. TTie City has recognized the 
gravity of the housing conditions in these areas; most of these Planning Districts contains at least 
one Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) project area (see Map 4). 

The 1980 U.S. Census provides data on the interior condition of the City's housing units. The 
Census indicates the number of housing units lacking plumbing, lacking a complete kitchen, 
lacking central heat, and the number of overcrowded units. These findings are compiled by 
Planning District in Table 47 in Appendix C. A comparison of this data with the housing 
conditions survey data shows that there is a relationship between interior and exterior housing 
conditions. 

SUBSIDIZED HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS 

Despite recent federal housing cutbacks, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HTJD) remains the primary source of subsidized housing in Gainesville. The traditional public 
housing program and the Section 8 existing units subsidy, both federally funded, provide 1619 
subsidized units for renters. Both of these programs are administered through the Gainesville 
Housing Authority. 

14 





















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City of 
Gainesville 

Prepared by the 
Department of Com 

APR M 

1/2 1 


1 




Map 4 




Miles APR 1991 I 



LEGEND 



NORTHEAST HIGHU\NDS 

III DUVAL HEIGHTS 

ES3 SMOKEY BEAR 
W^ N.W. 5th AVENUE 



^ STEPHEN FOSTER 



Wk PORTER'S NEIGHBORHOOD 

§ LINCOLN-HAWTHORNE PRAIRIE 

[*] S.E. REDEVELOPMENT AREA 



PREPARED BY: DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 



Housing 



The Housing Authority currently operates 739 public housing units (see Map 5). This number 
includes 70 Section 23 leased housing units and 154 Section 8 new construction units in addition 
to the 515 traditional public housing units. Since 1975, Gainesville has participated in the Section 
8 Existing Housing Program. This program provides rent supplements to low and moderate- 
income families who live in private housing. In order to receive the HUD funds, these families 
must be certified eligible for the program on the basis of annual family income. Renters pay a 
maximum of 25% of their household income for their unit. The balance of rent is paid by HUD. 

Since 1975, the City has utilized Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds to 
rehabilitate housing. These funds are directed at designated target areas. Since 1980, the CDBG 
program has provided funds for the complete rehabilitation of 285 owner-occupied units, 108 
renter-occupied units, and the emergency repair of 82 units. In addition, the non-profit 
Neighborhood Housing Services organization has rehabilitated another 408 units in the city. Table 
13 inventories the subsidized housing units in Gainesville. 



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Table 13 



FEDERALLY SUBSIDIZED HOUSING UNITS IN 
THE CITY OF GAINESVILLE AS OF JULY 1990 



Name 

Public Housing 

Oak Park 
Lake Terrace 
Caroline Manor 
Pine Meadows 
Wooland Park 
Forest Pines 





Nu 


mber 








Year Built 


of 


Units 




Type 




1970 






101 




Elderly 


1968 






100 




Family 


1970{acquired) 






28 




Family 


1970 






80 




Family 


1970 






170 




Family 


1970(acquired) 






36 




Family 



Total 



515 



Section 23 Leased Housing 

Sunshine Park 



1971 



70 



Elderly 



Section 8 New Construction 



The 400 
Seminary Lane 

Total 



1979 
1979 



101 Elderly 

53 Family (Townhouses) 

154 



Section 200 Elderly and 
Handicapped 

Pine Grove 



96 



Section 8 Existing Housing 
Rental Assistance Program 



Scattered Locations 



784 



CDBG Rehabilitation (since 1980) 

Scattered Locations: 

Owner-Occupied Rehabilitation 

Renter-Occupied Rehabilitation 

Emergency Repair 

Neighborhood Housing Service 

Total 



285 
108 
82 
408 
883 



Total Subsidized Units 



2502 



SOURCE: Crty of Gainesville Community Development 



19 



Housing 

Group Homes 

The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services operates a number of programs 

licensing group homes and foster care facilities. These group homes serve adults and children, and 
are generally operated by private or non-profit sponsors. These programs are licensed by the 
Division of Children, Youth, and Families, the Division of Developmental Services, and Aging 
and Adult Services. These group homes are inventoried below. 

Table 14: Group Homes 

Facility Name and Planning District (PD*) Capacity 

Developmental Services Division 
Lx)ng-Term Residential Care Homes 

1 . Alachua County ARC Housing for the Handicapped PD 9 12 

2. Carlos Foster Home PD 10 1 

3. Hicks Group Home PD 10 4 

4. Hines Foster Home PD 12 2 

5. Johnson Group Home PD 17a 4 

6. Kitchens Group Home PD 13 4 

7. Marion Group Home PD 9 14 

8. Nethaniah ViUa Group Home PD 12 14 

9. Penner- Williams Foster Home PD 6 1 

10. Snode Group Home PD 10 3 

1 1 . Williams Group Home PD 1 2 4 

12. WiUiams Foster Home PD 13 3 

Total Long-Term Residential Care Capacity 66 
A ging and Adult Services 
Adult Foster Homes 

13. Bumey Foster Home PD 12 2 

14. Camps Foster Home PD 10 2 

15. Irving Foster Home PD 10 2 

16. Shephard Foster Home PD 12 2 

17. Williams Foster Home PD 3 1 

Adult Congregate Living Facilities 

18. Alice House PD 9 10 

19. Allen's ACLF PD 9 12 

20. The Atrium PD 17a 488 

21. The Bailey House PD 9 68 

22. Hannah's ACLF PD 1 1 12 

Total-Aging and Adult Services 599 
* See Map 1 



20 



») 







Housing 

Children. Youth and Families 
Foster Family Homes 

23. Allen Home PD 12 2 

24. Baker Home PD 8 3 

25. Cobb Home PD 13 2 

26. Da^/is Home PD 8 3 

27. Days Home PD 12 2 

28. Green Home PD 8 3 

29. MitcheU Home PD 12 4 

30. Small Home PD 10 4 

Child Caring, Child Placing and Runaway Shelters 

31. Tuming Point Shelter 5 

32. Interface Shelter 12 

33. Christian Family Service, Child Placing Service 23 

34. Baker Home PD 13 4 

35. Kalivoda Home PD 14 2 

Total-Children, Youth and Families 46 

Group Homes—Total Capacity 711 

SOURCE: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 

Mobile Homes 

In the City of Gainesville, mobile homes are permitted by right only in the Mobile Home 
Residential District (RM zoning). There are currendy seven licensed mobile home parks in the city 
(see Map 6). These parks contain a total of 665 mobile home spaces. The city has no mobile 
home subdivisions. Mobile homes are more prevalent in Alachua County than in the City of 
Gainesville. According to the 1980 Census, mobile homes accounted for 2.1% of the City's 
housing stock, while they comprised 19.3% of Alachua County's housing stock. An inventory of 
the city's Mobile Home parks is included below. 

Table 15: Licensed Mobile Home Parks 
City of Gainesville, May 1987 

Name and Address Mobile Home Spaces 

Camp Mobile Home Park 80 

1600 NE Waldo Rd. 

Ideal Trailer Park 42 

2200 NW Waldo Rd. 

Manaro Trailer Park 15 

2120 Hawthorne Rd. 

Moore Haven Mobile Home Park 40 

2330 E. University Ave. 

21 



Housing 



Oak Terrace 15 

3224 NW 13th St. 

Paradise Trailer Court 44 

4546 NW 13th St. 

Varsity Mobile Home Villa 156 

39 NW 39th Ave. 

Lamplighter 273 

5200 NE 39th Ave. 

Total Mobile Home Spaces 665 

SOURCE: Health Program Office, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. 



22 



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HOUSING ANALYSIS 



Projecting the housing needs of the population that is expected to reside in the City involves 
determining the projected population, the number and size of households needed to 
accommodate the projected population and the income levels of the expected households. The 
remainder of this Element will determine the future housing needs of the City as well as meet 
the requirements of Chapter 163. F.S. and Rule 9J-5.010(2), FAC. 



Projections 

Population projections form an integral part of the Comprehensive Plan because future needs 
are largely based on the expected population to be served. The Comprehensive Plan provides 
annual population projections for the years 1989 through 2005 (See Appendix A: Methodology 
For Housing Projections). Three population forecasts were developed for the update of the 
Comprehensive Plan; high, medium and low for each year. For thus housing analysis the 
medium range projections were utiUzed to calculate housing needs. Analysis of needs will be 
projected for two time periods: 1996 and 2001. 

Projected Households and Average Household Size 

One important aspect of assessing future housing needs is determining the number and size of 
future households (Table 16). In 1980 the U.S. Census reported that there were 28307 
households in the City. Based on population projections for the two Comprehensive Plan 
planning time periods (1996 and 2001), the city will have to accommodate 33480 households 
by 1996, an increase of 8% or 2344 households from 1989. Between 1996 and 2001 the City 
will increase 6% (1909 households) for a projected total of 35389 households by the year 2001. 
This is an average increase of approximately 382 households per year between 1996 and 2001. 



Table 16 



PROJECTED HOUSEHOLDS AND AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE 



YEAR 


1980 


1989 


1991 


1996 


2001 


POPULATION 


81371 


87056 


87930 


92732 


97116 


In Group 












Quarters 


9158 


10114 


10410 


10410 


10410 


Households 


28307 


31136 


31414 


33480 


35389 


Average Household 












Size 


2.55 


2.47 


2.47 


2.46 


2.45 



SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Census, Department of Community Development, 
(See Methodology for Housing Projections in Appendix A) 

Note: Numbers in Table 16 off due to rounding of average household size figures. 

Nationwide the average household size has apparentiy continued to decline since 1980 due to 
lower birth rates, increasing divorce rates, the tendency for more older persons to maintain their 
own home after families have disbanded and the large number of young adults forming one and 
two person households. It is assumed that these trends are exhibited in Gainesville. In 1980, 
the average household size for the city was 2.55, by the year 2001 the average household size is 
expected to decrease to 2.45 persons per household (Table 16). 



24 



#) 



Table 17 


HOUSEHOLDS BY SIZE 






YEAR 


1980 


1989 


1996 


2001 


TOTAL 


28307 


31136 


33480 


35389 


HOUSEHOLDS 










Size of Households 










One person 


6713 


7760 


8628 


9335 


Two persons 


9830 


10963 


11902 


12667 


Three persons 


5324 


5848 


6283 


6636 


Four persons 


3901 


4128 


4316 


4469 


Five Persons 


1546 


1546 


1546 


1546 


Six or more persons 


993 


890 


805 


736 



SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Census, Bureau of Economic and Business 

Research University of Florida (See Methodology for Housing Projections in Appendix A) 



Table 17 shows the breakdown of the number of persons projected to reside in households 
based on past and expected future trends. Reviewing the change in household size since 1970 
(Table 18) reveals the decline the city has experienced in household size. 







Table 18 


CHANGE IN HOUSEHOLD SIZE 
























1970-1980 


1989-1996 


1996-2001 




Households % 


Households 


% 


Households % 


Size of Households 














One person 


3528 


110.77 
% 


868 


11.18% 


707 


8.19% 


Two persons 


3817 


63.29% 


939 


7.92% 


765 


6.42% 


Three persons 


1766 


49.63% 


434 


1 6.05% 


354 


5.63% 


Four persons 


765 


24.39% 


188 


4.56% 


153 


3.55% 


Five Persons 





0.00% 





0.00% 





0.00% 


Six or more 
persons 


-346 


-25.8% 


-85 


-9.56% 


-69 


-8.61% 
















TOTAL 


9530 


50.75% 


2344 


7.53% 


1909 


5.70% 
















SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Census, Dept. of Community Development 






(see Methodology for Housing Projections in Appendix A) 







25 



Projected Households By Income 

The rising cost of housing has generated considerable concern during the past several years 
about affordable housing. In order to determine future housing needs, it is necessary to 
determine the income range of projected households. The incomes of households influence the 
type of housing units that should be built or encouraged in order to meet the housing need. 
Table 19 presents the anticipated number of households by income range. The most significant 
aspect of the data in this table is that approximately 25% of the households including students 
will be earning less than $10,000. These households will not be able to afford the cost of 
housing without some type of subsidy or an increase in income. 



Table 19 


HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME 
RANGE 
















Income Range 


1980 


1989 


1996 


2001 












Less than $ 5,000 


5699 


3425 


3683 


3893 


$ 5,000-$ 9,000 


5920 


4294 


4617 


4880 


$10,000 -$14,999 


4534 


4680 


5032 


5319 


$15,000 -$19,999 


3472 


3553 


3820 


4038 


$20,000 - $24,999 


2980 


2998 


3224 


3408 


$25,000 - $34,999 


2979 


4773 


5132 


5425 


$35,000 - $49,999 


1781 


3764 


4048 


4279 


$50,000 + 


1028 


3649 


3924 


4148 












TOTAL 


28393 


31136 


33480 


35389 












Note: 1996 and 2001 projections are based on 1987 
dollars. 






SOURCE: 1 980 U.S. Census, Urban Decision System of Los Angeles, CA 




and the Dept. of Community 
Development 








(See Methodology for Housing Projections in Appendix A) 







Projected Households by Income Group 

Table 20 defines various income groups by income limits for 1987. The limits were determined 
by using Housing and Urban Development (HUD) federal assistance income limits. HUD's 
income limits are based on projected household and family income adjusted for family size in 
the Gainesville Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Applying the income limits in Table 20 to 
the data in Table 19 generates the number of households by income group (see Table 21 and 
Table 22). 



26 



I) 



Table 20 



INCOME LIMITS OF VARIOUS INCOME GROUPS 



Income Group 



Ratio to Median Inconne 



1980 



1987 



Very Low Less than 50% 

Low Income Between 50% to 80% 

Moderate Between 80% to 120% 

Middle and Upper 120% and higher 



$6293 and below 
$6294 -$10068 
$10069 -$15103 
$15104 + 



$13450 and below 
$13451 -$21520 
$21521 -$32280 
$32281 -K 



Median Income for Gainesville in 1980 = 12586 
SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Bureau of Census 

HUD Federal Assistance Limits for 1987=26900 for a family of four. 
SOURCE: HUD Federal Assistance Limits for 1987 



I) 



Table 21 


PROJECTED HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME GROUP 














Income Group 


1980 


1989 


1996 


2001 












Very low 


5699 


12398 


13332 


14092 


Low 


5920 


3553 


3820 


4038 


Moderate 


4534 


7772 


8357 


8833 


Middle and Upper 


12240 


7413 


7972 


8426 












TOTAL 


28393 


31136 


33480 


35389 












SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Census, Dept. of Community Development 




(See Methodology for Housing Projections in Appendix A) | 





Table 22 


INCREASE IN HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME GROUP | 










Income Group 


1989-1996 


1996-2001 


Total 1989-2001 










Very low 


934 


760 


•1694 


Low 


267 


218 


*485 


Moderate 


585 


476 


1061 


Middle and Upper 


558 


455 


1013 










TOTAL 


2344 


1909 


4253 


*The City assumes that 50% or 1090 of the low and very low income households will 


be student households. 


SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Census, Dept. of Community Development 


(See Methodology for Housing Projections in Appendix A) 





27 



Based on these projections the City will have to provide 1201 very low and low income 
housing units by 1996 and an additional 978 units by 2001. The forecast of projected 
households by income group indicates that a growing share of households will be very low 
income. Very low income households are projected to represent approximately 40% of the 
households between 1996-2001 unless economic conditions for the area change (Table 23). 
The results are not surprising considering the substantial student population that lives in the 
City, because students generally have very low incomes of their own. The City assumes that 
half of the very low and low income households will consist of student households. This 
growth in the very low income category may be mitigated, however, by expected slow growth 
in the number of students attending the University of Florida. 

Table 23 PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME GROUP 

Income Group 1980 1996 and 2001 



Very Low 


20.07% 


39.82% 


Low 


20.85% 


11.40% 


Moderate 


15.97% 


24.96% 


Middle and Upper 


43.11% 


23.81% 



Source: 1980 U.S. Census, DepL of Community Development (See Methodology For Housing 
Projections in Appendix A) 

HOUSING NEEDS 

The City's role in the housing process is to insure an adequate supply of decent, safe and 

sanitary housing for all income groups currentiy living or expected to live in the city. To satisfy ^ 

this responsibility, the City must determine the housing need of the community and attract the 

pubUc and private resources and skills to meet that need. 

Number, Type and Tenure of Households 

Based on the projected number of households in Table 16, between 1989 and 1996, the City 
must add 2344 housing units and an additional 1909 housing units, by the year 2(X)1 (see Table 
24). The type of housing units that will be needed is based on housing development trends in 
the city. Since 1980, the development of housing has consisted of 57% single-family and 43% 
multi-family units. Based on this trend, in 1996 the city will need 1336 single-family units and 
1(X38 multi-family units. By 2001 Gainesville will need to add an additional 1088 single-family 
units and 821 multi-family units. Single-family units include all detached units, multi-family 
include all attached units and mobile homes. 

Table 24 TOTAL HOUSING NEED BY NUMBER AND TYPE 

1996 2001 

Type Number Number 

Single-family 1336 1088 

Mulri-familv 1008 821 



Total 2344 1909 

Source: Dept. of Community Development 

28 



<w 



«) 



The 1980 Census indicated that of all occupied housing units within the city, 49.3% were 
owner-occupied and 50.7% were renter-occupied. The higher percent of renter-occupied units 
is most likely due to the large number of students who seek rental apartments. Using this 
percentage ratio the number of owner- and renter-occupied units were determined (See Table 
25). 

Table 25: HOUSING NEED BY TENURE 

1996 2001 

Owner-Occupied (49.3%) 1156 941 
Renter-Occupied r50.7%') UM 2^ 

Total 2344 1909 

SOURCE: DepLof Community Development 

Size of Household 

The projections for the size of households indicated that there will be a continued need for 
housing one-person and two-person households and a decline in the need for housing larger 
households (See Table 26). Projected one- and two-person households represents 
approximately 77% of new household formations. This data is not surprising due to the number 
of students living in the city and other national trends. This overall decline in the size of 
• \ households is also reflected in the decline of the average household size. 

Table 26 HOUSING NEED BY SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS 



YEAR 


1996 


2001 


Size of Households 






One person 


868 


707 


Two persons 


939 


765 


Three persons 


434 


354 


Four persons 


188 


153 


Five Persons 








Six or more persons 


•-85 


*-69 










Total 


2344 


1909 



* (-) indicates a surplus 

SOURCE: Department of Community Development 



Housing Need By Income Group and Housing Cost 

Table 27 identifies the projected housing need by income group (using 1987 dollars) and the 
maximum housing cost or rent that the various income groups can afford. The maximum 
housing cost is limited to 30% of household income. Tlie 30% limit on housing cost is based 



29 



on the State's definition of affordable housing, which states that not more than 30% of 
household income should be spent on housing cost. That cost includes mortgage or rental 
payments, taxes, insurance and utilities. 



Table 27: 



HOUSING NEED BY INCOME GROUP 



Monthly 
Income Group 


1996 


2001 


Maximum 
Housing Cost 


Very Low Income 
Lx)w Income 
Moderate Income 
Middle and Upper Income 


934 
267 
585 
558 


760 
218 
476 
455 


less than $336 
$337-$538 
$539-$807 
over $807 



Source: Dept. of Community Development 

Vacancy Rates 

Based on utilities hookups as of April 1, 1988 the vacancy rate for the City of Gainesville was 
5.283%. Due to the fact that many vacant apartment complexes maintain utiUty hookups in 
order to show apartments to potential customers, the vacancy rates are probably higher. A 
February 1987 survey by Don Emerson's Appraisal Company of 95 apartment complexes with 
40 units or more in the urban area indicated that the overall vacancy rate for the 95 projects was 
5.16 percent in 1987 compared to 5.32 percent in 1986. Because of the number of students 
who do not attend the University of Florida in the summer, vacancy rates will always tend to be 
higher during summer months (May to August). Vacancy rates over this period can run as high 
as 10 to 17 percent If the summer semester is included, the average annual vacancy rate for the 
local area would indicate a range from a low of 6.7 percent to a high of 8.4 percent given 
current vacancy levels (Don Emerson Appraisal Company). According to nationally accepted 
estimates, between a 4% and 7% vacancy has been determined to provide households with an 
adequate number of housing choices. A vacancy rate lower than 4% indicates a "tight" housing 
market and over 7% indicates a surplus of housing. Based on this information, the City has 
determined that a 5% vacancy rate will be adequate to maintain a sufficient supply of housing 

Substandard Housing 

The elimination of substandard housing is a major concern for the City (see Housing 
Conditions pg. 14). Housing conditions and the age of the city's housing stock are determining 
factors in analyzing the City's substandard housing. A 1982 housing condition survey indicated 
that the average housing condition had a rating of 3.5 on a 4 point scale (4 = Standard 
Condition). The survey also indicated that 36.4% of the housing units had either major or 
minor code violations (see Table 28). 



Table 28 



HOUSING CONDITION 



Housing Condition 
Standard-Good 



Number of Units Percent 
18286 63.6% 



Substandard-Fair 



6819 



23.7% 



Substandard 



3165 



11.0% 



30 



Dilapidated 502 1.7% 

(to be demolished) 

Note: Table based on the City's 1982 Housing Condition Survey. 

In 1982, 3667 (12.7%) units of the City's housing stock was either dilapidated or substandard 
(needing major repairs). Based on the average household size (2.54) and the number of 
substandard units (3667), approximately 1 1 percent (9314 persons) of the City's population 
lived in a deplorable housing situation. 

Based on data from the 1980 U.S. Census and the City's Building Division approximately 83% 
of the City's housing stock was built within the last 37 years. Of major concern is the 
remaining 17% (5416 units) that were built before 1949. Comparing the number of units built 
before 1949 (5416) with the number of substandard units from the 1982 survey (3667) 
indicated that there is a high correlation (.85) between the age and the condition of the housing 
stock (see Table 29). 



Table 29 


AGE AND CONDITION OF HOUSING UNFTS | 














Planning District 


Total Year Round 


% Built 


% Substandard or 




Housing Units 
1980 


Before 1949 


Dilapidated 






















1 


315 


50.5 


49.0 




2 


1676 


43.9 


25.1 




3 


936 


71.3 


60.8 




4 


1440 


40.9 


23.1 




5 


1214 


22.2 


3.6 




6 


2638 


0.6 


0.9 




7 


1593 


0.9 


0.5 




8 


915 


10.2 


3.1 




9 


2793 


25.6 


11.8 




10 


2487 


5.5 


2.6 




1 1 


2413 


51.0 


19.4 




12 


1500 


15.4 


30.2 




13 


2060 


21.7 


36.6 




14 


2748 


3.3 


5.8 




16a 


546 


0.0 


0.4 




17a 


2670 


0.8 


0.1 




19a 


909 


0.0 


0.0 














SOURCE: 1980 Bureau of the Census, the Dept. of Public Safety 




Inspections and the Dept. of Community Development 


i 





Since 1982, 1281 of the 3165 substandard units have been rehabilitated and 163 of the 502 
dilapidated units have been demolished (see Table 30). The City estimates that 1884 units are 



31 



currently substandard and 339 dilapidated units need to be demolished. The estimate does not 
include units which have since become substandard. 

Table 30 HOUSING UNITS TO BE REHABILITATED OR DEMOLISHED 



Housing Units Needing Rehabilitation 3 1 65 

(major repairs) Since 1983 

Housing Units Rehabilitated Since 1982 

City funded Owner-Occupied Rehab. 285 

City funded Renter-Occupied Rehab. 108 

Neighborhood Housing Service 408 

Private Sector Rehab. 480 

-1281 
Total Substandard Units Needing Rehabilitation 1884 

Dilapidated(from 1982 Housing Conditions Survey) 502 
Dilapidated Units Demolished Since 1982 - 163 

Total Housing Units to Be Demolished 339 

Source: DepL of Community Development 

SPECIAL NEED POPULATIONS 

Certain populations in the City must often overcome specific social and economic problems 
which hamper their efforts to attain decent, affordable housing. These populations have 
housing needs which should be given special consideration. For the purpose of this housing 
analysis the following groups were assessed: elderly, handicapped, female-headed households, 
the homeless and students. 

Elderly 

In 1980 there were 5699 elderly persons living in Gainesville. Elderly persons are defined here 
as those persons 65 years of age or older. According to the 1980 Census, elderly persons 
represented approximately 7 percent (5699 persons) of the total city population. 
Approximately 97 percent of these persons lived in households. FinanciaUy, 15.34 percent of 
the elderly are living in poverty. The Census further states that the elderly occupied 3834 units 
with 2826 (73.71%) owner-occupied. 

Based on population projections by the Department of Community Development, the City's 
elderly population will only grow from 7% in 1980 to 8% (7,778 persons) of total population 
by 2001. It is anticipated that the elderly, as they live longer will need special housing 
assistance to enable them to stay at home longer. The need for group home facilities may also 
increase. 

According to the Housing Assistance Plan (HAP 1988) prepared by the Department of 
Community Development Block Grant Management and Review, lower income elderly will 
need rental subsidies for 374 units. 

Handicapped 

Handicapped persons are another group who have special housing needs. Handicapped 
persons are defined as those with a disability (mental or physical condition) which has lasted 6 

32 



or more months and which limits the kind or amount of work a person can do. According to 
the 1980 Census, there were 3689 persons 16 to 64 years of age with a work related disability. 

The most significant factor facing the handicapped is the search for a barrier-free hving 
environment that is affordable. Housing for the handicapped is more expensive due to 
modifications that are needed to make units accessible, however, income levels for the 
handicapped are no higher than those of other city residents. Thus, handicapped persons not 
only face accessibility problems but also affordable housing ones as well. Recentiy, the Fair 
Housing Act was amended to address handicapped discrimination. It requires increased 
handicapped accessibility for certain new multi-family dwelling units. This should alleviate 
some housing accessibility problems handicapped persons are facing today. 

Female-Headed Household 

According to the 1980 Census, female-headed households with no husband present represented 
12.1 percent of total occupied households in Gainesville. Approximately 7.8 percent of these 
households have their own children under 18 years of age. Financially, female-headed 
households earn approximately 57 percent of median family income due to the absence of a 
second wage earner in the home. There were 2354 families in poverty, 47 percent of these 
households were headed by females with no husband present. 

Due to the increase in divorce and separation rates, the number of one-parent households has 
continued to increase. When it comes to housing, the needs of this group are not much 
different than those of other famiUes that have a limited income for housing. The provision of 
housing for all low income households will insure the availability of housing for one-parent 
households. 

Homeless Population 

Despite the growing awareness of the homeless,more Americans are homeless now than at any 
other time since the Great Depression, despite the growing awareness of this complex problem. 
In order to ease the phght of the homeless, most experts agree that what is needed most is 
decent housing-emergency, transitional, and special family centers as well as permanent, low 
cost housing. 

One major difficulty in providing shelters for the homeless is trying to project the size of the 
homeless population. TTie difficulty is that the homeless population changes constantiy in 
response to the economy and unemployment. 

In 1987 the Alachua County Housing Authority conducted a survey of the homeless living in 
shelters. This survey indicated that 78% of the homeless were unemployed and that 36% of the 
situations involved children, indicating that the homeless population is now vastiy different 
from several years ago, when it mostly consisted of single males. 

Currentiy there are four shelters serving the area with only two of these shelters serving 
homeless famihes. All of these facilities are temporary emergency help facilities. The 
following is a list of shelters that serve the homeless: 

Shelter Providers Capacity 

1. The Salvation Army 16 beds for men, 4 for women, 

accommodates families if 
necessary. 



33 



15 beds for men, women and 
families (if necessary )- 
undergoing further expansion. 

15 beds for eligible women and 
their families 

12 beds for youth 



2. St. Francis House 

3. Sexual and Physically 
Abused Resource Center 

4. Interface Runaway Youth Shelter 

Rural and Farmworker 

The City of Gainesville contains only three agricultural parcels: a blueberry farm, a small tree 
farm and property owned by the University of Florida. According to Alachua County School 
Board estimates, there were 223 farmworicer children in school between August 1989 and June 
1990 in Alachua County. Based on an average of 2.47 persons per household in Alachua 
County, there were 90 farmworker households residing in Alachua County. The 1980 U.S. 
Census estimated 145 vacant seasonal and migratory housing units for Alachua County and 
only 22 units for the City of Gainesville. Based on the urban character of the City, the number 
of vacant seasonal and migratory housing in the County, and the above information, the City 
has determined there is no demand for farmworker housing. 

University of Florida Students 

The students at the University of Florida play a major role in the housing market in Gainesville. 
The University has an enrollment of approximately 36,000 students, and during the last two 
years reduced its undergraduate enrollment by 1500 students. This reduction in the number of 
students has reduced the need for additional housing for students. 

As of February 1988, the University housed approximately 6100 students in campus dorm 
rooms, 2473 persons in 980 married student housing units and 150 students in graduate student 
housing. The University is currently constructing 108 apartment-type units on campus that will 
house about 500 students. 

It appears that the private sector has provided limited affordable housing for students due to the 
waiting list of students for university sponsored housing. Although this long waiting list can 
also be associated with the fact that students prefer to live on campus. Until private industry 
can provide housing that students can afford, there will be a need for the University to build 
additional housing. The City will support joint ventures between the University and the private 
sector to provide housing for its student population. The City will also increase allowable 
densities for residential land uses near the University to encourage the provision of more 
housing near campus. 

Projected Housing Construction Needs 

Table 33 specifies the number of new housing units that must be provided in the city to meet the 
needs of the projected population for the two planning periods. Between 1989 and 1996, new 
construction should average 352 units per year and 401 units per year between 1996 and 2001 
to meet the needs of new households. Some of these new housing needs will be provided by 
existing approved developments in the city and urban area. 

Furthermore, the City estimates that 1884 units are currently substandard. The City will need to 
rehabihtate or demolish 225 substandard units each year in order to eliminate existing 
substandard conditions by the year 2001 . To compound this problem, an average of 25 units 
are becoming substandard each year during this time frame. 



34 



Table 33 



HOUSING CONSTRUCTION NEEDS 





1989-1996 


annual 


1996-2001 


annual 


New Household formations 
Units to maintain 
A 5% Vacancy Rate 


2344 
117 


335 
17 


1909 
95 


382 
19 


Total New Construction 


2461 


352 


2004 


401 


Substandard Units to be Rehab. 

Units becoming Substandard 


1099 
175 


157 

25 


785 
125 


157 

25 


Total Substandard Units 
to be Rehabilitated 


1274 


182 


910 


182 



Dilapidated Units to be 
Demolished 



233 



33 



166 



33 



SOURCE: Dept. of Community Development 



LAND USE REQUIREMENTS 

In order to meet future housing needs, the Comprehensive Plan must designate enough 
residential land to accommodate new housing construction. The following section will indicate 
that no additional land will be needed for the replacement and rehabilitation of existing 
substandard units. 

Vacant Land Use Inventory 

Based on a vacant residential land use inventory (Table 34) the city has 1897.1 1 acres of 
undeveloped vacant land designated for residential use. Of this land, 82% is designated for 
single family use, 17% for multi-family and .88% for mobile home. The overall allowable 
density of this vacant residential land is 4.83 units per acre. In order to accommodate the 
projected future housing need of 4253 units at a density of 5 units an acre, the Future Land Use 
Plan at a minimum must provide 850.6 acres of land for residential development based on the 
population growth rate of the city. 

The vacant residential land use inventory indicates that expected growth can be accommodated 
within the existing Land Use Plan. However, the figure of 1897 acres is misleading because 
not all of this land is easily developable. Some of this land is located in the 100-year floodplain 
or in wetiands. Another important factor concerns the supply of land which is controlled by 
private owners who may not wish to sell or develop their land. For these reasons, the City 
must designate more residential land than necessary to keep market prices competitive and to 
encourage more infill development and less urban sprawl outside city limits. 



W 



35 



Table 34 


VACANT RESIDENTIAL LAND USE INVENTORY 
















Planning Districts 


Single-Family 


Multi-Family 


Mobile 
Home 


Total Vacant 
Acreage 














1 


0.00 


0.26 





0.26 




2 


0.81 


13.84 





14.65 




3 


6.73 


6.30 





13.03 




4 


5.56 


1.19 





6.75 




5 


136.66 


0.00 





136.66 




6 


87.93 


0.31 





88.24 




7 


123.42 


7.65 





131.07 




8 


57.83 


2.54 





60.37 




9 


10.98 


24.69 





35.67 




1 


1 15.58 


27.82 


15.44 


158.84 




1 1 


5.14 


9.56 





14.70 




12 


146.03 


56.35 


1.31 


203.69 




13 


347.42 


101.07 





448.49 




14 


102.38 


24.44 





126.82 




16a 


53.47 


0.00 





53.47 




17a 


353.70 


26.92 





380.62 




19a 


3.79 


19.99 





23.78 
















Total (1980) 


1557.43 


322.93 


16.75 


1897.11 
















SOURCE: Master Parcel system as of July 15, 1988 







Note: The above Vacant Land Use Inventory Table includes improved land zoned for 
agriculture or in agricultural use. 

Holding Capacity 

TTie holding capacity of the vacant residential land is 9904 (See Table 35) units. Based on the 
average household size of 2.45 by the year 2001, these units can accommodate approximately 
24,000 people. Of this population approximately 62% would reside in single-family units and 
35% in multi-family units and 2% in mobile homes. 



36 



Table 35 


RESIDENTIAL HOLDING CAPACITY 
















Planning Districts 


Single-Family 


Mutti-Family 


Mobile Home 


Total 


1 


0.00 


3.64 





3.64 


2 


4.70 


164.09 





168.79 


3 


75.31 


82.31 





157.62 


4 


22.13 


21.04 





43.17 


5 


483.46 


0.00 





483.46 


6 


307.76 


6.20 





313.96 


7 


431.97 


91.58 





523.55 


8 


227.39 


25.40 





252.79 


9 


46.58 


243.86 





290.44 


10 


423.57 


294.20 


224.00 


941.77 


11 


26.57 


124.80 





151.37 


12 


890.5 


459.71 


15.72 


1365.93 


13 


1350.15 


1024.61 





2374.76 


14 


359.00 


413.72 





772.72 


16a 


187.15 


0.00 





187.15 


17a 


1260.75 


316.00 





1576.75 


19a 


16.4 


279.86 





296.26 













Total Units( 1988) 


6113.39 


3551.02 


239.70 


9904.12 












Source: Master Parcel System File as of July 1 5, 1 988 







HOUSING: THE PRIVATE SECTOR 

Existing Housing Market 

Approximately 75 private homebuilders are active in the Gainesville Urban area. They produce 
a wide variety of housing from single-family to multi-family units. Table 36 shows the number 
and dollar value of new homes that have received building permits since 1980. A total of 4453 
residential building permits were issued for new housing between 1980 and 1989, an average 
of 495 permits a year. Single-family permits account for 48%, and multi-family 52%. Due to 
the fact that some construction projects take years to complete, even though the building permits 
were issued, the City uses Certificates of Occupancy (CO's) to determine the number of units 
that are actually being built per year. The CO's reflect a more accurate account of building 
construction activity. Between 1980 and 1989, 3498 units were issued CO's, an average of 
389 units per year. 

The Southern Building Congress reports that the cost of construction in the nation for single- 
family homes has risen 28% since 1980 and 27% for multi-family construction (See Table 37). 
The average cost of a basic 1,400 square foot single-family home has increased from the 
$44,000 - $49,700 range in 1980 to the $56,700 - $63,700 range in 1987. These prices do not 
include land prices and site development costs of developers. Land costs as advertised in the 
Gainesville Sun can add $12,000 to $40,000 to the cost of housing depending on the location 
within the city or the urban area. 



37 



TABLE 


36: F 

Single- 
Family 


[ousing Con; 


»truction 


Activity 

Multi- 
Family 


1980-1989 




Total 


Year 


Units 


Total Value 


Value/Unit 


Units 


Total Value 


Value/Unit 


Units 


1989 


154 


4,891,844 


31,765 


12 


197,650 


16,471 


166 


1988 


248 


8,727,848 


35,193 


113 


3,096,046 


27,399 


361 


1987 


358 


10,864,633 


30,348 


86 


1,968.491 


22,889 


444 


1986 


167 


6,884,155 


41,222 


163 


2.527.529 


15,506 


330 


1985 


219 


7,844,512 


35,820 


302 


5,713,292 


18,918 


521 


1984 


270 


9,647,617 


35.732 


345 


8,233,523 


23,865 


615 


1983 


193 


7,925,812 


41,066 


491 


11,854,222 


24,143 


684 


1982 


142 


6.599,428 


46,475 


66 


2,052,144 


31,093 


208 


1981 


210 


9,047,766 


43.085 


155 


6,002,831 


38,728 


365 


1980 


354 


14,138,425 


39.939 


405 


9,205,772 


22,730 


759 


TOTAL 


2315 


$86,572,040 




2138 


$50,851,500 




4453 



Value/Unit $37,396 

Source: City of Gainesville Building Division, 1989. 



$23,785 



A comparison of the average cost of construction in Table 37 and the per unit value in Table 36 
indicates that the City's valuation of construction is not consistent with the true cost of housing 
construction. The City's current valuation is based on a cost of $20.00 to $21.00 per square 
foot compared to the Southern Building Congress estimate of $40 to $43 per square foot. The 
City's ciurent valuation at first glance gives the impression that the city should not have an 
affordable housing problem. 



Table 37 


AVERAGE COST OF HOUSING PER SQUARE FOOT 










Year 


Multi-Family 


Single-Family 












1980 


31.75 


33.50 




1981 


35.00 


38.25 




1982 


36.25 


38.25 




1983 


37.50 


42.00 




1984 


38.75 


42.25 




1985 


39.00 


42.50 




1986 


39.50 


42.00 




1987 


40.50 


43.00 












Source:Southern Building Congress 1989 







L 



38 



• 



A review of the Gainesville Sun Sunday Real Estate section of the newspaper starting with the 
Feb. 14, 1988 issue and ending with the March 7, 1988 issue (See Table 38) indicates that a 
variety of housing at different price levels are available in the Gainesville urban area. 



Table 38 



SINGLE FAMILY HOMES FOR SALE, BY 

AVERAGE ASKING PRICE 

Gainesville Sun Advertisement 







February 14, 


1988 


- March 7, 1988 


Price Range 


Ave. Number 




Ave. 


(Sl.OOO's) 


Units 






Percentage 


Under $40 


23 






11.4 


40-50 


28 






13.8 


50-65 


44 






21.8 


65-85 


44 






21.8 


85-100 


23 






11.4 


100 + 


40 






19.8 



Total 



202 



100.0 



Source: The Gainesville Sun 

A survey of Gainesville Homebuilders indicated that between 1986 and 1988, 1 1% of the 
builders built single-family housing that cost less than $50,000, 33% built units priced between 
$50,000 and $60,000 and 56% have units priced between $60,000 and $70,000. Based on this 
data it appears the private sector can provide housing at various price ranges, from new 
construction to the resale of existing houses. 

Price of Housing 

A review of the Year-To-Date Summary of Sales Activity of the Gainesville Multiple Listing 
Service for the years 1986 and 1987, found that the average selling price in the urban area was 
$68,500 and $70,900 respectively. The data in Table 39 indicate that the average selling price of 
housing has increased approximately 3.5% between 1986 and 1987. A review of individual 
quadrants reveals an increase in selUng price for all quadrants except the northwest which 
experienced a slight decrease in the average selling price. Table 39 reflects a decrease in the 
percentage of housing being sold in the northeast and southeast quadrants. In 1986 and 1987, 
the average sale price of a house, depending on the quadrant, ranged from $36,300 to $75,300. 



1 



39 



< 



Table 39 






AVERAGE SALES 
PRICE 










GAINESVILLE MULTIPLE LISTING SERVICE 




















1987 






1986 








Average 


Sales 


% 


Average 


Sales 


% 


Residential 


Units 


Price 


Sold 


Units 


Price 


Sold 
















Total Sold 


1550 


$70,900 




2137 


$68,500 




Northeast 


150 


$46,500 


9.7 


181 


$45,400 


8.5 


Southeast 


51 


$37,700 


3.3 


78 


$36,300 


3.6 


Southwest 


394 


$74,300 


25.4 


679 


$66,300 


31.7 


Northwest 


955 


$75,100 


61.6 


1199 


$75,300 


56.1 
















The multiple listing service year-to-date summary report also indicated 






that approximately 82% of the residential listings sold leaving an 






estimated 350-400 units on the market. 











The multiple listing service year-to-date summary repon also indicated that approximately 82% 
of the residential listings sold leaving an estimated 350 to 400 units on the market. 

Tenure and Type 

Based on the data about new housing construction and the real estate sales market (acceptable 
vacancy rates for all types of units) it appears that the private sector has provided an adequate 
amount of housing units to meet the need for both single-family and multi-family units. During 
the last seven years 48% of the building permits issued has been for single-family units and 
52% for multi-family units. It is assumed that all single-family units being built are for owner 
occupancy and the majority of multi-family units being built are for renter occupancy. 

Income Group 

It appears that the private sector can provide 100% of the housing needs of moderate, middle 
and upper income household and a iX)rtion of low income household needs. The private sector 
has difficulty providing housing at a profit for very low income and a large portion of the low 
income group. 

Very Low Income 

This income group has a maximum housing cost expenditure of approximately $336 for a 
family of four. Based on the limited income of this group, housing construction costs, land and 
site development costs, the private sector cannot provide adequate housing at a price this group 
can afford without some type of subsidy. Based on a conventional fixed rate 30-year mortgage 
at 10%, the maximum mortgage that this group could afford, (within the affordable housing 
index) is $25,000. With average lot prices for single-family housing in the urban area ranging 
from $12,000 outside city limits to $40,000 in city limits (reponed in the Gainesville Sun) and 
the average cost of housing construction at $43.00 per square foot, the private sector cannot 
provide housing for very low income groups. 



40 



# 



Low Income 

The low income group consists of a family of four that can only spend $337 to $538 a month 
on housing cost. For those households who can only afford to spend $400 or less, they are in 
the same financial situation as very low income households. This group can only afford 
housing that is in the $25,000 to $30,000 range. For low income households that can afford 
housing expenses aix)ve $400, the private sector housing market does offer some hope. 
Analysis of the real estate market indicates that there is existing housing on the market that can 
meet the needs of this income group. The majority of housing for this group consists of 
housing in older neighborhoods, town-houses and apartments. This housing has a cost between 
$35,000 and $50,000. The neighborhood filtering process plays a very important role in the 
housing framework for low income households. 

Moderate, Middle and Upper Income Group 

This income group consists of those four person households that can afford to pay at least 
$539 a month for housing cost. The private sector, through the existing resale housing market 
and new construction, currently provides housing for this income group in a variety of housing 
types. 

HOUSING DELIVERY PROCESS 

This section of this Element analyzes two administrative processes that influence the supply and 
affordability of housing: government regulation and mortgage financing. 

Regulatory Framework 

The production of housing involves the coordination of a group of individuals: land owners, 
homebuilders, building material suppliers, and financial institutions, as well as City 
govemment. In order to determine what regulatory issues are affecting the production of 
housing in Gainesville, the City surveyed homebuilders and asked them to rank or list issues in 
the order that have most significantly affected their ability to build housing in Gainesville. The 
following are the results of that survey: 



ISSUE 


RANKING 


Zoning and Subdivision Approvals 
Land Availability 
Land Cost 


1 
2 
3 


Building Code Inspection 
Environmental Constraints 


4 
5 


Inadequate Infrastructure 
Construction Financing 


6 

7 



Source: City Mail Survey 

The ranking lists zoning and subdivision approvals as the number 1 issue. However, the 
following discussion will show that this issue may be more of a perception problem than a real 
problem. 

Zoning and Subdivision Approvals, and Environmental Regulations 

Between 1984 and 1987, 35 requests for residential rezoning have been presented to the city 
(Table 40). Twenty-two of the petitions were approved, 5 were denied, and 8 were 

41 



withdrawn. Of those 22 requests that were approved only 2 involved changes from a 
nonresidential use to a residential use, both of which were approved. Based on Planning 
Department files, most requests for residential rezonings have been approved and there have 
been just as many requests to have residential land rezoned for non-residential uses. Zoning and 
subdivision approvals are usually granted within 6 months of the submission date. 

Due to the environmentally sensitive nature of some undeveloped land in the city, delays in 
approvals are caused by the need for additional studies and adjustments to plans in order to 
protect the environment and the community. These studies often cause unanticipated delays that 
may add to the costs and frustrations of the developer. 



r 



Table 40 



RESIDENTIAL ZONING CHANGES 
1984-1987 



Results 



Total 
Residential 



3^ 



To 

Residential 



Within 
Residential 



Within 

Residential 

("down') 



Approved 

Denied 

♦Other 



22 

5 

8 



63 
14 
23 



2 





14 

3 
7 



Total 



35 



100 



24 



Source: Dept. of Community Development Petition Files. 
* Petitions were withdrawn or no final action was taken. 

Land Availability and Land Cost 

Land availability and land cost were ranked second and third respectively by homebuilders as 
being problems for developing housing in the city. Land is one of the most critical resources in 
the housing delivery system. The supply and location of vacant land, in addition to its price, 
has a significant impact on the production and distribution of residential development. The 
supply of land that is available for residential development is almost always controlled by 
private land owners who may not wish to sell or develop their property, thereby, effectively 
reducing the supply of land. The other factor that affects the supply of land is whether the land 
that is available can be used for development. If not, the supply is further reduced. 

The Vacant Residential Land Use Inventory discussed earher in this Element explained that the 
city has available land zoned for residential use to accommodate expected future growth through 
the year 2001. A major factor that will affect the availability of this land is that over 50% of the 
vacant residential land has environmental constraints that make housing development more 
difficult and expensive. This usually drives land prices up for available land. 

Nationally, land costs now comprise one-fourth of the cost of a new single-family home 
compared to 10% thirty years ago (National Association of Homebuilders). If current trends 
continue, in another thirty years, lot costs will exceed those for materials and labor. Based on a 
survey of the Gainesville Homebuilders Association, land costs in Gainesville represent 
approximately 21% of housing cost . 

Based on lot sale prices, lot prices in the city are higher than the urban area outside of city limits 
for a comparable lot Lot prices follow the basic economic laws of supply and demand. When 
demand is greater than the supply of land on the market, then land prices are higher. Land 
prices are usually in the most demand closer to amenities that the consumer feels are most 



&- 



42 



• 



important, near urban services, the work place, shopping, etc., which is usually in the city. 
Further away from urban services, land prices tend to be lower. 

The City has taken the initiative to provide lower cost housing by trying to market a tract of land 
it owns to be developed into affordable housing. The City currently owns 139 lots on 35 acres 
of land located in the Cobblestone Mixed Use ftoject area. The City is willing to donate the 
land to any developer submitting a feasible housing development proposal for constructing 139 
affordable single-family units. Local home builders and developers have been interested in the 
site, but have not been financially able to bring the roads and infrastructure up to code. The 
City is planning to soUcit proposals for development of this site in the near future- 
Financing 

One of the major constraints for many families is securing the financing to purchase a home. In 
a recent City survey. Realtors indicated that on an average 20% of buyers fail to qualify for 
financing. In the survey sample, individual Realtors reported that - 60% of their buyers fail to 
qualify for mortgage loans. Most Realtors responded that the lack of financial counseling, 
tough credit laws and the lack of higher paying jobs played a major role in the number of 
persons who fail to qualify for loans. 

The major drawback for many households seem to be saving for the down payment and closing 
costs associated with buying a home. In many cases, fluctuations in the interest rates prevent 
persons from qualifying for loans. Table 41 reveals the impact that an increase in interest rates 
has on the number of people that can afford a mortgage. The interest rates at the time of this 
writing range from 10 to 10.5%; on a $50,000 mortgage, payment for principal and interest will 
range from $439 to $476. Reducing the interest rate to 6% to 8% reduces this payment to $300 
to $367. This reduction in interest rates would allow more families to purchase a home. 



Table 41 




PRINCIPAL AND INTEREST 
PAYMENT 












FIXED RATE CONVENTIONAL MORTGAGE 










































Interest Rates 




6% 


7% 


8% 


9% 


10% 


11% 


12% 






















Mortgage 
















Very Low Income 


















•less than $285 


30,000 


180 


200 


220 


252 


263 


286 


309 




40.000 


240 


266 


294 


336 


351 


381 


411 


Low Income 


50.000 


300 


333 


367 


420 


439 


476 


514 


•285-$457 


60,000 


350 


399 


440 


504 


527 


571 


617 




70.000 


420 


466 


514 


589 


614 


666 


720 




















'Estimated Principal and Interest Payment 















The data suggests that an effective way to the increase number of persons who can afford to 
purchase a home would be for the City, with the cooperation of lending institutions to develop a 
down-payment loan program for young families, and a mortgage interest rate reduction fund 
program. 



43 



HOUSING PROGRAMS 



Provision and Siting of Low and Moderate Income Housing / Infrastructure 
Availability 

It is the City's objective to provide scattered housing sites for the development of low and 
nxxierate income housing throughout the city by developing and providing programs that can be 
used in all parts of the city. At the present time, approximately 22% of the city's public housing 
and 28% of the City's Section 8 rental assistance units are located in Planning District 13. This 
Southeast Quadrant contains only 7.4% of the city's population but a disproportionate 
percentage of the low income housing. To enable low and moderate income households the 
opportunity to live in other parts of the city and to limit the concentration of housing in the 
Southeast, existing and future programs must encourage housing throughout Gainesville. 
Infrastructure can be provided for residential development throughout the City. Based on 
analysis from the City's Stormwater Management (Drainage), WaterAVastewater and Traffic 
Circulation Elements, it has been determined that infrastructure is available to meet the needs of 
existing and future low income households. 

Currentiy, the City is in the process of acquiring sites in one of its target neighborhoods using 
CDBG funds. These sites will be made available for housing redevelopment in partnership with 
a nonprofit local development corporation using State and private funds. The City also owns 
scattered sites within the city limits, sufficient to build approximately 150 housing units. The 
Gainesville Housing Authority Section 8 program provides certificates that can be used for 
housing throughout the city. These programs along with the owner and renter rehabilitation 
programs are capable of providing affordable housing in all parts of the city. 

Due to the fact that existing programs will not meet all the needs of low income households, 
other programs must be utilized. The City anticipates that participation by private industry and 
not-for-profit organizations in the State affordable housing programs such as the State 
Apartment Incentive Loan (SAIL) Program and the Florida Homeownership Assistance 
Program will help the City meet the needs of low income families. The SAIL program provides 
mortgage loans at low interest rates to developers who build or substantially rehabihtate rental 
projects which are affordable to very low income persons and famihes in a mixed income 
setting. The Homeownership Assistance Program assists families who can afford modest 
monthly payments but not the downpayment 

The City could also benefit from the Documentary Stamp Surtax option for low and moderate 
income housing if the County and City can get legislation passed to implement the program.The 
City would need statutory authority firom the State to levy a local option Documentary Stamp 
Surtax on commercial real estate transactions for the purpose of providing affordable housing. 
The City estimates that an average of 100 units per year could be provided using State programs 
and the Doc Stamp Surtax option. 

Elimination of Substandard Housing Conditions 

The total number of substandard units is estimated at 1844 units. In order to eliminate these 
substandard conditions and prevent additional units from becoming substandard, the City has 
developed a Housing Action Plan . This is a five year plan that combines public and private 
resources to eradicate substandard housing. The housing plan utilizes the following programs to 
address the problems of substandard housing: 

Housing Inspection Program -The Code Enforcement Division implements the City's Minimum 
Housing Code, inspecting housing units throughout the City. 

44 



^ 



• 



Homeowner Rehabilitation Program - Funded through the CT)BG program, this program 
rehabilitates owner-occupied housing units in six target areas. 

Rental Rehabilitation Program - Funded through HUD's Rental Rehabilitation program, this 
program rehabilitates renter-occupied units per year. 

Housing Initiatives Program - This is a cooperative effort between the City and private agencies 
to provide housing opportunities for low income households. The program includes 
Neighborhood Housing Services, United Gainesville Community Development Corporation, 
and Habitat for Humanity. 

Allow Sites for Mobile Homes 

The City of Gainesville Code of Ordinances (Sec.29-48) allows the development of mobile 
homes (manufactured housing) through the planned development process and by right in the 
RM (Mobile Home Residential District) 2X)ning district. Manufactured homes meeting the 
Southern Building Code standards are permitted by right in all residential districts. There are 
currently eight licensed mobile home parks in the city and 21 in the urban area outside of city 
limits (See Maps 5 and 7). The mobile home parks in the city contain a total of 665 mobile 
home spaces. County paries within the urban area contain a total of 37 19 mobile home spaces. 
Currently there are 4.85 acres of vacant land zoned for the development of mobile homes in the 
city that could provide an additional 60 mobile home spaces. Since 1982 only one request was 
made for rezoning into the RM district, which was approved. 

Based on the data presented, it is clear that the County provides more opportunities for siting 
mobile homes in the urban area than the City does. In order for the City to provide adequate 
sites for mobile homes in the future, the City's Land Use Plan must designate land for mobile 
homes. The Land Use Plan should allow mobile homes in mobile home parks under a medium 
to high density residential land use category. The City's zoning code should also reflect that 
manufactured housing is a residential use and should be allowed by special permit in residential 
areas. The existing zoning code requires that land for mobile homes be designated to an RM 
zoning district 

Provisions for Group Homes and Foster Care Facilities 

The City Code of Ordinances provides adequate sites in residential areas or areas of residential 
character for group homes and foster care facilities. The City defines and provides for the 
following types of residential care facilities: Foster Family Home for Children, Foster Family 
Home for Aduhs, Personal Care Group Homes and Social Service Homes. Foster Family 
Homes are allowed by right in all residential districts. Social Service Homes are allowed by 
special exception in certain multi-family and mixed-use districts, and by right in the medical 
district. In regard to personal care group homes, the City has amended it's zoning code to 
comply with the new State law which places limits on local government's ability to regulate 
them. Thus, personal care group homes with 1-7 residents are allowed in single-family districts 
and homes with 7-14 residents are allowed in multi-family districts with dispersion 
requirements. See Appendix B for definitions of these facilities. 

While the City provides sufficient opportunity for the siting of these facilities, it could facilitate 
their development by improving coordination with the State Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services and by disseminating information on requirements and procedures for 
siting them. 



45 



c 

Preservation and Conservation of Existing Housing Stock ^ 

The City of Gainesville possesses many valuable architectural (historic) resources that are being 
preserved though the efforts of the City and the Historic Preservation Board. There are four 
historic districts, and six residential structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places 
in Gainesville. The City also funds an active Historic Preservation Program and promotes the 
nomination of neighborhoods to the Lxx:al Register of Historic Places. Due to the importance of 
the city's historical resources, the City has devoted a comprehensive discussion and analysis of 
historic preservation in the Historic Preservation Element of the Comprehensive Plan. 

The preservation and conservation of non-historically significant housing is important to 
maintaining a sense of community and providing housing for those who cannot afford new 
housing. Since 1975, the City has utilized Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) 
funds to rehabihtate housing in designated target areas (see Map 4). The city has also supported 
non-profit organizations such as Neighborhood Housing Services in their efforts to preserve 
housing and neighborhoods. The City will continue to use these programs as well as the 
assistance of other non-profit organizations to preserve and rehabilitate the housing in existing 
neighborhoods. 



46 



t 



Housing 

References 

Alachua County Housing Authority, 1987. 

Alachua County School Board, 1990. 

Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR), University of Rorida, 1987. 

City of Gainesville Building Division, 1990. 

City of Gainesville Code of Ordinances, March 1991. 

City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development Petition Files, 1984 through 
1987. 

City of Gainesville Mail Survey, August 1988. 

City of Gainesville Master Parcel system as of July 15, 1988. 

City of Gainesville. Patterns of Change . 1986. 

Code Enforcement Division of the Gainesville Public Safety Inspections Department, 
Gainesville Housing Condition Survey, 1982. 

Department of Housing and Urban Development Federal Assistance Limits for 1987. 

Don Emerson Appraisal Company, February 1987. 

Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 1988. 

Gainesville Homebuilders Association, 1988. 

Gainesville Housing Authority, 1987. 

Gainesville Sun, February 14, 1988 - March 7, 1988. 

Health Program Office, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, May 
1987. 

Housing Assistance Plan, Department of Community Development Block Grant 
Management and Review,1988. 

National Association of Homebuilders, 1988. 

Repon on "Methodology for Population Projections," City of Gainesville Department of 
Community Development. Note: This report was submitted as part of interim 
report. Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Funding Program, 
April 30, 1988. 

Sipe, Neil G. and Hopkins, Robert W. (1984). Microcomputers and Economic Analysis: 
Spreadsheet Templates for Local Government . Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, page 23, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 



47 



Housing 

Southern Building Congress, 1988. 

Urban Decision Systems of Los Angeles, CA., 1987. 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population and Housing, 1980. 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population and Housing, 1980 and the Bureau of Economic 
and Business Research, University of Florida. 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population and Housing, 1980, and the City of Gainesville 
Building Division. 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population and Housing, 1980, and the City of Gainesville 
Department of Community Development 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population and Housing, 1980; the City of Gainesville 

Department of Public Safety Inspections; and the City of Gainesville Department of 
Community Development 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980, Neighboriiood Statistics Program. 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population and Housing,1980; Urban Decision Systems of 
Los Angeles, CA 1987; and the City of Gainesville Department of Community 
Development. 

Year-To-Date Summary of Sales Activity of the Gainesville Multiple Listing Service, 1988. 



48 



APPENDIX A 



# 



m 



METHODOLOGY FOR HOUSING PROJECTIONS 



Projecting the future number of households is an important aspect of assessing the future 
housing need for the City of Gainesville. In order to develop these population projections it 
was necessary to determine the population expected to reside in the city, the average household 
size, the number of households, the persons per household and the number of households by 
income range. The methodology for the City's population projections are presented in the 
following sections of this report. 

Population Projections 

Population projections for the update of the City's Comprehensive Plan have been produced by 
using two techniques: extrapolation and ratio methods. Three levels of projections were 
developed: low, medium and high. Based on current trends the medium level projections will 
be used in updating the Comprehensive Plan. 

Table 1 : PROJECTION OF CITY POPULATION 

Year Low Medium High 

1991 86,672 87,930 88,415 

1996 89,245 92,732 95,445 

2001 91,895 97,116 101,563 

SOURCE: Report on "Methodology for Population Projections", City of Gainesville 
Department of Community Development. Note: This report was submitted as part of interim 
report. Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Funding Program, April 30, 
1988. 

Average Household Size 

In 1980, the U.S. Bureau of the Census reported that the average household size for 
Gainesville was 2.55 persons per occupied household. This calculation was made using the 
following formula: 

(P-G)/Z = Y average household size 

Total population in 1980 8 1 37 1 = P 

Group Homes in 1980 9154 =G 

Occupied Households in 1980 28307 = Z 

(81371-91 54)28307 = Y Y = 2.55 persons per household 

The 1987 estimated average household size for the City of Gainesville was 2.4747 (Source: 
Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR), University of Florida). 

Based on reports published by the Census Bureau since 1980, the average household size will 
continue to dechne but at a slower rate than in the past. The (Census Bureau bases its 
projections on statistics of age at first marriage, divorce ratios, unmarried couples, and the 

A-1 



living arrangement of children and adults. Based on current household size will be 
approximately 2.45 persons per household (City of Gainesville, Patterns of Change ). The 
projections for the two Comprehensive Plan planning periods (1996 and 2001) are calculated 
using the following formula: 

1996 Average Household Size = E-(Y2-Y1)*D) 

= 2.4747-((1996-1987)*.00176)) 
= 2.4747-(9*.00176) 
= 2.4747-.01584 
= 2.4588 

2001 Average Household Size = E-(Y3-Y1)*D) 

= 2.4747-((2001-1987)*.00176)) 
= 2.4747-(14*.00176) 
= 2.4747-.02462 
= 2.4500 



1987 estimate 


E = 2.4747 


2000 projection 


P = 2.45 


Year 2001 


= Y3 


Year 1996 


= Y2 


Year 1987 


= Y1 


Average Decrease in 


= D 


Size per Year 






D = (E-P)/(Y3-Y1) 




D = (2.4747-2.45)714 




D = .00176 



Number of Households 

The anticipated number of households is determined by taking the projected medium range 
population for the two planning periods less the number of persons projected in Group Homes 
divided by the projected average household size. The projections for the number of 
households are calculated using the following formula: 



1996 Projected Households 



2(K)1 Projected Households 



= (P1-G)/S1 =H 
H = (92732- 10410)72.4588 
H = 82,32272.4588 
H = 33480 

= (P2-G)7S2 = H 
H = (97116- 10410)72.4500 
H = 8670672.4500 
H = 35389 



Projected Population 1996 = PI = 92732 
Projected Population 200 1 = P2 = 97 1 1 6 
*Group Homes Population =G =10410 
1996 Projected Household Size = S 1 = 2.4588 
2001 Projected Household Size = S2 = 2.4500 
Number of Households = H 

*Source: Patterns of Change . Citv of Gainesville. 



A-2 



Persons Per Household 

The projected persons per household is based on the Share Population Projection Model. The 
following formula was used to project the persons per household for the two planning periods: 

Person Per Households (Share) = ((Y2-Y1)/(1980 City pop. - 1970 City pop.) * (City pop. 

projection - 1980 City pop.)) + Y2 

Source: Sipe, Neil G. and Hopkins, Robert W. (1984). Microcomputers and Economic 
Analysis: Spreadsheet Templates for Local Government. Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, page 23, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 



Example: 

1996 One Person Households 



= ((6713 - 3185)728307 - 18777) * (33480 - 28307) + 

6713 
= (3528/9530)* (5173) + 6713 
= (.3701993 * 5173) + 6713 
= 1915 + 6713 
= 8628 



Table 2: 



PERSONS PER HOUSEHOLD 



YEAR 


1970 


1980 


1996 


2001 


POPULATION 


64510 
(YD 


81371 
(Y2) 


92732 


97116 


1 Person 


3185 


6713 


8628 


9335 


2 Persons 


6013 


9830 


11902 


12667 


3 Persons 


3558 


5324 


6283 


6636 


4 Persons 


3136 


3901 


4316 


4469 


5 Persons 


1546 


1546 


1546 


1546 


6 Persons 


1339 


993 


805 


736 



Total 



18777 



28307 



33480 



35389 



Households by Income Range 

Estimates and projections of household incomes are based on a report by Urban Decision 
Systems of Los Angeles, CA. The report's 1987 projected number of households for each 
census tract within the city limits were added together and divided by the total number of 
households in order to attain the percentage of households (See Table 3) in each income range. 
The percentage was then applied to the number of households projected by City staff. 



# 



A-3 



Table 3 



( 



Household Income Range 
Percentages 



Less than 
$ 5,000- 
$ 10,000 - 
$ 15,000 - 
$ 20,000 - 
$ 25,000 - 
$ 35,000 - 
$ 50,000 -f 



$ 5,000 
$ 9,999 
$14,999 
$ 19,999 
$ 24,999 
$ 34,999 
$ 49,999 



Urban Decision System 1987 Estimated 



11.00% 
13.79% 
15.03% 
11.41% 
9.63% 
15.33% 
12.09% 
11.72% 



The following formula was used to calculate households by income range for the two planning 
periods: 

Household by Income Range = (1987 estimated percentage * projected households) 



Less than $5,000 



= 1 1.00% * 33480 (1996 projection) 
= 3683 



Table 4: 



HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME RANGE 



Household 
Income Range 



Less than $ 
$ 5,000-$ 
$ 10,000 - $ 
$ 15,000 - $ 
$ 20,000 - $ 
$ 25,000 - $ 
$ 35,000 - $ 
$ 50,000 + 

Total* 



5,000 
9,999 
14,999 
19,999 
24,999 
34,999 
49,999 



1996 


2001 


Households 


Households 


3683 


3893 


4617 


4880 


5032 


5319 


3820 


4038 


3224 


3408 


5132 


5425 


4048 


4279 


3924 


4148 



33480 



35389 



* Due to rounding totals do not always balance. 
Note: Projections are based on 1987 dollars. 



A-4 



APPENDIX B 



r 



r 



DEFINITIONS 



Foster Family Home For Children • A dwelling owned or rented by, and occupied by, parents 
licensed by the State to provide personal care for foster children, all of whom live together in 
such a dwelling as a family unit with traditional family ties. 

Foster Family Home For Adults - A dwelling owned or rented by, and occupied by, a person 
licensed by the State to provide personal care to a maximum of two foster clients, or two foster 
children, or one foster client and one foster child in such a dwelling; provided, however, that 
an unlimited number of foster clients and/or foster children are permitted in this home when 
such clients and/or children, are members of one family, that is, all related to each other by 
blood, or by adoption, and provided, further, that such an arrangement does not violate or 
conflict with Sec. 29-26(m) of this Code of Ordinances. This term does not include any 
dwelling wherein parents and/or sponsors are placed in such a dwelling by any business or 
organization which provides personal care for foster children or foster cHents. 

Personal Care Group Home -In 1989, the State adopted Florida Statute 419 which limits local 
government's ability to regulate personal care group homes. The City is in the process of 
amending it's zoning code to comply with this Act. In the interim. State law takes precedence 
over the City's Zoning Code. The Act defines a Community Residential Home as a "dwelling 
unit licensed to serve clients of the Department of Health and Rehabihtative Services, which 
provides a living environment for 7 to 14 unrelated residents who operate as the functional 
equivalent of a family, including the supervision and care by supportive staff as may be 
necessary to meet the physical, emotional, and social needs of the residents." The Act further 
states that "homes of six or fewer residents which otherwise meet the definition of a 
community residential home shall be deemed a single-family unit and a noncommercial, 
residential use for the purpose of local laws and ordinances. Regulations for homes with more 
than 14 residents remain the same as stated in the City's Zoning Code. 

Social Service Home or Halfway Hou.se - A facility providing professional care, resident or 
nonresident, for those requiring therapy, counseling, or other rehabihtative services related to 
drug abuse, alcohol abuse, social disorders, physical disabilities, mental retardation, or similar 
problems. 



APPENDIX C 



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C-1 



Table 43 




COMPARISON OF TENURE 








CITY OF GAINESVILLE AND ALACHUA COUNfTY 


















Occupied 


Owner 


Percent 


Renter 


Percent 




Units 


Units 


Owned 


Units 


Rented 


























City of 












Gainesville 


27368 


13480 


49.30% 


13888 


50.70% 














Alachua 












Cksunty 


26299 


16545 


62.90% 


9754 


37.10% 


























SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980. 








Planning District 15 (University of Florida) was deleted from analysis. 






Alachua County figures do not include the City of Gainesville. 







TatDle 44 


VALUE OF OWNER-OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS 




CITY OF GAINESVILLE AND ALACHUA COUNTY 














City of Gainesville 


Alachua County 




Number and F^rcent 


Number and Percent 


VALUE(I) 


of Dwelling Units 


of Dwelling Units 












Less than $10,000 


244 


2.07% 


675 


6.90% 


$10,000-14,999 


310 


2.63% 


568 


5.80% 


$15,000-19,999 


425 


3.61% 


538 


5.50% 


$20,000-24.999 


623 


5.29% 


727 


7.40% 


$25,000-29,999 


71S 


6.11% 


773 


7.90% 


$30,000-34,999 


1092 


9.28% 


881 


9.00% 


$35,000-39,999 


1242 


10.55% 


671 


6.80% 


$40,000-49,999 


2365 


20.09% 


1138 


1 1 .60% 


$50,000-59,999 


1615 


13.72% 


1005 


10.20% 


$60,000-79,999 


1946 


16.53% 


1468 


15.00% 


$80,000-99.999 


774 


6.57% 


692 


7.10% 


$100,000-149.999 


321 


2.73% 


494 


5.00% 


$150-199.999 


67 


0.57% 


104 


1.10% 


$200,000 or more 


29 


0.25% 


80 


0.88% 












Median 


$44,800 




$40,600 














SOURCE; U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1980. 






Alachua County figures do not include the City of Gainesville. 














Note: 1. The value of the owner-occupied unit represents the respondent's estimate 


of how much the property (house and tot) or condominium unit would sell for, if it were 


for sale. 











( 



i 



C-2 



Table 45 



HOUSING COST AS A PERCENTAGE OF INCOME 
OWNER-OCCUPIED UNITS 



Household 
Income 


Median % of 
Income for Housing 


% of Households with 

Monthly Housir>g Costs 

At 30% or more of Income 














City 


County 


City 


County 












Less than 










$10,000 


35.80% 


32.50% 


55.40% 


53.10% 












$10,000- 










$19,999 


23.30% 


21.00% 


29.50% 


23.80% 












$20,000 










or more 


14.00% 


16.10% 


4.90% 


6.50% 












Totals 


- 




21.20% 


23.60% 



RENTER-OCCUPIED UNITS 



Household 
Income 


Median % of 
Income for Housing 


% of Households with 

Monthly Housing Cost 

at 30% or more of income 




City 


County 


City 


County 












Less than 










$10,000 


50%+ 


50%+ 


73.60% 


52.60% 












$10,000- 










$19,999 


23.20% 


24.50% 


22.50% 


14.10% 












$20,000 










or more 


15.70% 


15.00% 


1 .60% 


2.20% 












Totals 


- 


- 


50.90% 


56.10% 



SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980. 



C-3 



Table 46 



CONDITION OF HOUSING BY PLANNING DISTRICT 



( 



Condition 1 
Planning Total # o< # and % 

District Housing Units Dilapidated 



Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition 4 

n and % Substandard # and % # and % 

(Major Repairs) (Slandard-lair) (Standard-good) 



Overall % Substandard 
Rating (1)and(2) 



1 


300 


34 


1 1 .30% 


113 


37.70% 


39 


13.00% 


114 


38.00% 


2.8 


49% 


2 


1.596 


20 


1 .30% 


381 


23.90% 


457 


28.60% 


738 


46.20% 


3.2 


25.13% 


3 


682 


128 


14.80% 


395 


45.80% 


187 


21.70% 


152 


17.60% 


2.4 


60.67% 


4 


1.342 


28 


2.10% 


282 


21% 


482 


35.90% 


550 


41 .00% 


3.2 


23.10% 


5 


1.241 


1 


0.10% 




3.50% 


326 


26.30% 


871 


70.20% 


37 


3.55% 


6 


2.426 





0.20% 


43 


0.90% 


402 


16.60% 


2.003 


82.60% 


3.8 


0.87% 


7 


1216 


2 


0.20% 


21 


0.30% 


225 


18.50% 


985 


81.00% 


3.8 


0.49% 


8 


1.968 


3 


1.10% 


4 


2.90% 


169 


8.60% 


1.738 


88.30% 


39 


3.10% 


9 


2.927 


31 


0.20% 


58 


10.70% 


1.058 


36.50% 


1,515 


51.80% 


3.4 


11.75% 


10 


2.319 


5 


0.80% 


313 


2.40% 


1.134 


48.90% 


1,125 


48.50% 


3.5 


2.59% 


11 


2.126 


17 


10.70% 


55 


18.60% 


770 


36.20% 


944 


44.40% 


3.2 


19.38% 


12 


1.501 


161 


3.60% 


395 


19.50% 


436 


29.00% 


612 


40.80% 


3 


30.18% 


13 


1.057 


71 


0% 


292 


33% 


541 


27.60% 


700 


35.80% 


3 


36.59% 


14 


2,851 


1 


0% 


645 


5.80% 


347 


1^20% 


2,339 


82.00% 


3.8 


5.79% 


16a 


525 





0% 


164 


0.40% 


149 


28.40% 


374 


71.20% 


3.7 


0.38% 


17a 


2,423 





0% 


2 


0.10% 


86 


3.50% 


2,335 


96.40% 


4 


0.08% 


19a 


1.193 





0% 


2 



3.165 


0% 


1 


0.10% 


1.192 


99.90% 


4 


0.00% 


Totals 


28,773 


502 


1.70% 


11.00% 


6.819 


23.70% 


18,287 


63.60% 


3.5 





SOURCE; City o( Gainesville Housing Conditions Survey. Department of Housing and 
Neighborhood Assistance. 1982. 



< 



Notes: 

1 . A unit classified as "dilapidated" (to be demolished) has deterioration in excess of 50% of its value or numerous major violations. 

2. A unit classified as "substandard* (major repairs) has numerous minor violations or a combination of major and minor violations, or major violations 
valued at 50% or less of the unit's value. 

3. A unit classified as 'standard-fair" (minor repairs) has three or more minor violations only. 

4. A unit classified as "stcindard-good" has less than three minor violations. 

Planning District 15 ( the University oi Florida) was deleted from analysis. 

Methodology: 

Housing units were inspected by Building Code Enforcement Officials. The following visual 
inspection violation categorizatbn was used to determine the unit's dassificalion: 
Minor Violations 

1. Broken, missing , or cracked window panes (one violation each window). 

2. Damaged or missing window and door screens (one violation each instance). 
3 Exterior wood surface lacking paint or with deteriorated paint. 

4. Deteriorated wood trim (sn^all amount only). 

5 Minor roof deterioration. 

6 Trash and debris on premises. 

Major Violations 

1. Multiple instances of minor violations: i.e. numerous broken windows. 

2 Detenorated extenor wood siding and/or supporting members. 

3 Major roof detenoration. 

4 Improper piers, sagging, leaning, or other structural delects. 

5 Inadequate electrical service. 



C-4 



i 



Table 47 




SELECTED HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 


i 




1 






CITY OF GAINESVILLE 
























! 










Total 






# Lacking 


# Lacking # Lacking 


% Lacking 






Planning 


Housing 


# Lacking 


% Lacking 


Complete 


Complete i Central 


Central 


# Over- 


% Over- 


District 


Units 


Plumbing(l) 


Plumbing 


Kitchen (2) 


Kitchen 


Heat (3) 


Heat 


Crowded (4) 1 Crowded 




















1 


315 


13 


4.10% 


27 


8.60% 


271 


86.00% 


9 2.90% 


2 


1S81 


66 


3.90% 


82 


4.90% 


1155 


68.70% 


59 3.50% 


3 


936 


36 


3.80% 


45 


4.80% 1 767 


81.90% 


69 


7.40% 


4 


1440 


149 


10.30% 


138 


9.60% 


735 


51.00% 


41 


2.80% 


5 


1214 


4 


0.30% 


9 


0.70% 


179 


14.70% 


6 


0.50% 


6 


2638 


n/a 


n/a 


8 


0.30% 


261 


9.90% 


28 


1.10% 


7 


1593 


3 


0.20% 


6 


0.40% 


47 


3.00% 


16 


1 .00% 


8 


915 


3 


0.30% 


15 


1.60% 


287 


31 .40% 


16 


1 .70% 


9 


2793 


10 


0.40% 


40 


1.40% 


1276 


45.70% 


78 


2.80% 


10 


2487 


4 


0.20% 


7 


0.30% 


511 


20.50% 


76 


3.10% 


11 


2413 


42 


1.70% 


64 


2.70% 


1413 


58.60% 


53 


2.20% 


12 


1500 


38 


2.50% 


19 


1.30% 


949 


63.30% 


236 


15.70% 


13 


2060 


22 


1.10% 


68 


3.30% 


1154 


56% 


249 


12.10% 


14 


2748 


4 


0.10% 


21 


0.80% 


604 


22% 


129 


4.70% 


16a 


546 


1 


0.20% 


n/a 


n/a 


37 


6.80% 


n/a 


n/a 


17a 


2670 


5 


0.20% 


n/a 


n/a 


81 


3% 


43 


1 .60% 


19a 


909 


1 


0.10% 


13 


1 .40% 


21 


2.30% 


10 


1.10% 






















City Totals 


28858 


401 


1 .40% 


562 


1.90% 


9748 


33.80% 


1118 


3.90% 






















SOURCE: 1980 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Neighborhood Statistics Program. 










Planning Distrid 15 ( University of Rorida) was deleted from analysis. 


























1 


Notes: 














1 


A housing unit is classified as 'iacking plumbing" when (1 ) all three specified plumbing facifities (hot and 


1 


cold piped water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower) are present inside the unit, but are so used by 






another household; (2) some but not all the facilities are present: or (3) none of the three specified 








plumbing facilities are present. 












1 1 1 












A tx>using unit is classified as "lacking complete kitchen" H it does not have (1) an installed sink with 








piped water, (2) a range or cookstove. and (3) a mechanical refirgeralor. All kitchen facilities must be 








located within the same structure. 
















1 1 
















A housing unit is classified as "lacking central heat" H it does not use as its primary source of heal; (1) a 






steam or hot water systenm (2) a central warm-air fumance with ducts to the individual rooms, or (3) 








an electric heal pump. 


















1 


















A housing unit is classified as "over-crowded" if it is occupied by 1.01 or more persons per room. 




1 



# 



C-5 






IPhapter F 

Conservation, Open Space 
and Groundwater Recharge 

: Element 



^smss^ 






4''4f*¥ 



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\% ¥¥:-ft:S¥r ■■•■••::■•:•:•:■:•.■:■>::••:. 

s •»'•■•• :-;-.v;>-;w;-:v; 






I 



CONSERVATION, OPEN SPACE, 
AND GROUNDWATER RECHARGE 



DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



t 



City of Gainesville 

1991 - 2001 
Comprehensive Plan 



Prepared by 

The Department of Community Development 

Comprehensive Planning Section 

November 1991 



"Preparation of this document was aided through financial assistance received from the Stale of Florida under 
the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program authorized by Chapter 87-98, Laws of 
Florida and administered by the Florida Department of Community Affairs." 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i 

INTRODUCTION 1 

THE VISION 1 

Gainesville's Greenway Network 1 

Trees and Creeks 1 

Restoration and Preservation of Greenways 3 

Trees & Tree-Lined Streets 4 

Creeks 7 

Open Space 7 

Identification of Environmentally Significant Open Space 9 

Regulation of Environmentally Significant Open Space 12 

Environmental Management of Public Parks & Open Space . .12 

Acquisition of Environmentally Significant Open Space 15 

GAINESVILLE'S NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: THE COMPONENTS 16 

GROUNDWATER 16 

Physical Geography 16 

Inventory of Groundwater 18 

Surficial Zone 18 

Intermediate Zone 18 

Floridan Zone 20 

Major Natural Groundwater Recharge Areas 22 

Artificial Recharge 24 

Movement of Groundwater in Floridan Aquifer System 25 

Supply and Conservation of Groundwater 29 

Use of Horidan Groundwater 31 

Assessment of Groundwater Quality 34 

Functions of Aquifer Systems 36 

Strengths & Deficiencies of Existing Regulations & Programs in 

Maintaining the Natural Functions of the Floridan Aquifer 37 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection 39 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 39 

SURFACE WATERS 43 

Inventory of Surface Waters 43 

Assessment of Surface Water Quality 45 

Functions of Surface Waters 47 

Existing and Potential Commercial and Recreational Uses 47 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 48 

PLANTS, ANIMALS, AND THEIR HABITATS 50 

Inventory & Problems Regarding Plants, Animals 50 

Functions of Plants and Animals 54 

Existing & Potential Commercial, Recreational Uses 56 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection 57 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 58 



AIR 59 

Inventory of Air Quality 59 

Indoor Air Pollution 62 

Noise 63 

Functions of Healthy Air Quality 64 

Air Quality Conservation Strategies 64 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 64 

SOILS A>rt) MINERALS 65 

Inventory of Soils 65 

Inventory of Minerals 68 

Functions of Soils 68 

Soil Problems 70 

Existing & Potential Commercial, Recreational Uses of Minerals 70 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection of Minerals 70 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection of Soils 70 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 70 

OPEN SPACE 72 

Inventory of Open Space 72 

Existing & Potential Commercial, Recreational Uses 74 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection 74 

POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION 79 

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAM 79 

HAZARDOUS WASTES 81 

ENERGY 82 

ECONOMIC COSTS OF DAMAGE TO GAINESVILLE'S NATURAL 

ENVIRONMENT 83 

APPENDIX 

DEFINITIONS A-1 

TABLE 2 B-1 

TABLE 3 C-1 

TABLE 4 D-1 

TABLE 5 E-1 

TABLE 6 F-1 

TABLE 7 G-1 

TABLE 8 H-1 

BIBLIOGRAPHY M 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 1 . Projected Demand for Potable Water from Murphree Wellfield 33 

Table 2. Inventory of Creeks, Lakes and Wetlands B-1 

Table 3. Basin-By-Basin Surface Water Inventory Within the GUA C- 1 

Table 4. Special Protection Species of Alachua County D-1 

Table 5 . Catalog of Ecological Communities by Site Location E- 1 

Table 6. City of Gainesville Open Space inventory F-1 

Table?. Propeny Within 150 Feet of Surface Waters G-1 

Table 8. Park Inventory H- 1 



Page 



LIST OF MAPS 



Page 

Map 1. Creek Segments That May Be in Need of Restoration 5 

Map 2. Environmental Conservation Areas 11 

Map 3. Physiographic Zones and Topography 17 

Map 4. Aquifer Systems in Gainesville Urban Area 19 

Map 5. Degree of Confinement of the Floridan Aquifer System 21 

Map 6. Major Natural Groundwater Recharge Areas 23 

Map 7. Potentiometric Surface of the Floridan Aquifer - 1987 26 

Map 8. Potentiometric Surface of the Floridan Aquifer - 1965 27 

Map 9. Potentiometric Surface of the Floridan Aquifer - 1977 28 

Map 10. Community WeUfields 32 

Map 1 1 . Creeks, Laikes, Wedands 44 

Map 1 2. Potential & Known Point Source Pollution Problems 46 

Map 1 3. Dominant Ecological Communities 55 

Map 14. General Soil Associations 67 

Map 15. Commercial Excavation of Natural Resources 69 

Map 16. Urban Soil Development Limitations 71 

Map 17. Significant Ecological Communities 75 

Map 18. 100-YearRoodplain 76 

Map 19. Land Designated as Open Space on City Land Use Map 77 



o 

LIST OF FIGURES 

Page 

Figure 1. Gainesville Greenway Network 2 

Figure 2. Trees and Tree-Lined Streets: Conservation Strategies 6 

Figure 3. Creek Corridor: Examples of Conservation Principles 8 

Figure 4. Environmental Overlay Regulations (Schematic) 13 

Figure 5. Groundwater: Problems and Conservation Strategies 40 

Figure 6. Surface Waters: Problems and Conservation Strategies 49 

Figure 7. Gainesville Ecological Communities 51 

Figure 8. Plants, Animals and Their Habitat: Problems & Conservation Strategies 60 

Figure 9. Air: Problems and Conservation Strategies 66 

Figure 10. Soils: Problems and Conservation Strategies 73 



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CONSERVATION, OPEN SPACE, AND GROUNDWATER 

RECHARGE ELEMENT 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



The Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge Element of the City of 
Gainesville Comprehensive Plan identifies the environmental features of the city and 
describes the functions of those features. The Element also identifies the key community 
priorities for environmental conservation, and proposes strategies for the attainment of such 
conservation. The following is a summary of the Element: 

THE VISION: A GREENWAY NETWORK 

A plan for environmental conservation and open space should include a grand vision which 
illustrates what the community expects GainesviUe to look like in the future. This Element 
proposes a "Greenway Network" vision, which includes tree-lined creeks, tree-lined 
streets, and interconnected open spaces for recreation and wildlife habitat. 

Gainesville's plan for a city wide greenway network includes: 

The Network Map . Identifies major tree-lined streets, "gateway" streets, linear 
creek and open space corridors, rail-trails, and important natural areas. 

Restoring and Preserving Green ways . Several miles of city creeks and tree-lined 
streets offer visual beauty, wildlife habitat, and recreation for the community. 
Certain segments, however, have been damaged as a result of improper 
development and human activity. This section identifies some of the known 
segments in need of restoration and proposes preservation and restoration 
strategies. 

Regulating Environmentally Significant Open Space . This section describes how 
environmentally significant areas of the city are identified. It also describes 
strategies to protect environmentally significant land owned by the public and 
private sectors. Furthermore, the section discusses areas where environmental 
overlay zones may be needed (zones which would apply special development 
regulations to properties containing environmentally significant attributes). In 
addition, the section describes environmental management of public parks and open 
space. 

Acquiring Land to Expand the Network . This section recommends use of a ranking 
system to identify properties that are most important for acquisition. The section 
also describes types of acquisition and acquisition issues. 



GAINESVILLE'S NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: THE COMPONENTS 

There are five broad components of Gainesville's natural environment: 

* Groundwater (includes wellfields, aquifer/groundwaier recharge) 

* Surface Waters 

* Plants, Animals, and Their Habitat (includes threatened and endangered 
species) 

* Air 

* Soils 

The Element describes the importance of each of the five components by discussing the 
functions of these natural resources. Functions are presented in such a way as to illustrate 
the benefits they provide. Current and potential problems associated with the abuse of these 
resources are also presented, as are the strategies available to protect natural resources. 

OTHER ISSUES 

The Element contains sections describing (1) "point source" pollution problems; (2) a 
proposal to establish a comprehensive and ongoing environmental monitoring program; (3) 
hazardous waste issues; and (4) economic costs of damage to the environment. 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



INTRODUCTION 



Despite its urban character, the Gainesville area contains relatively high-quality air, soil, 
water, and urban wildlife. Gainesville's natural environment provides essential services for 
the community. In addition to providing beauty, the natural environment stores, transports, 
and cleans surface waters and drinking water. It assimilates and filters pollutants. It offers 
recreational opportunities, and supports various economic activities such as tourism, 
mining, and agriculture. It provides habitat for plants and animals. Most importantly, 
Gainesville's natural environment is self-managing. That is, when allowed to function 
naturaUy, it provides services without the need for large public expenditures. Trees and 
wetlands, for example, filter pollutants much more cheaply than smokestack scrubbers or 
sewage treatment plants. 

The primary purpose of the Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 
Element is to identify Gainesville's natural environmental features, describe the functions 
and services they provide to the community, and describe the actions that should be taken 
to preserve, conserve, or restore the functions of the natural features found in the 
community. By protecting the natural environment, Gainesville's long-term quality of life 
is protected, and the cost of pollution and hazard control is minimized. 

THE VISION 



Gainesville's Greenway Network 

The Gainesville urban area contains several outstanding natural features. These features, 
such as Paynes Prairie, Newnans Lake, Bivens Arm, and Hogtown Prairie, are islands of 
spectacular environmental quality interspersed throughout the urban landscape. The 
Recreation Element Data Collection & Analysis Section refers to these islands as "gems" of 
an "Emerald Necklace." 

Tying the gems together are a series of connecting strands, or green corridors. The 
corridors consist of tree-lined streets, gateway streets, creeks, and trails. Together, the 
gems and corridors form the "Greenway Network" shown in Figure 1. Protecting the 
network, and restoring parts of it that have been degraded, will provide the following: 

* A maximum amount of visual and physical public access to the natural 
environment at minimum cost. 

* Habitat corridors and islands for urban wildlife. 



* 



Preservation of representative samples of the ecological communities of 
Alachua County. 



Trees and Creeks 

Trees and creeks are the most visible ingredients of the greenway network. Gainesville's 
trees and creeks are either directly or indirectiy associated with almost all categories of 
environmental preservation, conservation, and restoration: 



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Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



* Creeks receive large volumes of untreated storm water runoff. Such runoff 
is probably the most significant source of urban pollution. Creeks are 
therefore essential to the cleansing of runoff before it reaches our aquifer 
system. 

* Creeks may be negatively affected by soil erosion and septic tank effluent. 
Maintaining a buffer of trees and other vegetation along creeks helps to 
protect creek water quality. 

* Creekside lands contain the largest and most important acreages of complete 
plant communities including trees and other forms of vegetation, and habitat 
for wildlife. 

* A strong connection between conservation and passive recreation exists. 
Publicly accessible recreation along the greenways of the network provides 
environmental education and stimulates appreciation for the natural 
environment. 

* Several lakes and wetiands are physically connected to creeks. 

* Flow from creeks and lakes enters the Floridan Aquifer directiy through 
sinkholes and wells. 

* The Gainesville tree canopy, particularly along tree-lined streets, offers 
large numbers of Gainesville motorists and out-of-town visitors with a view 
of the natural beauty of the area. The trees are therefore an important part of 
Gainesville's image as an area of environmental quality. 

* Trees are important in reducing air pollution, soil erosion, and noise 
pollution. Strategically planted, they also serve to conserve energy (by 
providing a cooling effect) and operating as wind breaks. 

* Restoring channeUzed or otherwise damaged creeks is one of the most 
important environmental restoration efforts needed in the city. Another is the 
restoration of formerly tree-lined streets. 

Restoration and Preservation of Greenways 

The quahty of the greenway network can be improved dramatically through various 
restoration projects. SeveraJ gateway streets, essential to the quality-of-life image that 
Gainesville seeks to project, are in need of various streetscape improvements. Street 
segments that may be in need of restoration are shown in Figure 1. 

Several formerly natural creeks are now little more than drainage ditches. Since drainage 
ditches typically lack most of the features necessary to provide for environmental quality 
(such as habitat, pollution and flood control, and aesthetics), the City should investigate the 
feasibility of restoring certain ditches to their formerly natural condition. Restoration 
strategies for various ditches would vary based on the opportunities and constraints of each 
ditch, but would generally strive to promote the list of "Creek Protection and Restoration 
Objectives" shown on page 7. 

Examples of restoration techniques would include (but are not limited to) replacement of 
noxious vegetation with vegetation more suited to restoration objectives, reconfiguring the 



Conservaiion, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



ditch from a straight-line channel to a more curvilinear pattem, establishing appropriate 
vegetation in areas with insufficient vegetation, and reducing the intensity of certain ditch 
maintenance efforts that tend to conflict with restoration objectives. Map 1 indicates creek 
segments that may be in need of restoration. 



Trees and Tree-Lined Streets 

More than any other factor, Gainesville's image is shaped by its trees. With a 46 percent 
tree canopy, Gainesville has perhaps the most extensive tree cover of any Rorida city. And 
because so much of our day-to-day travel is on roads, the trees lining our streets are the 
most important means of conveying the image of Gainesville as "a city in a forest" 

According to the City Arborist, at least 1,000 trees per year must be replanted to maintain 
the urban forest within public rights-of-way, easements, parks, and riparian areas. The 
City should replant at least 400 of these trees annually, and encourage citizens and private 
organizations to replant at least 600 more trees annually to attain the necessary l,O()0-tree 
replanting minimum. 

Along many streets, trees are in a healthy condition. Other streets, however, will require 
various forms of tree restoration. It is also important that new streets be designed to 
incorporate a vigorous tree canopy. 

STREET TREE PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OBJECTIVES 

* Maximizing street tree canopy. 

* Ensuring that gateway streets convey the message that Gainesville is a Tree 
City. 

* Promoting use of tree species native to north Florida (or otherwise 
appropriate for Gainesville streets). 

* Minimizing the conflict between street trees and utility lines. 

* Promoting species diversity by striving to allow no more than 20 percent of 

any one tree genus citywide. (According to the City Arborist, the most 
common tree species in Gainesville are laurel oak, live oak, sweetgum, 
slash pine, loblolly pine, water oak, camphor, magnolia, sugarberry, and 
red maple. Rather than these species, the City encourages future plantings, 
when appropriate, to consist of less common species. Refer to the List of 
Approved Trees of Gainesville, available from the Gainesville Department 
of Community Development.) 

Figure 2 illustrates important preservation, conservation, and restoration policies for trees 
and tree-lined streets. 



o 



1 

Memo from .Meg Niederhofer. City Arborist, October 10. 1989. 
2 
Conversation with Meg Niedcrhofer, City Arbonst, March 22, 1990, in association with David Hall, University of Rorida 

Herbarium. 



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Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Creeks 

The 42 miles of creeks within the city form another network of greenways traversing the 
city. Creek greenways are lined with a diverse array of vegetation, and form the most 
important wildlife habitat within the city. Because of their attractiveness, creek greenways 
are identified as an important component in Gainesville's active and passive recreation 
plans. (See REC: 3-6, 24-28). 

CREEK PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OBJECTIVES 

* Maximizing creek water quality. 

* Maximizing the wildlife habitat capability of creek greenways. 

* Minimizing the need for creek maintenance. 

* Providing public access, through publicly-owned creek segments, in ways 
that will minimize disturbance to natural ecological communities. 

Figure 3 illustrates important preservation, conservation, and restoration policies for creek 
corridors. 

Open Space 

In urban areas such as Gainesville, open space is extremely patchy, isolated, and 
disconnected. A key planning objective, which promotes public access and environmental 
awareness, wildlife habitat, and overall environmental quality, is to connect these isolated 
spaces with corridors. There are several categories of open space in Gainesville ~ many of 
which can be part of the corridor-promoting Greenway Network. An acreage inventory for 
each of these categories can be found in Table 6 in the Appendix. There is also an inventory 
of existing public and private park sites (See Table 8 in the Appendix). 

OPEN SPACE OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS 

* Urban definition, promotion of compact development, and control of urban 
sprawl 

* Space for recreation, and linkages to recreation and nature sites 

* Promoting public health and safety by controlling hazards and nuisances 

* Improving aesthetics and the image of the community, promoting pleasant 
and quiet surroundings, and therefore increasing property values. 

* Promoting environmental conservation, particularly through provision of 
natural habitat to support native wildlife diversity, habitat corridors, and 
preservation of important environmental features. 

* Moderating extreme climate conditions by controlling wind, temperature, 
and water. 

* Reducing air and water pollution. 





















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Conservaticm, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



The following sections describe identification, regulation, and acquisition of 
environmentally significant open space. 

Identification of Environmenta lly Significant Open Space 

Although much of the natural environment in the Gainesville urban area has been developed 
for urban uses, the city retains many environmentally significant features (not to mention 
those areas that can be restored to a more natural condition). In the Gainesville area, 
environmentally significant features include: 

Creeks Noted elsewhere in this Element for possessing a wide range of essential 

ecological and recreational functions. The City's "Regulation of 
Development Near Creeks" Ordinance recognizes the high value the 
community assigns to the creeks. 

Lakes Possess a wide range of essential ecological and recreational functions. 

Wetlands Perhaps the single most essential component of the ecology of the urban 
area. 

Floodplain Floodplains are widely recognized for providing important species habitat 
and wildlife corridors, pollution mitigation, recreational and visual 
amenities, and storage of floodwaters. 

Threatened and 

Endangered 

Species 

Habitat Preservation of such species is critical to the maintenance of biological 

diversity. The ability of these species to survive is an indicator of the 
ecological health of an area. Diversity promotes ecosystem survival and 
preserves species that may be important to humans in the future. 

Semiconfined Aquifer Zone. 

Stream-to-Sink Basins. 

and Municipal 

Wellfield The semiconfined zone of the Floridan aquifer system, stream-to-sink 

basins, and the municipal wellfield area merit siinilar protection; namely, 
land uses in these areas must be regulated to prevent the spilling of 
hazardous materials or polluted stormwater that can contaminate important 
groundwater resources. 

Significant 

Uplands Because they are so attractive for urban development, upland ecological 
communities are becoming threatened and endangered in the same way 
various species have become. As with threatened and endangered species, 
preservation of significant uplands is critical to the maintenance of biological 
diversity, particularly because many species are only able to survive in 
upland ecosystems. 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Radon Unlike other significant environmental features, radon is a feature to be 

minimized. Radon areas are a threat to human health, and regulations will be 
needed to reduce human exposure to radon gas. Some of the highest radon 
levels in the southeastern U.S. have been recorded in the GainesviUe area. 

In order to improve the city's ability to protect environmentally significant features, land 
containing such features shouldbe identified and mapped. The following lands should be 
considered areas where environmental overlay zones may be needed (zones which would 
apply special development regulations to properties containing environmentally significant 
attributes) 

Creeks: Land within 1 50 feet of the centerline of creeks regulated by the "Regulation 

of Development Near Creeks" ordinance" 

Lakes: Land within 1 50 feet of the recognized shoreline of lakes not adversely 

impacted by human-built structures or modifications 

Wetlands: Land within 150 feet of the recognized boundary of wedands not adversely 
impacted by human-built structures or modifications, including isolated, 
temporary wetlands 

Floodplain: Flood channel lands, and to a lesser extent, floodplain lands. 

Significant 

Uplands: Land showing a level of biological rarity, diversity, or ecosystem 

importance which is significant on at least a county-wide basis, as identified 
by the Alachua County Conservation Element (adopted July 11, 1989). 

Map 2 shows the generaUzed location of these environmental conservation areas. Creeks, 
lakes, and wedands have been chosen to identify environmental significance because: (1) 
they can be well defined on maps; and (2) they embody almost all of the significant 
environmental features of the city. (It should be noted that much of the city's groundwater 
recharge areas, floodplains, radon areas, and threatened and endangered species habitat 
areas are associated with creeks, lakes, and wetlands.) For significant features not 
associated with creeks, lakes, wedands, floodplains, or significant uplands, specific 
regulations tailored to each feature should be adopted. 



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Conservation, Oj)en Sjjace, and Groundwater Recharge 



Regulation of Environmentally Significant Open Space 

Lands within the environmental conservation areas should receive special consideration by 
the City. The lands should be evaluated to determine whether some form of public 
acquisition is appropriate. If not appropriate, development of the land should be govemed 
by a special set of environmental regulations. These regulations can be either "prescriptive" 
or "performance-based." 

Prescriptive regulations are the more traditional approach to land regulation. The developer 
is given no flexibility as to how to comply with the regulation. An example of such a 
regulation is: "there shall be no development within 200 feet of Lake Sunshine." Similarly, 
land use prohibitions will state which land uses are not permitted at particular locations. 

Performance-based regulations, on the other hand, describe what level of environmental 
protection the city desires, and require that development projects be designed to attain that 
level of protection. They therefore give the developer increased flexibility in designing a 
site to attain environmental conservation objectives. In addition, they are much more 
sensitive to the natural features of individual sites. Performance controls ask the developer 
and site planner: "what are the environmental constraints at the site, and how can/should 
you design the site to conserve such natural features?" An example of such a regulation is: 
"there shall be no net loss of wetland acreage or functions." 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AREA OBJECTIVES 

* Protecting or restoring surface water quality 

* Protecting or restoring the wildlife habitat capability of urban ecological 
communities 

* Protecting or restoring vegetation 

* Protecting the Floridan Aquifer System 

* Minimizing exposure to radon gas 

* Minimizing flood damage 

* Protecting or providing scenic and passive recreational opportunities 

* Minimizing soil erosion 

Figure 4 provides examples of the types of regulations that could be used for an 
environmental conservation areas. 

Environmental Management of Public Parks & Open Space 

Citizens of Gainesville and Alachua County have recently expressed great concern over 
development proposals in close proximity to the state-owned Paynes Prairie Preserve. The 
controversy exemplifies the vulnerability of public parks and open spaces to the potentially 
harmful effects of human activity and development 



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Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



There are two general types of parks and recreational open spaces: (1) "active" parks and 
open space, which are generally designed for relatively intensive recreational activities such 
as tennis or baseball; and (2) "passive" parks and open space, which rely on the natural 
amenities of the site for their attractiveness and value. (See REC: 84-85). As a result, there 
are differences in how the two types of sites should be conserved. 

For example, nearby neighborhoods may need to be protected from excess noise and 
lighting from active sites. In addition, because persons using active sites are usually 
engaged in more intensive recreational activity, they are generaUy more tolerant of 
distractions from nearby land uses. (Nevertheless, many active park users will desire some 
level of site protection from nearby land uses.) 

On the other hand, passive sites may contain sensitive wildlife that must be protected from 
human disturbance from nearby land uses. Also, persons using passive sites typically 
expect a more peaceful and undisturbed environment. 

In summary, while both active and passive sites require some degree of protection from 
nearby land uses, passive sites will generally require a greater degree of protection than 
active sites. Conservation of both active and passive parks and open spaces can be 
accomplished by adopting some or aU of the following strategies: 

* Preparing an environmental inventory and management plan for existing and future 
pubhc parks and open spaces, including an investigation of existing nuisance 
problems, environmental problems, and opportunities at these public sites. 

* Adopting criteria and conditions that must be adhered to in instances where 
consideration is being given to selling public properties or converting such 
properties to a new use. 

* Establishing buffers, when appropriate, to protect pubhc parks and open spaces 
from nearby development. (The Florida Department of Natural Resources refers to 
these buffers as "GreenUnes.") Land uses within buffer zones should be subject to 
performance standards which conform to the conservation objectives of public 
parks and open spaces. These objectives include: 

* Protecting or restoring viable populations of important plants and animals 
currently or historically found at the site from on- or off- site factors which 
threaten the viability of such features. Examples of threats include 
pesticides, vegetative clearing, noise, household pets, roads and vehicles, 
and soil erosion. 

* Protecting the site from on- or off-site factors which would significantly 
degrade the visual or serene quality of the site, such as excessive noise or 
structures incompatible with the character of the site. 

* Protecting the site from on- or off-site factors which would significantly 
modify the hydroperiod of site wedands, or degrade the quality of 
groundwater or surface waters at the site. 

* Protecting nearby land uses from controlled bums needed at certain sites to 
manage ecological communities of such sites. 



14 



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» 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Acquisition of Envi ronmentally Significant Open Space 

The Gainesville urban area contains large expanses of State-owned, publicly protected open 
spaces. Continued encroachment by human activities, however, may reduce ^e long-term 
viability of these natural open space systems. Many of these natural areas (which are all 
outside of city limits) are linked by the greenway network, which includes the Gainesville 
creek system, various trails, and tree-lined streets. Other State-owned areas can be linked to 
the greenway network through various acquisition and regulatory strategies. 

Implementing Gainesville's greenway networic plan will require efforts to acquire 
additional areas to strengthen and expand the network. Acquisitions include fee simple 
purchase of the land, purchase of development rights (such as conservation, trail or scenic 
easements), acceptance of land or development rights, or provision of private common 
areas. 

Most fee simple open space acquisition by the City is for the purpose of providing public 
parks. The Recreation Element Data Collection & Analysis Section calls for the acquisition 
of public conservation areas, community parks, neighborhood parks, and sports-complex 
parks (See REC: 12-13). When parks are acquired, the City should survey the site for 
environmentally significant habitats, and establish a management plan for such areas. 

Over the past 10 years, Gainesville's park acquisition program has added mostly passive 
park acreage to the existing stock of parks within the urban area. Because most of the 
recent acquisitions have not been developed for recreation, it is possible that the pace of 
future acquisitions may be slowed in order to provide funding for park development. 
However, continued population growth and development, along with the possibility of new 
funding sources for parks, may result in efforts to maintain or increase the pace of park 
acquisitions. 

The Gainesville park and open space acquisition program uses a number of criteria to 
determine the value of properties being considered for acquisition (See REC: 7-8). These 
criteria are designed to further the objectives of both the Recreation Element and the 
Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge Element. 

The continued growth of the school-aged population in the urban area will result in the 
addition of new public schools and their associated open space acreages. Whenever 
possible, public schools should provide an area within their open space acreage for native 
natural habitat 



15 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



GAINESVILLE'S NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: 



THE COMPONENTS 



There are five broad components of Gainesville's natural environment: 

* Groundwater (includes wellfield, aquifer recharge) 

* Surface Waters 

* Plants, Animals, and Their Habitat (includes threatened and 
endangered species) 

* Air 

* Soils 

GROUNDWATER 

Physical Geography 

Gainesville is located in an area of karst terrain. This terrain is associated with the presence 
of a fracture system in the Hmestone underlying Alachua County. Karstic activity and 
stream bank erosion are the primary forces currently modifying the topography of the urban 
area. 

Four major physiographic regions are present in the Gainesville urban area: the Northern 
Highlands Plateau, the Northern Highlands Marginal Zone, the Western Valley and the 
Alachua Lake Cross Valley. (See Map 3.) The Northern Highlands Plateau is a relatively 
high flat area of low relief. From the surface down, it contains a layer of undifferentiated 
and unconsohdated Pleistocene to Holocene age sands and clayey sands, the Miocene 
Hawthorn Formation, a series of Eocene carbonate units (i.e., Ocala, Avon Park, Lake 
City and Oldsmar hmestones) and the Paleocene Cedar Keys Formation. The Hawthorn 
Formation found in the plateau is largely absent in the western and southern pans of the 
county due to erosion. Characteristic features of the plateau include cypress hammocks, 
pine flatwoods and poorly drained swampy areas (e.g.. Buck Bay north of Gainesville). 



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There are substantial variations in the thickness of the Hawthorn in the Marginal Zone 
because streams in it have cut and continue to cut headward into the highlands plateau. 
Abandoned as well as active stream valleys (e.g., Hogtown Creek valley) are present 
Solution of the underlying limestone has produced numerous sinkholes and sinkhole ponds 
perforating the Hawthom. Streams in the zone flow into sinkholes either before or just 
after they enter the limestone plain to the west or south (e.g., Hogtown Creek drains into 
Haile Sink). Karst features are particularly well developed along a linear cross-county 
fracture zone which runs in a northwest to southeast direction through the marginal zone. 
(See Map 3.) Both the Hawthom and underlying limestone are extensively fractured in this 
zone. 



Inventory of Groundwater 

Gainesville relies exclusively on groundwater for its water supply. There are three 
groundwater zones underlying all or part of the Gainesville urban area. The aquifers within 
these zones are associated with the geologic formations discussed above. The zones 
include: (1) the surficial zone, (2) the intermediate zone, and (3) the Floridan zone. Map 4 
provides an overview of the aquifer systems present. It is important to stress that the above 
zones and systems extend beyond the boundaries of the urban area. It also should be noted 
that water may flow between aquifer systems. A downward hydraulic gradient exists in 
Alachua County where multiple aquifer systems are present. The amount of water able to 
move from higher into lower aquifers, however, is limited by the thickness and 
permeability of the confining beds between the aquifers. 

Surficial Zone 

The surficial groundwater zone consists of a sequence of undifferentiated, relatively porous 
sands and clayey sands which are typically 10 to 30 feet thick in the Gainesville urban area. 
There is a surhcial aquifer system within this zone in places where an underlying confining 
unit is present. In the urban area, the underlying confining unit is either the original 
Hawthorn Formation or a thick layer of reworked Hawthorn or other relatively 
impermeable sediments. The surficial aquifer operates under mainly iinconfined, water 
table conditions. 

The surficial aquifer system is recharged primarily by percolating rainwater. Land use 
patterns, vegetation, topography and the permeability of local soils affect recharge 
efficiency. Water is stored for comparatively short periods of time, and flows within the 
system typically follow the topography of the land surface. Water is discharged through 
evapotranspiration; seepage to lakes, streams and wetiands; leakage to underlying aquifers 
where a downward hydraulic gradient is present; or pumpage from wells. In the 
Gainesville urban area, water withdrawn from wells in the surficial system is used for 
domestic and landscape irrigation purposes. 

Intermediate Zone 

The Hawthom Formation is the intermediate groundwater zone. It consists of widely 
varying mixtures of clay, quartz sand, carbonate and phosphate. Single component beds 
(e.g., pure clay) are uncommon. The most common lithologies found are dolomitic, clayey 
sands and/or sandy dolomites. The intermediate aquifer system is found in highly variable, 
noncontinuous dolomitic, limestone and sandy layers within the Hawthom Formation. 
Water-bearing lenses 20 to 40 feet thick were found at two sites in the Gainesville urban 
area in connection with groundwater contamination remediation studies (i.e., the Fairbanks 
Department of Transportation sandpit disposal site and the Cabot Carbon/Koppers 



18 





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Superfund site). These findings, however, do not constitute a comprehensive description \ 

of the intermediate aquifer system in the urban area. 

The intermediate aquifer system contains water under confined conditions. It is recharged 
by leakage from the surficial aquifer where a downward hydrauhc gradient is present 
Also, where the surficial aquifer is absent, it may be recharged direcdy by downward 
leakage of rainwater. Water is discharged from the system by vertical leakage through 
confining units, lateral leakage (e.g., along the erosional escarpment in the Northern 
Highlands Marginal Zone), or pumpage from wells. It is difficult to predict the location 
and extent of downward leakage into 5ie Floridan because the sequence of sediments in the 
Hawthorn is so complex and variable, and the data available to make such determinations is 
limited. Water withdrawn from the intermediate aquifer system in the urban area is used 
for domestic and landscape irrigation purposes. 

Floridan Zone 

The Floridan aquifer system located in the Roridan zone is a prolific regional water- 
yielding unit which serves as the Gainesville urban area's primary source of water for 
drinking and other uses such as industrial processing and power generation. The Floridan 
is approximately 1500 feet thick in the urban area and composed of a sequence of 
hydraulically connected formations composed of limestone and dolomite. From top to 
bottom, these formations include: the Ocala Group, the Avon Park Limestone, the Lake 

City Limestone and the Oldsmar Limestone. 

The Floridan aquifer is over 100 feet below the surface in the northeastern part of the urban 
area where the Hawthorn Formation is continuous and operates a protective confining 

unit. In the northwestern, central and southern parts of the urban area, the Hawthorn is ( 

variable in thickness and perforated by sinkholes, leaving the Floridan semiconfined. In 

the southwestern comer of the urban area, the Floridan is as litde as 20 feet below the 

surface and unconfined because the Hawthorn is absent. It is particularly vulnerable to 

contamination in this area because of the lack of an overlying confining layer. Map 5 

shows the generalized boundaries of the confined, semiconfined and unconfined zones in 

the urban area. 

According to weU drilling records, the Floridan consists of three distinct zones and is not 
uniformly permeable from top to bottom at the Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant, 
Murphree municipal wellfield and Lake Alice. The Uthology of the Floridan under the 
Kanapaha plant is shown on Map 4. Additional research is needed to determine whether 



3 
Esiimaied maxiinuni thicknesses for these formations in Alachua County are 250 feet for the Ocala Group, 700 feet for the 

combined Avon Park and Lake City limestones and S30 feet for the Oldsmar Limestone. Solution features such as caverns arc 

more prevalent in the Ocala Group than in other pans of the Floridan. This is because: (1) a significant amount of solution 

activity occurred in the imii before it was covered by deposits from later geologic ages; (2) the unit is closer to surface sources of 

carbon dioxide which induces additional solution; and (3) faster water movements through the urut promote the expansion and 

development of solution features. Also, the Ocala Group and Hawthorn, where present, dip gently to the northeast in the county. 

4 

It should be noted, however, that the Hawthorn Formation is not a completely impenetrable barrier even where it is 
continuous. It is more or less leaky dependmg on its components, thickness and structural integniy at a particular site. 

Map 5 was derived from a coimty-wide "degree of confinement map" prepared by the Flonda Geological Survey (FGS). The 
degree of confinement in each of the map's three designated zones depends on the amount of clays and clayey sands present and 
whether the layer of clays and clayey sands is perforated by sinkholes. The clays and clayey sands may or may not be a f>an of 
the ongmal Hawthorn Formation. As a consequence, the zone Imes on the FGS's map do not exactly match physiographic 
region boundancs. Those boundaries arc closely associated with the presence or absence of the Hawthorn. 



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the three-zone pattern exists throughout the urban area and the extent to which zone ^ 

configurations vary from site to site. 

Major Natural Groundwater Recharge Areas 

It is important to identify and manage groundwater recharge areas to ensure the future 
availability of groundwater and protect water quality. In the Gainesville area, "major 
natural groundwater recharge areas" are most likely to be found in areas where stream-to- 
sink basins occur and the Floridan aquifer system is unconfined or semiconfined. Map 6 
shows the generalized location of these areas, which cover most of the city and urban area. 
For the purpose of establishing special aquifer recharge protection standards, however, the 
City shall designate "major natural groundwater recharge areas" which correspond to 
"prime" recharge areas as defined by the water management districts. The districts have not 
yet designated "prime" areas. 

Stream-to- sink basins are an integral part of the karstic terrain and natural drainage pattern 
of the region. Very little water leaves the urban area as surface water flow. Instead, 
creeks, lakes and prairies drain into sinkholes and wells direcdy connected to the Floridan 
aquifer system. Creek and lake inflows include, among others, rainwater, urban 
stormwater and agricultural runoff, treated wastewater, power plant effluent, and air 
conditioner cooling water. Development has altered the quantity and quality of surface 
water flows, but the natural drainage system centered on stream-to-sink basins remains 
largely intact 



n 

There are four stream-to- sink basins in the urban area. Sweetwater Branch and Tumblin 
Creek (via several lakes and Paynes Prairie) drain into Alachua Sink, which discharges into 
the Ocala Group limestone and possibly into limestone zones in the Hawthorn Formation. 
Water from Lake Alice flows into drainage wells, which discharge into solution cavities in 

g 

the Ocala Group and Avon Park Limestone. Hogtown Creek drains into Haile Sink, 
which discharges into the lower part of the Ocala Group. The total drainage area of 
Alachua Sink, Lake Alice and Haile Sink is about 48 square miles. A United States 
Geological Survey (USGS) study conducted in the early 1980s estimated total recharge 
from the three sources was averaging 33 million gallons a day, including 7 million gallons 
of treated wastewater. It concluded these sources could account for 75 percent of the 
recharge occurring in the Gainesville area, assuming a recharge rate of 15 inches a year. 
The amount of recharge entering Alachua Sink via Sweetwater Branch will increase when 



6 
Prairie Creek, which drains Newnans Lake, does flow out of the urban area and into Orange Lake. However, this creek would 

flow into Paynes Prairie and drain into Alachua Sink if the canal and control structures diverting it were removed. Some of the 

creeks flow has been rerouted to the prairie. According to a 1988 report, though, the amount of inflow rarely exceeds 15 jjercent 

of the creek's total volume and, in dry years, it is often insignificant due to the presence of a weir on the creek below Newnans 

Lake. 

7 
It IS possible to draw a hydrologic connection between waters in the Little Hatchet and Lake Forest creek basins and Alachua 

Sink since they all are related to Newnans Lake. Lake Forest Creek drains directly into the lake while Little Hatchet Creek drains 

into Gum Root Swamp which then discharges into the lake. Newnans Lake, as noted m footnote 6, drains into Praine Creek, 

which provides some of the water entering Paynes Prairie and Alachua Sink. 

8 

Before 1948, the area where Lake Alice is located was a low marshy area that drained during wet periods into a sinkhole near 
what is now the eastem end of the lake. Lake AUce was formed after dams were built to prevent outflow from the area and effluent 
from the University of Florida's Wastewater TrcaDnent Plant and cooling water were added. The Lake Alice basin is treated as a 
natural stream-to-smk recharge area because lake overflows would drain into a sinkhole if they were not diverted mto drainage 
wells. Also, the lake is very similar to Sweetwater Branch m terms of its inflows and il is hydrologically connected to Bivens 
Arm. Sweetwater Branch and Alachua Sink dunng some high water suges. 



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an upgrade of the Main Street Wastewater Treatment Plant from a secondary to an advanced /" 

secondary facility is com.pleted. The upgrade will allow the plant to operate at its full 7.5 ^ 

milUon gaDon-a-day capacity in compliance with federal and state wastewater quality 
requirements. 

The semiconfined zone is extensive in the urban area. In addition to recharge through 
numerous sinkholes, some recharge may occur in this zone as a result of downward 
leakage through the Hawthorn Formation. 

The Floridan is not unconfmed anywhere within the Gainesville city Umits, according to the 
latest Florida Geological Survey (FGS) confinement map available. As indicated above, 
however, the southwestern comer of the urban area lies within the unconfmed zone. This 
zone is a major recharge area because: (1) rain is able to percolate directly into the Roridan 
through sandy soils; (2) the aquifer is a sufficient distance below the surface to create a 
downward hydraulic gradient and Umit evapotranspiration; and (3) the Floridan in this area 
has the ability to accept water and move it away quickly. An FGS study estimated the 
unconfmed zone in southwestern Alachua County has an average recharge rate of at least 
10 inches a year. That rate is equivalent to almost one-half million gallons a day of 
recharge per square mile. 

According to a 1988 USGS map of predevelopment recharge and discharge statewide, 
most of the Gainesville urban area (roughly the semiconfined and unconfined zones) has 
provided recharge of over 10 inches a year. The rest of the urban area (roughly the 
confined zone) is included in a zone that has provided 1 to 10 inches of recharge a year. To 
date, the St. Johns River (SJRWMD) and Suwannee River (SRWMD) water management 
districts have not identified or mapped "prime" recharge areas in Alachua County pursuant 
to the requirements of Sec. 373.0395, FS. 

Artificial Recharge 

The Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant is a tertiary treatment facility under permit by 
the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) which uses deep injection 
wells to dispose of treated wastewater. The amount of recharge involved is substantial 
(i.e., average flow was 7.3 million gallons a day in 1989). It will increase as the plant 
approaches its existing capacity (i.e., 10 million gallons a day) and implements a planned 
2.5 million gaUon-a-day plant expansion. The injection wells discharge to a deep zone of 
the Floridan, which extends from the lower part of the Avon Park Limestone into the 
Oldsmar Limestone (450 to 1020 feet below the surface at the plant site) as shown on Map 
4. The quantities of water injected have reversed the usual downward hydraulic gradient in 
the area surrounding the wells, and some upward "mounding" of water around wells has 
been observed. The potentiometric effects of injection have been nearly negligible at a 
regional scale, however, because the receiving zone is fractured and capable of transmitting 
large quantities of water away from the plant site. Increasing the amount of recharge will 
expand the localized area affected by the gradient reversal and raise the potentiometric head 
of the Floridan around the plant to some degree. 

The University of Florida is planning to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant from a 
secondary into a tertiary treatment plant which will produce effluent meeting drinking water 
quality standards. This upgrade may result in the use of deep well injection as a disposal 
method. Currendy, the plant discharges into Lake Alice. 

DER and the SJRWMD and SRWMD (within their district boundaries) evaluate and permit 
artificial injection facilities. See Chap. 17-28, 40B-5 and 40C-5, FAC. Both the 

24 



I 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Kanapaha and University of Florida plants lie within the SJRWMD. State requirements 
relating to underground injection control are based on standards set in the federal Safe 
Drinking Water Act. The stated purpose of DER's rules in Chap. 17-28 is to protect the 
quality of the state's underground sources of drinking water and to prevent further 
degradation of the quality of other aquifers adjacent to the injection zone that may be used 
for other purposes. 

Movement of Groundwater in Floridan Aquifer System 

The Floridan aquifer system is a vast reservoir of water which flows on a regional basis 
from areas of recharge to areas of discharge (e.g., along rivers and coasts). The 
potentiometric surface of the Floridan and topography tend to be high in recharge areas and 
low in discharge areas. Flow of the Floridan in Alachua County appears to be controlled 
primarily by the presence of an area of high potentiometric surface in the karstic highlands 
region in western Putnam and Clay counties and the presence of an area of low 
potentiometric surface along the Santa Fe River. The roughly oval highlands region is 
identified as an area of high recharge in the SJRWMD's 1990 Lower St. Johns/St. Marys 

Q 

Ground Water Basin Resource Availability Inventory. Billions of gallons of recharge are 
attributed to this area annually and it is believed a portion moves in a westerly direction and 
eventually replenishes Gainesville's municipal wellfield. Also, some recharge occurs in 
eastem Alachua County as a result of leakage through the Hawthorn Formation. A rough 
GRU approximation of the transit time from the recharge area in westem Pumam and Clay 
to the wellfield in northeast Gainesville is 165 years. Groundwater leaving the urban area 
moves in a northwesterly direction and ultimately discharges into the Santa Fe River 
primarily through springs. Map 7 shows September 1987 potentiometric surface 
measurements across the Gainesville urban area and the associated generalized groundwater 
flow pattern. 

In the Gainesville urban area, the pattem of groundwater flow in the Floridan has changed 
dramatically in recent years. This change foUowed the 1975 relocation of the municipal 
wellfield from Main Street in south Gainesville to northeast Gainesville. The predominant 
direction of groundwater flow under the city now appears to be toward the northeast and 
the wellfield's expanding cone of depression. Maps 8 and 9 show potentiometric surface 
measurements and estimated groundwater movements in the Gainesville urban area for the 
years 1965 and 1977. 

There are currently at least five major features capable of influencing the direction of 
groundwater movement in the urban area. As indicated above, the municipal weUfield is a 
major influence since pumping pulls additional groundwater toward the point of withdrawal 
and increases the rate of flow, and the amount of water being withdrawn is substantial. 
The other four influences include Alachua Sink, Haile Sink, the Lake Ahce drainage wells 
and the Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant deep injection wells. Water tends to move 
away from these influences because they are points of recharge. 

It should be noted that, while the direction of regional flows can be estimated for a karst 
aquifer, precise flows are extremely difficult to trace because of a karst aquifer's complex 



9^ 
There are differences in opinion about whether the karsdc highlands region is in fact a discrete high recharge area. A 1988 

USGS map not cited in the 1990 SJRWMD groundwater basin inventory, for example, shows part of the region as a 
comparatively low recharge area (e.g., less than 1 inch a year). These differences may be resolved as the SJRWMD proceeds with 
its program for delineating recharge areas within its district. A recharge area(s) other than or in addition to the karstic highlands 
may be a primary source of water replenishing the city's wellfield. 



25 



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I 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



three-dimensional pattern of fractures, fissures and solution channels. Also, it is important 
to note that flow rates tend to be highly variable in a karst aquifer. Groundwater typically 
moves slowly in porous rock (e.g., a few feet a day) but rapidly where solution features 
allowing conduit flow are present (e.g., hundreds of feet a day). 

Supply and Conservation of Groundwater 

Floridan groundwater resources tend to be plentiful in the Gainesville urban area. This is 
because, as indicated above, the urban area receives substantial amounts of recharge from 
adjacent largely undeveloped counties and it lies within a county that functions as a 
recharge area. Notably, the USGS included Alachua County in an area designated as 
potentially "highly favorable" for large groundwater development in a study published in 

1988.* It also concluded pumpage from the Floridan has been and continues to be 
supplied primarily by the diversion of natiu^ discharge and by induced recharge rather than 

by loss of water from aquifer storage. Another important consideration is that the urban 
area's water supply is not threatened by lateral saltwater intrusion due to Alachua County's 
inland location. The SJRWMD and SRWMD regulate the use of groundwater in the county 
through their issuance of consumptive or water use permits. See Chap. 40B-2 and 40C-2, 
FAC, which implement Part II of Chap. 373, FS (Rorida Water Resources Act of 1972). 

The supply issue, however, is complicated by a number of factors. First, although the 
Floridan aquifer system has the capacity to hold and transmit vast amounts of water, full 
utihzation of that capacity depends on the availability of adequate amounts of rainfall. 
Extended rainfaU deficits in recharge areas lead to declines in groundwater levels which, in 
turn, can leave shallower wells dry, create conflicts among water users with competing 
demands, cause harm to natural systems, lower water pressures in wellfields, and promote 
the formation of sinkholes. 

The water management districts have the authority to declare water shortages and 
implement conservation measures when they determine insufficient water is available to 
meet the present and anticipated needs or when conditions dictate a temporary reduction in 
total use to protect water resources from serious harm. Emergencies may be declared under 
extraordinary circumstances. See Sec. 373.175 & 373.246, FS. Both the SJRWMD and 
SRWMD water management districts have adopted water shortage plans. Under the 
SJRWMD plan (adopted January 1, 1984), demand reductions ranging from 15 percent to 
60 percent are sought under four successive phases (i.e., I: Moderate, 11: Severe, EI: 
Extreme, and IV: Critical). See Chap. 40C-21, FAC. The SRWMD plan (August 1988) is 
similarly structured and implemented. Its water shortage phases include: I: Water Shortage 
Advisory, 0: Moderate Water Shortage, EQ: Severe Water Shortage, and IV: Extreme 
Water Shortage. Under both plans, the districts seek assistance in enforcing declared water 
shortages from local government and law enforcement officials. 



10 

The area designated as pwienuaUy highly favorable for large groundwater development met the following criteria: (1) aquifer 
transmissivity exceeded certain thresholds, (2) 1980 heads were higher than 25 feet, (3) water in the upper Roridan was of 
acceptable quality in terms of the amount of dissolved solids present, (4) long-term water level decline in the upper Floridan due 
to groundwater development had been less than 40 feet, and (5) pumpage during the early 1980s had been light (i.e., less than 10 
million gallons a day within a 64 square-mile area). 

11 

Long-term regional water level declines of more than 10 feet resulting from pumping were found in only three areas: coastal 
Georgia and adjacent South Carolina and northeast Florida; west-central Florida; and the Florida panhandle. 



29 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

On the local level, GRU promotes water conservation by providing ongoing public ^ 

12 V 

education programs and free installations of water-saving devices, maintaining its water 
distribution system properly to minimize water losses, and recycling water at its two power 
plants. Water conservation is also promoted through the city's ongoing water loss 
reduction program and allowance of graywater recycling systems (Sec. 27-190 of city 
code). In addition, it is fostered through implementation of the landscaping requirements in 
the city's zoning code which operate to protect the tree canopy, retard stormwater mnoff, 
and encourage aquifer recharge and use of native vegetation (Chap. 29, Articles IV and 
XV). The City maintains a hst of recommended landscape trees that includes many 
drought-resistant native species useful in conserving water. 

Another consideration is that much of the water withdrawn from the Floridan for use in the 
urban area is reused indirectiy because it is returned to its source through the wastewater 
disposal methods utilized by GRU and the University of Florida. In 1989, for example, 
7.6 billion gallons of water were withdrawn from the Murphree wellfield and 
approximately 4.4 billion gallons of treated wastewater were returned to the Roridan via 
the Kanapaha plant's deep injection wells and Sweetwater Branch/Paynes Prairie/Alachua 
Sink. The wastewater total does not include effluent from the University of Florida 
Wastewater Treatment plant, which enters the Floridan indirecdy through Lake Alice. 

Some direct reuse efforts have been undertaken in the Gainesville urban area and more are 
likely in the future. The University of Florida has used water from Lake AUce for 
irrigation. Also, GRU has a Southwest Gainesville Reuse Project which currendy is in the 
development and negotiation stage. If implemented, this project will distribute reclaimed 
wastewater meeting Rule 17-610.460, FAC, public access requirements from the 
Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant to users needing water for irrigation purposes. 

An additional factor complicating the groundwater supply issue is wellfield management. \ 

Careful management is needed to avoid adverse impacts on groundwater resources even 

where the supply is plentiful. In 1989, GRU installed a Supervisory Control and Data 

Acquisition (SCADA) System at the Murphree wellfield to enhance its ability to monitor 

and manage well performance and regulate the wellfield's cone of depression. At that time, 

well drawdowns varied from 15 to 50 feet due to the fracture system within the Floridan. 

The need for the SCADA system became apparent in June 1989 when extensive pumping 

of wells in a set combination reduced artesian pressure in the Floridan almost to die bottom 

of the Hawthorn Formation due to interference among the wells. GRU considered this an 

unacceptable practice because it could have encouraged migration of water from the 

intermediate aquifer system into the Floridan. Contamination is present in the intermediate 

system at the Fairbanks DOT sandpit disposal site and possibly at the Cabot 

Carbon/Koppers Superfund site, both of which are approximately two miles from the 

wellfield. In 1990, GRU began implementation of its plans to construct three additional 

production wells to increase wellfield capacity and provide redundancy. It also proceeded 

with its development of a wellfield operation^ management program designed to minimize 

further decline in artesian pressure in the Roridan and provide adequate well spacing. 



12 

Since 1983, GRU has installed 22.680 low-flow shower heads. 36,989 low-flow faucet aerators and 15,726 loilei dams in 

approximately 18,900 dwellings. The rate of installations has decreased since 1986. indicating probable saturation of the 

voluntary participant market Source: GRU report dated August 2, 1989. 



30 



Conservanon, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



DER regulates the construction, operation and maintenance of public water systems, 
including the Murphree wellfield, treatment plant and distribution system. (See Chap. 17- 
550, 17-555 and 17-602, FAC). The city's code (Chap. 27) and GRU's associated 
technical manual provide standards goveming private sector construction of water facilities 
that will connea with the municipal public supply system. The S JRWMD and SRWMD 
issue well construction permits and license well contractors under Chap. 40B-3 and 4(Xi;- 
3, FAC. Alachua County issues permits relating to well construction in designated 
management zones under its Murphree Well Field Management Code. Also, by July 1, 
1991, the water management districts are to provide local governments with information on 
existing and planned wellfield sites, existing and anticipated "cones of influence" and 
highly productive groundwater areas to inform local comprehensive planning relating to the 
management of groundwater resources. (See Sec. 373.0391, FS). 



Use of Floridan Groundwater 

Historically, more than adequate resources have been available to meet demand for water in 
the Gainesville urban area. As noted above, the Roridan aquifer is the urban area's 
primary source of water for drinking and other uses such as industrial processing and 
power generation. Water withdrawals occur primarily at the Murphree wellfield which 
serves the city and a portion of the urbanized area around it. During calendar year 1989, an 
average of 20.9 milhon gallons of potable water was withdrawn at the wellfield each day. 
The annual total was over 7.6 bilhon gallons. There is one other community potable water 
systems in the city at the Tacachale Community of Excellence. According to DER, average 

daily demand for this systems was 250,(XX) gallons a day, in 1988. Map 10 shows the 
location of the two community wellfields. 

Adequate resources are expected to be available to meet demand for water through and 
beyond the 2(X)1 planning horizon of the city's comprehensive plan. Increased 
withdrawals, however, will cause a further decline in artesian pressure in the Floridan at 
the municipal wellfield. Table 1 shows projected demand for potable water from the 
Murphree wellfield for fiscal years 1990 to 2(X)1. Annual totals based on projected water 
sales are included for residential, commercial/industrial. University of Florida and other 
water use categories. The current design capacity for the treatment plant is 34 million 
gallons a day. The capacity will reach 40 million gallons a day by the end of fiscal year 
1990/1991 when all currently planned plant upgrades will be completed. The totals in 
Table 1 indicate sufficient capacity will be available to meet projected average and peak 
daily potable water demand throughout the planning period. In 2(X)1, projected average 
daily potable water demand totals 25.4 miUion gallons, or 9.3 bilhon gallons a year. 

The Murphree wellfield does not supply water for any agricultural uses. There are two 
known commercial agricultural uses in the city, a blueberry farm and a tree farm. The 
blueberry farm has a consumptive use permit which allows average daily withdrawals of 
1 15,600 gallons, or 42.2 million gallons a year. Two govemmental agencies, the U.S. 
Map 10: Community Wellfields 



13 

A public water system is one that provides piped water to the public for human consumption, if it has at least 15 service 
connections or regularly serves at least 25 individuals at least 60 days out of the year. See Rule 17-550.200(28), FAC. 

14 

Demand on the system at Tacachale, a stale residential institution, will likely decrease during the fiscal year 1990 to 2001 
period because a drop in the institution's population is anticipated. Demand on the system at Wimberiy Estates is not expeaed 
to vary significantly in future years (assuming it continues to be used instead of central water service) because the number of 
connections it serves is fixed (built-out subdivision). 



31 



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TABLE 1 : PROJECTED DEMAND FOR POTABLE WATER FROM MURPHREE WELLFIELD 



nSCAL 


RESIDENTL\L 


COMMERCIAL/ 


UNIV. OF FLA. 


TOTAL WATER 


OTHER 


TOTAL 


AVG. DAILY 


PEAK 


YEAR 


SALES 


INDUSTRIAL SALES 


SALES 


SALES 


WATER USE 


DEMAND 


DEMAND 


DEMAND 




(gallons) 


(gallons) 


(gallons) 


(gallons) 


(gallons) 


(gallons) 


(gallons) 


(gallons) 




















1990 


4246922460 


1687500540 


906184000 


6840607000 


684060700 


7524667700 


20615528 


30923292 


1991 


4358594940 


1728804060 


911403000 


6998802000 


699880200 


7698682200 


21092280 


31638420 


1992 


4465445040 


1768323960 


916651000 


7150420000 


715042000 


7865462000 


21549211 


32323816 


1993 


4574079260 


1808503740 


921930000 


7304513000 


730451300 


8034964300 


22013601 


33020401 


1994 


4680928630 


1848023370 


927239000 


7456191000 


745619100 


8201810100 


22470713 


33706069 


1995 


4788302140 


1887736860 


932578000 


7608617000 


760861700 


8369478700 


22930079 


34395118 


1996 


4877854890 


1920859110 


937949000 


7736663000 


773666300 


8510329300 


23315971 


34973956 


1997 


4965807480 1953389520 


943350000 


7862547000 


786254700 


8648801700 


23695347 


35543021 


1998 


5064585240 


1989923760 


948782000 


8003291000 


800329100 


8803620100 


24119507 


36179261 


1999 


5153648043 


2024926793 


965460164 


8144035000 


814403500 


8958438500 


24543667 


36815501 


2000 


5242710846 


2059929826 


982138328 


8284779000 


828477900 


9113256900 


24967827 


37451741 


2001 


5331773650 


2094932858 


998816492 


8425523000 


842552300 


9268075300 


25391987 


38087981 






































NOTES: 


1 
































FISCAL YEAR - GRLTs fiscal year runs from October through September. 


















j 






COMMERCLAL/DTOUSTRIAL SALES - This category includes "Commercial" and "Power Plant" sales from GRU's 1989 sales forecasts. | 


GRU's "Commercial" designation includes both commercial and industrial sales. 


























UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA - Water use by students living on campus is included in this category along with general University use. 












_ 






1 


OTHER WA 1 ER USE - This category addresses water use that is not covered by the sales totals. It includes water consumed at the 


treatment plant and unaccounted for uses (fire protection, hydrant testing, flushing, theft and leakage). This amount is calculated 




as 10% of total water sales. 




























PEAK DEMAND - Peak demand is average daily demand times 1.5, the maximum to average demand ratio from historical GRU operating 


records (1985-1988). 


































METHODOLOGY FOR FORECASTS- GRUs 1989 sales forecasts cover fiscal years 1989 to 1998. Individual linear regression models | 


taking into account population and weather variables were developed for the residential and commercial sectors. Forecasts for the 


1 


University of Florida and GRU's power plants were based on historical trends. The residential and commercial sector models assumed 


average consumption per customer will remain constant. The forecasts projected an average annual growth rate of 2.25% for general 


customer sales (including residential and commercial sectors) and an average annual growth rate of .57% for the University of Florida 


for the 1 989 to 1 998 period. Power plant sales for fiscal years 1 990 to 1 998 were projected to remain steady at 1 1 6,721 ,000 gallons 


1 


each year. The projected fiscal year 1998 sales increment (140,744,000) was used to calculate projections for the years 1999 to 2001 . 


This increment was allocated among the Residential. Commercial/Industrial and University of Florida categories based on the categories' 


percentages of fiscal year 1998 sales (63.28%, 24.87% and 1 1.85%, respectively). 














































SOURCES: Gainesville Regional Utilities, 1989 Water and Wastewater Customer and Sales Forecasts 








Potable Water and Wastewater Element, City of Gainesville Comprehensive Plan, 1 991 



























33 



f 



f 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Department of Agriculture and the Alachua County School Board, have permits related to 
research or instructional agricultural uses in the city. Also, the University of Florida uses 
water from some of its wells for agricultural research purposes. An expansion of 
agricultural uses is not anticipated within the current city limits during the 1991 to 2001 
planning period. 

No industrial uses in the urban area, aside from GRU's Kelly Generating Station, appear to 
have consumptive or water use permits. The Kelly Generating Station has one on-site 
well and does not use potable water from the municipal welMeld for plant processing 
unless the well fails. The plant operates on a demand, not continual, basis. Withdrawals 
are not expected to exceed a maximum of 650,000 gallons a day throughout the fiscal year 
1990 to 2001 period. 

Finally, it should be noted that substantial withdrawals from the Floridan are made from 
four on-site wells at GRU's Deerhaven Generating Station. The plant operates at full 
capacity, selhng its excess power to other areas. At full capacity, it uses an average of 80 
million gallons a month for cooling tower makeup and 4 milhon gallons a month for 
feeders, coolers, bathroom, washdown hoses and other uses. These withdrawals are 
permitted under the plant's Florida Electrical Power Plant Siting Act certification, not a 
separate water use permit from the SRWMD. Potable water from the Murphree wellfield is 

used only in the administration area of the plant. 

Assessment of Groundwater Quality 

The groundwater supply of the Gainesville urban area is vulnerable to contamination in a 

17 

number of ways. Pollutants allowed to enter the Floridan in upstream recharge areas 
could eventually make their way into the municipal wellfield, given the regional nature of 
groundwater flows. Surface waters in local stream-to- sink basins convey contaminants 
directiy into the Floridan aquifer through sinkholes and drainage wells. In addition, 
pollutants from surface sources (e.g., spills and pesticide applications) and subsurface 
sources (e.g., leaking underground storage tanks and septic tanks) may move downward 
into one or more aquifers, depending on site characteristics. Also, wells can act as 
conduits for contaminants and allow mixing of water among aquifers. 

A substantial number of groundwater and soil contamination incidents have occurred in or 
near the urban area. Water quality problems in a number of wells in the Floridan at the old 
municipal wellfield on Main Street have been attributed to recharge from Alachua Sink 



« 



15 , 

A wood treatment plant in the city is known to be using water for processing purposes from an on-site Floridan well without 

the required consumptive use permit. The plant appbed for a permit in October 1990 after its well was reported to the SJRWMD. 

This well is potentially problematic because it is located in the middle of the Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund site. 

16 

Deerhaven has a "zero-discharge wastewater system" which treats and recycles all of the plant's water on-site. 

17 . 

Contaminants fall into three broad classes: (1) naturally occurring or man-made inorgaruc materials, minerals or metals 
(e.g., arsenic, mercury, nitrate, chloride and radionuclides), (2) microbial contaminants including bacteria, viruses and parasites, 
and (3) synthetic organic chemicals (e.g., gasoline and pesticides). It also should be noted that groundwater has a "natural" 
chemistry which varies depending on the character of the soils and rocks it moves through and the rate and path of its flow 
through aquifers. The amount of dissolved solids (from long-temi dissolution of rock) is one of the criteria DER uses to classify 
groundwater. The Floridan in Alachua County is classified as G-II which means it falls into the category of aquifers with a 
dissolved solid content of less than 10,000 mg/1. Accorduig to GRU's 1989 Five -Year Report, the hardness of raw water 
entering the Murphree water treatment plant ranges from approximately 200 to 270 mg/1 of calcium carbonate. 



33 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



located about two miles to the south. In 1986-87, the Alachua County Department of 
Environmental Services (ACDES) identified 952 actual and potential point sources of water 
pollution in the county conjunction with its development of an ambient groundwater 

monitoring network. The sources include underground storage tank facilities (432), 
hazardous waste generators (456), wastewater package plants (33), active or recentiy active 
landfills (5), abandoned dumps and landfiUs (18), industrial contamination sites (6), the 
Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund site and a borrow pit They are concentrated in the 
urban area and generally follow transportation routes. Known and suspected soil and 
groundwater contamination sites in the urban area other than those relating to leaking 
underground petroleum storage tanks are hsted in the "Hazardous Waste" section of the 
Sohd Waste Element Data Collection and Analysis Report They involve a variety of 
contaminants including heavy metals (e.g., arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury) and 
organic compounds (e.g., phenols, benzene, and trichloroethylene). Also, 180 
contamination sites involving leaking underground petroleum storage tanks were confirmed 
in Alachua County under DER's Early Detection Incentive Program that ended in December 

1988. Approximately two-thirds of those sites are located in the urban area (over one- 
half within the city). 

Groundwater quality also has been affected by effluent discharges from the Kanapaha, 
Main Street and University of Florida wastewater treatment plants. The impact has been 
direct in the case of the Kanapaha plant. It has been indirect in the case of the Main Street 
and University of Rorida plants since those plants discharge into surface waters which 
flow into the Floridan. All of the plants have released effluent exceeding permitted limits 
for certain constituents (e.g., bacteria, ammonia, lindane and silver). They will remain 

20 

potential point sources of pollution despite current and prospective plant upgrades. 



In addition, groundwater quality, particularly in the surficial aquifer, has been and will 

continue to be affected to some degree by effluent from on-site sewage disposal systems. 
A 1985 study estimated there are some 8,500 such systems (mostiy septic tanks with soil 



18 

The Water Quabty Assurance Act of 1983 required that DER in cooperation with other agencies (including local governments) 

establish a groundwater quality monitoring network designed to delect or predict coniamination of the groundwater resources of 

the Slate. (Sec Sec. 403.063, FS). Alachua County is the only county in the slate that elected to implement its part of the 

network. 

19 

An additional 80 sites applied for the program but were found to be ineligible for a variety of reasons. Some, if not many of 

these sites, may have leaking lanks. The EDI Program was created by the State Underground Petroleum Environmenial Response 

(SUPER) Act of 1986. See Sec. 376.3071, FS. 

20 

See the "Surface Waters' section and the Potable Water and Wastewater Element of the City of Gainesville Comprehensive 

Plan for more information on problems that have occurred relating to effluent quaUty and current and prospective wastewater 

treatment plant upgrades. DER regulates the construclion, modification and operalion of domestic wastewater treatment plants 

and their collection and transmission systems, and sludge disposal. See Chap. 17-7, 17-600, 17-601. 17-602, 17-604, 17-640 

and 17-650, FAC, which implement the Florida Air and Water PoUuiion Control Act (Chap. 403, Pan I, FS). Also, the Main 

Street plant is required to have an NPDES (National PoUulant Discharge Elimination System) permit from the EPA because of its 

discharges mto Sweetwater Branch. The NPDES permit program is one of the mechanisms used to implement ihe federal Water 

Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). The Main Street plant's NPDES jsermit requires that GRU implement an mdustrial 

wastewater pretrcatmenl program. The aiy's code (Chap. 27) and GRU's associated techiucal manual provide standards 

govemmg pnvate sector construction of wastewater facilities that will connect with the central system. The code also contams 

provisions regulating specific discharges such as industrial wastes and stormwater and induslnal users. See Sec. 27-187 to 27- 

189 and Sec. 27-193 to 27-198. 

21 

Common contaiiunanls m effluent from these systems include pathogens (i.e., bactena, viruses and f>arasitcs). mtralcs, 

phosphorus and touc matenals. One of the groundwater conianunation sites discussed in the "Hazardous Waste" section of the 

Sohd Waste Element Dala Collection & Analysis Secuon mvolves solvents that entered the surficial aquifer through a septic 

lank drainfield associated wiih an mdustnal land use (Fabco). 



34 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

absorption drainfields) in the urban area that treat and dispose of nearly 3 million gallons of 
wastewater per day. It found: (1) there was no clear evidence linking septic tanks to any 
health problems in Alachua County; (2) septic tanks are a significant source of recharge for 
the surficial aquifer, on the order of 10 percent for the urban area as a whole and 60 percent 
on a localized basis (a .4 acre lot with a septic tank); (3) other pollution sources (e.g., 
urban runoff) contribute more total loading than septic tanks on an urban area basis; and (4) 
septic tanks can be expected to degrade surficial groundwater quality on a localized basis (at 
densities of two or more units per acre). The study indicated any pubhc health problems 
associated with on-site disposal systems would likely be site-specific (e.g., shallow private 
well contaminated by an upgradient source), rather than regional, since municipal potable 
water supplies are withdrawn from the Floridan. It did note, however, that it might be 
prudent to eliminate systems from areas where the potential exists for contaminating deep 
aquifers and surface waters. 

There have been very few nuisance complaints relating to on-site sewage disposal systems 
in the city in recent years (e.g., four in 1986, six in 1987 and two in 1988). Existing 
systems, however, will remain point sources of pollution and may pose an increasing risk 
as they age. Septic systems have an estimated design life of 20 to 40 years, after which 
time deterioration in performance is likely. There is some question whether the self- 
enforcing maintenance and abandonment provisions in the Florida Department of Health 
and Rehabilitative Service's on-site sewage disposal system rules in Chap. lOD-6, FAC, 
adequately address this concern. Also, the Alachua County Public Health Unit (ACPHU), 
which is authorized by HRS to implement Chap. lOD-6 in the county, could but currently 
does not require construction permits for system repairs. Another factor is that the 
ACPHU is limited in its ability to enforce lOD-6's requirement that a system be upgraded if 
the use of a building is changed or if additions or alterations to a building are made which 

will increase sewage flow or change sewage characteristics. 

Despite the many potential avenues for contamination and the substantial number of actual 
and potential pollution sources in the urban area, groundwater studies and sampling 
performed to date have not identified any problems posing a major threat to the public 
health. In the early 1980s, the USGS studied the effects of surface runoff and treated 
wastewater recharge on the quahty of water in the Floridan in the Gainesville area. It 
reported that samples of water entering the aquifer at Alachua Sink, Haile Sink, the Lake 
Alice drainage weUs and the Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant deep injection wells 
conformed to drinking water quahty standards recommended by the EPA (1983) with the 
following exceptions: (1) bacteria were found in all the surface water entering the aquifer at 
Alachua Sink, Haile Sink and Lake Alice and the color of many of the samples at these sites 
exceeded the recommended limit; (2) one sample at Alachua Sink exceeded the 
recommended fluoride concentration; and (3) the maximum reported values of color, 
nitrate, cadmium and iron at the Kanapaha injection wells exceeded the standard although 
mean values did not. Another finding was that organic compound contamination did not 
seem to be a problem at the sites sampled. 



22 

In recent years, very few new on-site sewage disposal systems have been installed in the city. Chap. lOD-6, FAC, governs 
the siting, density, design, size and construction of new systems. DER standards also apply in certain situations (e.g., when the 
volume of domestic sewage exceeds 5,000 gallons a day or sewage contains industrial, toxic or hazardous chemical waste). 
Sepuge disposal is addressed in HRS Rule lOD-6.052 and DER rules in Chap. 17-7, Part IV. 



35 



r 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Functions of Aquifer Systems 

Aquifers perform the following functions: 

* Water supply for drinking, irrigation and other uses. 

* Water supply for creeks, lakes, rivers, wetiands and springs. 

* Water storage. 

* Purification of water and dilution of contaminants. 

Strengths and Deficiencies of Existing Regulations and Programs in 
Maintaining the Natural Functions of the Floridan Aquifer 

The Floridan Aquifer system, as it underlies Gainesville, is protected by several existing 
city, county, state, and federal regulations and programs. At the federal level, the 
Superfund program is currentiy monitoring the Cabot Carbon/Koppers site and developing 
remediation strategies. However, lack of Superfund funding has slowed the speed at which 
the site is being remediated. The NPDES program is requiring a water quality treatment 
upgrade of the Main Street Wastewater Plant, which discharges into Sweetwater Branch, 
and then into Alachua Sink. However, the upgrade, and upstream watershed areas 
developed before the estabhshment of current environmental regulations, may not allow for 
sufficient reductions of sediment, heavy metal, invasive vegetation, and BOD loadings to a 
level enabhng protection of the Aquifer in the vicinity of the Sink. 

At the state level, FDER, SJRWMD, and SRWMD regulate artificial injection facilities such /*^ 

as the UF and Kanapaha wastewater plants. As a part of these regulations, the UF Plant * 

will be upgrading from a secondary to tertiary treatment system. The monitoring systems 
for both plants have identified only minor water quality violations historically. It therefore 
appears that the existing regulation of these faciUties is adequate. 

The WMDs regulate aquifer quantities through their consumptive use permits. The WMDs 
are also authorized to declare water shortage emergencies. These programs seem to 
adequately ensure the long-term availability of potable water quantities, although recent 
water shortages suggest that localized quantity problems will persist due to future 
droughts.X 

FDER regulates the construction, operation, and maintenance of pubhc water systems 
including the City's Murprhee Plant. The WMDs issue well construction permits. Again, 
historical monitoring of wells and potable water quality indicate these programs are 
successfully ensuring the adequate deUvery of quality potable water. FDER also regulates 
the construction, operation, and maintenance of wastewater plants in the city. The historical 
performance of the plants within the city indicate such regulation is adequate. 

FDER implements the federal Water Quality Assurance Act, in part, by estabhshing a 
groundwater quality monitoring network. This program, implemented by Alachua County, 
has identified several actual and potential point sources of water pollution. FDER's Early 
Detection Incentive Program, also implemented by the County, identified several leaking 
underground storage tanks. Like the Superfund program, however, the remediation of 
most of these sites is slowed by lack of available funding. In addition, both the monitoring 
network and the EDI program are hindered by a lack of funding. 



36 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

At the county level, the County Public Health Unit regulates on-site sewage disposal 
systems. In terms of public health, these regulations have effectively limited contamination 
from such systems to site-specific problems. Nevertheless, there are indications that the 
regulations inadequately regulate the use of such systems by users of hazardous materials, 
especially within industrial, commercial, and institutional areas. As noted earlier, these 
problems are, in part, associated with inadequacies of self -enforcing maintenance and 
abandonment of systems, and the ability of the Health Unit to enforce state regulations at 
the time of site alterations. 

The County enforces the Murphree Wellfield Management Code, which regulates areas 
within the cone of influence of the city's wellfield. The Code effectively restricts land uses 
near the wellfield (especially those handling hazardous materials), well construction near 
the wellfield, and closure of abandoned weUs near the wellfield. The Code appears to 
adequately restrict such hazardous activities near the wellfield, although further restriction 
of the use of on-site sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) for those activities handling 
hazardous materials is probably also needed to protect the wellfield. Also, the Code could 
be improved through more accurate mapping of the management zones. 

The County enforces the Underground Storage Tanks ordinance, which requires secondary 
containment for such tanks. One of the stronger provisions of the ordinance is a 
requirement that both new activities and existing activities (through retrofitting) install such 
containment. The ordinance is therefore extremely effective in reducing the threat of aquifer 
contamination due to leaking storage tanks. The County has also recendy enacted a 
Hazardous Materials Management Code, which restricts or prohibits the placement of 
hazardous materials handlers in aquifer-sensitive areas such as sinkholes, areas where the 
aquifer is poorly confined, types and amounts of hazardous materials that may be stored, 
operating procedures for handling, monitoring requirements, emergency procedures, 
periodic inspections, and a schedule of fines for violations. The Code is further 
strengthened by the relatively comprehensive Ust of materials regulated. The County has 
been sponsoring an annual or semi-annual county- wide collection of household hazardous 
materials. This program provides one of the few available methods for safely disposing of 
such materials. The program could be more effective through an increase in the frequency 
of collection and/or more convenient methods of collecting the materials from households. 

At the city level, Gainesville promotes potable water conservation through ongoing 
education programs and free installations of water- saving devices, maintaining it's water 
distribution system properly to minimize leaks, and recycling water at its two power plants. 
The City also runs a water-loss reduction program and allows the installation of graywater 
recycUng systems. At it's Kanapaha Plant, the City is establishing a system whereby 
wastewater will be reclaimed for irrigation. The UP Plant currentiy uses a portion of its 
effluent for irrigation. As for the Murphree Plant, the City monitors the performance of the 
city's wells, and investigates the wellfield's cone of influence. 

The city's landscaping ordinance effectively protects the aquifer with stringent requirements 
for tree protection and replacement, and installation or retention of existing site vegetation. 
The ordinance is an important means of reducing stormwater pollution and promoting 
aquifer recharge. Aquifer protection can be improved through further requirements for 
vegetative retention or replacement, use of xeriscaping, and special vegetative buffering 
requirements to protect surface waters. Like the landscaping ordinance, the city's flood 
control, creek setback, and stormwater management requirements reduce stormwater 
pollution and promote recharge. For example, the flood and creek regulations restrict or 
prohibit development and vegetative removal near surface waters. Stormwater regulations 
require on-site retention or detention of the first inch of runoff. Additional information 



37 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



regarding regulations governing land use and development within natural recharge areas 
can be found in the Stormwater Element . 

While existing city ordinances already provide a high level of aquifer protection, regulatory 
changes may be necessary for a higher level of protection of the aquifer from stormwater 
pollution or protection of recharge. Additional city regulations and programs to promote 
such objectives would include setbacks and buffers for lakes and wetiands, acquisition of 
lands associated with surface waters, limiting creek dredging and prohibiting 
channelization, restoring degraded creeks, increasing the requirements for stormwater 
treatment through basin design, and reducing requirements for impervious surfaces near 
siuface waters. 



Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection 

A dual approach emphasizing prevention and providing for remedial action addressing 
existing problems is needed to conserve and protect groundwater and soil resources in the 
Gainesville urban area. A preventive component is needed to protect the public health, 

23 

avoid adverse economic impacts, and prevent harm to the natural environment. To be 
effective, preventive measures must: (1) acknowledge the importance of groundwater 
resources to the community; (2) consider the complexity and vulnerability of groundwater 
resoiu-ces in the urban area and recognize they have a hmited capacity to absorb the 
cumulative spills, runoff and other contamination that tend to accompany land development 
and human activity; (3) recognize that proper land use management is critical to the 
protection of groundwater and soil resources; (4) address the City's well-established land 
use pattern and largely built-out status (e.g., by addressing the need for retrofits as well as 
protective standards for new development as appropriate); and (5) balance the costs of 
prevention against the typically high costs of cleanups, assuming they are technically 
possible. A remedial component is needed to ensure that existing problems affecting soil 
and groundwater quality or quantity are identified and effectively monitored and managed. 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 

Existing local aquifer conservation strategies include: 

* "Regulation of Development Near Creeks" Ordinance 

* City Flood Control Ordinance 

* City Subdivision Ordinance 

* City Landscape Ordinance 

* City Site Plan Review Requirements 

* City Planned Development District 

* City Zoning Code General Performance Standards 



23 ... 

A preventive approach also is importani because it acknowledges the Limitations of relying exclusively on momtonng 

strategies. Such strategies can be useful for identifying problems, diminishing potential imptacls and promoting timely 

remedial acuon, but they do not prevent problems from occurring in the first place. In addibon, it should be noted that 

monitonng wells must be in the nght places at the nght depths in an area with a karst terrain or coniartunauon will not be 

detected. 



38 



> 



Conservation, Oj)en Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

* Alachua County Murphree Well Field Management Code 

* Alachua County Storage Tank Systems Code 

* SJRWMD and SRWMD Permitting and Research Programs Relating to Water Use 
and Management, and Permitting Programs Relating to Stormwater Management 

* DER Rules Goveming Construction and Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants 
and Water Treatment Plant 

* HRS Rules Goveming Siting, Construction, and Maintenance of On-Site Sewage 
Disposal Systems. 

(See the Stormwater Data and Analysis Report for an assessment of existing local 
regulations and programs). 

Recommended strategies to conserve Gainesville's aquifer systems include: 

* Given the interrelationship among surface water, groundwater and soil resources, 
the City should pursue a combination of strategies designed protect or restore 
surface water quality and natural drainage features as part of its efforts to protect 
groundwater and soils. These include, among others, requiring development 
setbacks from creeks, lakes and wetlands; acquiring land along and around surface 
waters; limiting dredging and prohibiting channelization of creeks; restoring 
previously channelized creeks; increasing the frequency of street sweeping; 
improving sedimentation controls during construction; requiring the use of 
vegetated stormwater basins and swales particularly when sites are redeveloped for 
non-residential uses; developing regional stormwater management facilities to 
address existing drainage deficiencies; ensuring proper construction, operation and 
maintenance of public and private drainage systems; adopting more stringent 
standards for water quality treatment in stream-to-sink basins; and minimizing the 
use of impervious surfaces. 

* Work with the county to assure adoption and effective implementation of a wetlands 
protection ordinance. Wetlands cleanse water before it enters surface waters and 
sinkholes. 

* Promote effective enforcement of the county's wellfield management ordinance and 
support revisions to the ordinance as appropriate as additional information on the 
hydrogeology of the urban area and wellfield becomes available. 

* Adopt programs and incentives promoting proper disposal, recycling or reuse of 
hazardous materials and wastes by both businesses and households. 

* Continue efforts to identify and clean up sites with leaking underground petroleum 
storage tanks. 

* Discourage the use of landscaping which requires large amounts of fertilizers, 
pesticides and water (e.g., by minimizing turf area and using native and drought- 
tolerant trees and plants). F*rovide lists of vegetation classified by water demand for 
use by public agencies, residents and developers. Existing programs promoting 
conservation (e.g., public education and city water loss reduction program) and the 
use of the lowest quality water necessary for water applications (e.g., industrial 
water recycling and use of graywater for irrigation) should be continued or 
expanded as appropriate. In addition, the City should develop regulations and 
procedures which will promote safe and economic reuse of reclaimed water from 
GRU's wastewater treatment plants, and maintain a water conservation plan 
consistent with SJRWMD and SRWMD plans. Also, GRU should conduct a 

39 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Study to determine whether its potable water rate structure should be used as an f 

economic means of fostering conservation. 

* Continue GRU's programs providing for pretreatment of industrial wastewater and 
regular inspection, maintenance and replacement of sewer pipes. GRU and the 
University of Florida should continue their efforts to upgrade their wastewater 
treatment facilities and operate them in compliance with applicable state and federal 
regulatory requirements. Also, GRU, in particular, should investigate the 
feasibility of increasing the number of stormwater runoff points hooked up to the 
municipal wastewater treatment system. 

* Encourage the county to require notice and approval of proposed repairs or 
modifications to existing on-site sewage disposal systems . 

* Identify and properly close abandoned wells. 

* Continue and expand public education programs on the nature of groundwater 
resources and the need to protect and conserve them. 

* Continue GRU's use of state-of-the-art techniques for wellfield management and 
hydrologeologic studies relating to wellfield. 

* Work with the county to monitor surface water and groundwater quality to allow 
identification of problems or trends and evaluations of the effectiveness of 
protective regulations. 

* Utilize new data, maps and other tools promoting effective management of ^ 
groundwater resources generated by the county, water management districts and \ 
other sources. 

* Cooperate with any regional efforts to further common interests in protecting the 
quality and availability of groundwater resources. 

The most significant groundwater problems and conservation strategies are illustrated in 
Figure 5. 



40 









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Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



SURFACE WATERS 

Inventory of Surface Waters 

Gainesville's surface waters consist of creeks, lakes, and wetlands:^^ 

CREEKS: There are approximately 42 miles of creeks within the city. About 32 of 
these miles are regulated by the Gainesville "Regulation of Development 
Near Creeks" Ordinance. 

LAKES: Within city limits, there are 19 lakes at least one acre in size. Lakes cover 

approximately 143 acres of city surface area. A majority of the lakes are 
unnamed. 

WETLANDS: Within city hmits, there are 82 wetlands at least one acre in size. Wedands 
cover approximately 580 acres of city surface area. 

Surface waters are shown on Map 11. Note that there are no bays, fisheries, or estuarine 
marshes within city limits. 

Surface waters can be grouped into "drainage basins." Drainage basins are like large bowls 
~ collecting creek flow and stormwater flow at its low point, and ultimately discharging 
this surface water flow. (In Gainesville, almost all of this discharge is into sinkholes and 
drainage wells.) Because much of the surface water flow of each basin is contained within 
the basin, much of the movement of animals, plants, pollution, and stormwater is relatively 
contained within each basin. As a result, each basin can be considered to have a unique 
ecological, hydrological, and geological identity that should be evaluated separately from 
other basins (much the same way that planners will often evaluate various city 
neighborhoods separately). 

The Gainesville urban area fully contains seven basins: 

* Hogtown Creek Basin 

* Sweetwater Branch Basin 

* Lake Forest Creek Basin 

* Littie Hatchet Creek Basin 

* Lake Alice Basin 

* Calf Pond Creek Basin 

* Tumbhn Creek Basin 
And partially contains: 

* Blues Creek Basin 

Map 1 1 shows the boundaries of each basin. Table 3 in the Appendix provides a surface 
water inventory for each basin. 

In addition to drainage basins, the city contains several "depression basins." Depression 
basins are those basins which have no outiet for surface water runoff except by percolation 
into the groundwater aquifer system or by evapotranspiration.25 



) 



See Table 2 in the Appendix for a complete inventory of Gainesville surface waters. 

25 

See SWM:(l-2, 5, 9) for more information about drainage and depression basins. 



43 





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As noted above, there is very little surface water outflow from the Gainesville surface water 
system to areas outside of the urban area. Instead, creeks, urban stormwater runoff, 
agricultural runoff, and wedand runoff transport almost all surface water flow into aquifers 
through sinkholes and drainage wells. Refer to "Groundwater" section for more 
information. 

Assessment of Surface Water Quality 

All surface waters in GainesviUe, except for certain localized sites such as Hogtown Creek 
in the vicinity of the Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund site, have been designated as 
"Class ni" (suitable for recreation, propagation and management of fish and wildlife) 
waters by DER (Chap. 17-302, FAC).26 

The major sources of acmal and potential surface water pollution in Gainesville are: 

* Urban stormwater runoff from parking lots, service aprons, and roads. 

* Leaks from underground hazardous materials storage tanks (particularly gas station 
tanks). 

* Treated sewage from municipal and private wastewater systems. 

* Leaks and spills from industrial, commercial, and residential hazardous materials 
storage and handling sites. 

* Septic tanks (on-site sewage disposal systems). 

* Sediment from soil erosion. 

* Animal waste. 

* Runoff from horticultural apphcations (particularly residential applications of 
fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides). 

Of these, municipal and septic sewage has traditionally been the primary source of surface 
water pollution. However, over the past several decades, due to local, state, and federal 
statutory and regulatory initiatives, Gainesville has mitigated much of the pollution from 
these sources. This mitigation has been attained through the construction of secondary and 
tertiary wastewater treatment plants, and subsequent utility system hook-up of several 
sewage sources that previously discharged direcdy to surface water or groundwater. 

Currentiy, the most significant sources of surface water pollution in Gainesville are "non- 
point" sources, particularly urban stormwater runoff and sediment from soil erosion. See 
Map 12 for the location of identified "point" sources of pollution within the Gainesville 
urban area. To date, however, extensive sampling has failed to identify any significant 
human health-related contamination of surface water in Gainesville. 



^ Refer lo "Hazardous Waste" section (SDW:33) for more information regarding Superfund site. 



45 



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Functions of Surface Waters 

Smface waters (creeks, lakes, and wetlands) provide the following functions: 

* Moderation of air temperatures. 

* Storage of water, control of flood waters during storms, and recharge of 
groundwater. 

* Cycling of nutrients needed to support a diversity of plants and animals. 

* Provision of habitat and corridors for urban wildlife, and dispersal of seeds. 

* Provision of important sites for education/research, recreation, scenic 
views, and open space. 

* Provision of urban fire protection. 

* Provision of buffering from noise, unattractive views, and other nuisances 
and hazards (by creeks and wetlands). 



* 



Provision of oxygen, absorption of carbon dioxide, filtration of air 
pollutants and water pollutants (especially suspended soUds, heavy metals, 
and biological oxygen demand), breakdown of harmful levels of organic 
matter, and reduction of erosion and sedimentation (by wetlands). 

Existing and Potential Commercial and Recreational Uses 

Commercial use of surface waters in Gainesville is limited to the diversion of stormwater 
runoff to surface waters from commercial operations, and the economic benefits accruing to 
commercial operations because of the aesthetic qualities of surface waters. 

There is very little recreational use of surface waters within the city. Creeks and lakes are 
used to a limited extent by the local population for fishing, wading, nature walks, and 
collection of artifacts. Portions of Bivens Arm and Lake Alice are incorporated into local 
nature parks that feature boardwalks and observation platforms. Newnans Lake, which is 
outside of city limits, accommodates a large amount of boating and fishing, and is ranked 
74th on the Florida Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Hst of recreational use of state 
lakes. See Table 2 in the Appendix for the DNR ranking of all significant lakes within the 
urban area. 

Surface waters in Gainesville represent a valuable future recreational resource for two 
primary reasons: (1) much of the remaining undeveloped land in Gainesville contains, or is 
in close proximity to surface waters; and (2) acquisition of surface waters and surrounding 
properties for recreation would help preserve the ecological integrity of surface waters and 
increase public access to such resources. For these reasons, the city should adopt criteria 
and policies which would give priority to the acquisition (and when appropriate, the 
recreational development) of properties associated with surface water systems as part of a 
parks and recreation improvement program. 



47 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Existing and Recommended C onservation Strategies 

Existing local surface water conservation strategies include: 

* City "Regulation of Development Near Creeks" Ordinance 

* City Flood Control Ordinance 

* City Landscape Ordinance 

* City Subdivision Ordinance 

* City Site Plan Review Requirements 

* City Planned Development District 

* City Zoning Code General Performance Standards 

* SJRWMD and SRWMD Permitting and Research Programs Relating to Water Use 
and Management 

* DER Rules Governing Construction & Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants 

* HRS Rules Goveming Siting, Construction, & Maintenance of On-Site Sewage 
Disposal Systems 

Recommended strategies to conserve Gainesville's surface waters include: 

* Inventory surface waters and support the County in conducting ongoing monitoring 
and evaluation of surface water quality in the urban area. 

* Allow no net loss of wedand acreage or functions, including isolated, temporary 
wedands. Loss of wedand acreage/functions should be compensated by creation of 
new wedands that duplicate the hydroperiod with respect to period and amplitude of 
flooding or by expansion of existing wedands to replace lost acreage/functions. 

* Adopt a city- or county- wide wedands protection ordinance that more strongly 
protects the amount and functions of wedands than existing regional, state, and 
federal regulations. For such an ordinance, consider the use of wedand "mitigation 
banks" and conditions under which wedands could be used for wastewater and 
stormwater treatment. 

* Designate properties associated with creeks, lakes, and wedands as environmental 
conservation areas subject to special protective regulations. This should include 
regulations to protect the quality and functions of Gainesville's natural 
environment. 

* Establish lake and wedand setbacks designed to prevent erosion and drops in the 
level of the water table, trap sediment in stormwater runoff, and allow for periodic 
flooding without damage to structures. 

The most significant surface water problems and conservation strategies are illustrated in 
Figure 6. 



48 



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PLANTS, ANIMALS, AND THEIR HABITATS 



Inventory & Problems Regarding Plants, Animals 

The Gainesville urban area contains an outstanding variety of plants, animals, and 
ecological communities. Some are remnants from pre-urban Gainesville, and others are 
adapted to survive in the urban landscape of Gainesville. As is true with most or all 
counties in Florida, Alachua County contains a relatively large number of threatened and 
endangered species.^^ Note that there are no fisheries, marine habitats, or intact forests 
within city limits. 

The most important sanctuaries for plants, animals, and ecological communities in 
Gainesville are the creek, lake, and wetland areas. These habitat areas and corridors 
provide ample food, water, and cover that are typically lacking in areas where land has 
been developed. Note, however, that the effectiveness of urban wildlife corridors is only as 
effective as the relative space that the corridor provides to maintain a viable population of 
plants and animals. 

The value of creeks, lakes, and wetiands is not necessarily a function of size. For example, 
temporary wetiands less than one-half acre in size may serve as habitat for a large and 
diverse population of species, especially if the wetiand is remote from other wet areas. In 
addition, many species can only survive in smaller wetiands which exhibit characteristics 
that are not found in larger wetiand systems (such as periodic dry periods, lower energy 
levels, etc.). 

On the other hand, preservation and management of larger upland and wetiand areas is 
critical to species that depend on such factors as continuous standing water, large feeding 
areas, and isolation from human activity. Larger habitat areas also help preserve and 
promote species diversity. 

Protection of an ecological community requires that consideration be given to areas adjacent 
to the community. For example, a one hectare pond can be surrounded by approximately 
13(X)-hectares of ecologically interacting areas populated by species dependent on the pond 
(approximately a two-kilometer radius surrounding the pond).28 As a result, development 
within a two-lalometer radius of a one hectare pond must be designed for maximum 
compatibility with species dependent on the pond. 

Upland communities are critical for a wide range of species adapted to a drier habitat In 
addition, many uplands in the urban area are imponant groundwater recharge areas. 
Although most of the more significant upland communities within Gainesville city limits 
have been lost to urban development, there are numerous and significant uplands in the 
unincorporated urban area that merit protection. (See Map 17.) Ecological communities are 
defined as an integrated association of plants and animals adapted to and dependent on a 
particular environment In the Gainesville urban area, there are roughly 12 major categories 
of ecological communities. Figure 7 is a generalized profile map showing the typical 



27 

For a complete inventory of "Special Protection Species" found in Alachua County, see Table 4 in ihc Appendix. 

2* Conservabon with Paul Moler. Oaober 9. 1989. 



50 



GAINESVILLE 
ECOLOGICAL 
COMMUNITIES 


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physical structure of these communities as they are found in Gainesville. As defined by 
KBN (1987), the Soil Conservation Society of America, the Florida Natural Areas 
Inventory, and the University of Florida Center for Wetlands, they include: 

Scrub (or Grassy Scrub) 

A dry, old dune community. Dominant vegetative species include: sand live oak (shrub), 
saw palmetto, rosemary, wiregrass, reindeer moss. Dominant animals include: scrub 
lizard, deer, sand skink. Historically rare in Alachua County. Less than l,QO0 acres remain 
in the county. Loss of scrub occurring rapidly throughout state, primarily due to desirable 
conditions for real estate development Occurrences in or near the urban area include Palm 
Point Hill, Prairie Creek. Small patches observed near Hatchet Creek and in southwest 
urban area in early 1970s. Soils are often important for aquifer recharge. Requires a 
periodic fu-e to maintain identity. "Endangered, threatened, and special protection" species 
that may occur in community: scrub jay, blue-tailed mole skink, short-tailed snake, gopher 
tortoise. 

Mesic Hammock 

A moderately moist community with a sparse understory. Dominant vegetative species 
include: laurel oak, pignut hickory, magnolia, sweetgum, ironwood. Dominant animals 
include: turkey, squirrels, raccoons, possums, and several song birds such as bluebirds, 
cardinals, mockingbirds. Most widespread ecological community in Alachua County. 
Some communities are so exceptional in quality that they are of state and national 
significance. San Felasco Hammock contains die highest quality hammock in the county, 
as does Sugarfoot Hammock, Fred Bear Hammock, and Buzzard's Roost. Large tracts in 
Paynes Prairie, and smaller communities at Kanapaha Prairie, Serenola Forest, and Palm 
Point Hill. Must be protected from fire to maintain identity. "Endangered, threatened, and 
special protection" species that may occur in community: Florida panther, eastem indigo 
snake, black bear, auricled spleenwort, dwarf spleenwort, sinkhole fern. 

Hydric Hammock 

A wet, lowland community typically found in floodprone areas. Dominant vegetative 
species include: cabbage palm, water oak, red maple, red cedar, bays, blackgum, needle 
palm, ironwood, wax myrtle (shrub), sword and royal fern. Dominant animals include: 
squirrels, otter, turtle, and raccoons. Almost as widespread in Alachua County as mesic 
hammock. Excellent tracts in Paynes Prairie. Best county tract at Prairie Creek. Important 
for water quality and quantity control. "Endangered, threatened, and special protection" 
species that may occur in community: Florida panther, black bear, auricled spleenwort, 
chmbing dayflower. 

Sandhill 

A dry, upland community. Dominant vegetative species include: longleaf pine, turkey oak, 
bluejack oak, wiregrass, reindeer moss. Dominant animals include: white-tailed deer, 
pocket gopher, fox squirrel, quail, fence lizard. In the past covered almost half of Alachua 
County, primarily in southwest. Community is now extremely rare, primarily due to 
desirable conditions for real estate development, fire suppression, and fragmentation. 
Occurrences in or near the urban area include Momingside Nature Center, Paynes Prairie, 
Austin Cary Forest, San Felasco Hammock, Kanapaha Prairie, Hatchet Creek-Gum Root 
Swamp-Little Hatchet Creek. Soils are often important for aquifer recharge. Requires a 
periodic fire to maintain identity. "Endangered, threatened, and special protection" species 



52 



& 



i 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



that may occur in community: Godfrey's blazing star, Rorida panther, southeastem kestrel 
(sparrow hawk), red-cockaded woodpecker, blue-tailed mole skink, eastern indigo snake, 
short-tailed snake. 

Cypress Dome (or Pond) 

A wet, poorly drained depression community found along lakes, creek margins, prairies, 
and flatwoods. Dominant vegetative species include: bald cypress, blackgum, bays, pond 
cypress, red maple, cinnamon fern, Spanish moss. Dominant animals include: deer, mink, 
raccoon, otter. Community is associated with pine (wet) flatwoods and hydric hammock. 
Occurrences in or near the urban area include Hatchet Creek and Buck Bay. Important for 
water quality and quantity control, wildlife habitat. Requires fluctuating water levels to 
maintain identity. "Endangered, threatened, and special protection" species that may occur 
in community: black bear, ivory-billed woodpecker, wood stork, baJd eagle, bird's nest 
spleenwort, fuzzy-wuzzy air plant, giant water dropwort, hidden orchid, nodding catopsis, 
grass-of-pamassus, climbing dayflower. 

Freshwater (or Floodplain) Marsh 

An open expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in soils seasonally inundated. Dominant 
vegetative species include: beak rushes, common reed, flat sedge, sawgrass, cattail. 
Dominant animal species include: otter, raccoon, marsh rabbit, water rat, ibis, heron. 
Highly endangered both statewide and in the Gainesville urban area. Community is 
associated with pine (wet) flatwoods and hydric hammock. Occurrences throughout the 
urban area. Important for water quahty and quantity control, wildlife habitat. Requires 
fluctuating water levels to maintain identity. "Endangered, threatened, and special 
protection" species that may occur in community: wood stork, sandhill crane, crested 
caracara, alhgator. 

Upland Pine Forest 

A moderately dry, upland community characterized by flat terrain. Dominant vegetative 
species include: longleaf and loblolly pine, red oak, saw palmetto, wiregrass. Typical 
animal species include: deer, fox squirrel, cottontail rabbit, brown-headed nuthatch, cotton 
rat. In the past covered much of western Alachua County. Community is now rare, 
primarily due to fire suppression and fragmentation. Degraded or fragmented communities 
found thu-oughout urban area. Relatively large patches in or near the urban area include 
Paynes Prairie, Hickory Sink, San Felasco Hammock. Requires a periodic fire to maintain 
identity. "Endangered, threatened, and special protection" species tiiat may occur in 
community: Florida panther, southeastem kestrel (sparrow hawk), red-cockaded 
woodpecker, eastern indigo snake, bald eagle, black bear, sandhill crane. 

Wet Flatwoods 

A wet, flatland community seasonally inundated and associated with hydric hammock. 
Dominant vegetative species include: slash and pond pine, cabbage palm, loblolly bay, 
sweetbay, wax myrtie, saw palmetto, wiregrass. Typical animals include: rabbit, raccoon, 
opossum, skunk, fox squirrel, fox. The 90-acre Kincaid Flatwoods in southeast 
Gainesville may be the best example in the county. Other occurrences in or near the urban 
area include Hatchet Creek-Gum Root Swamp, Paynes Prairie, Prairie Creek. Important 
for water quahty and quantity control, wildlife habitat. Requires fluctuating water levels to 
maintain identity. 



53 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Xeric Hammock 



(* 



The driest of the hardwood hammock communities. Community is found throughout urban 
area. Xeric Hammock is typically a fomier sandhill or scrub that has become too 
fragmented to bum. Dominant vegetative species include: sand live oak, turkey oak, hve 
oak, pignut hickory, saw palmetto, scrub rush. Typical animals include: gray squirrel, 
turkey, screech owl, bluejay, barking tree frog, fence lizard, hog-nose snake, gopher 
tortoise. Excellent example at Prairie Creek. Also at Hickory Sink, Palm Point Hill. 

Mesic Flatwoods 

A moderately wet, fladand pine community. Dominant vegetative species include: longleaf, 
slash, and loblolly pine, saw palmetto, gallberry, wiregrass. Typical animals include: 
white-tailed deer, cotton rat, gray fox, raccoon, brown-headed nuthatch, southeastern 
kestrel. Formerly covered large areas of Alachua County, particularly north and east of 
Gainesville. Ecological communities found at Paynes Prairie, Austin Cary Forest, San 
Felasco Hammock, Hatchet Creek, Millhopper Flatwoods, Gum Root Swamp. 

Scrubby Flatwoods 

Represents the xeric (dry) version of the three flatwood types and is least abundant of the 

three. Dominant vegetative species include: longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine, saw 

palmetto, sand live oak (shrub). Chapman's oak (shrub), wiregrass. Typical animal species 

include: gray fox, raccoon, red rat snake, white-tailed deer, cotton rat, brown-headed 

nuthatch. Prairie Creek may have the county's best example. Other examples are found at 

Paynes Prairie, Austin Cary Forest, Hatchet Creek-Gum Root Swamp. ^^ 

Baygall 

Occur as small wetland patches at the base of slopes. Dominant vegetative species include: 
sweetbay, red maple, dahoon holly, white cedar, blackgum, cinnamon fern. Typical 
animals include: southern dusky salamander, marsh rabbit, southeastern shrew, raccoon, 
opossum, southern mink. Best example in county is at Hatchet Creek. Also found at 
Paynes Prairie, Millhopper Flatwoods. 

The geographical distribution of these communities is shown in Map 13. See Table 5 in the 
Appendix for a catalog of these communities as they appear on several properties found in 
the urban area. 

Functions of Plants and Animals 

Plants and animals provide the following functions: 

* Control of pest species, such as mosquitos and rats, through plant and 
animal diversity. 

* Nutrient/food cycling. 

* Propagation/seed dispersal. 
Provision of important sites for education/research and recreation 



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* Aesthetic and emotional satisfaction. 
Plants and ecological communities provide the following additional functions: 

* Production of oxygen and absorption of carbon dioxide. 

* Filtering out air pollutants and absorbing excessive solar radiation/heat, 
noise. 

* Reducing extremes of hot or cold temperatures, wind. 

* Reducing flood damage and filtering out water pollutants. 

* Reducing soil erosion. 

* Providing habitat for urban wildlife. 

Existing & Potential Commercial, Recreational Uses 

From 1970 to 1980, the area of state- wide commercial forest land declined by four percent. 
Three-fourths of this decline was due to conversion into urban and agricultural uses. Fifty- 
two percent of the land area in Alachua County in 1980 was comprised of commercial 
forest. Approximately one-third of this forest was owned by forest industry and most of 
the remainder by other private interests. According to the U.S. Forest Service, commercial 
forests in the county can be broken down into the following broad types; ^^^ 

Planted Pine 31 percent 

Upland Hardwood 24 percent 

Natural Pine 18 percent 

Lowland Hardwood 17 percent 

Oak-Pine 10 percent 

It is assumed that these percentages are reflective of existing commercial forest land within 
the urban area. Other than commercial forest activity, the only commercial use of vegetation 
in Gainesville is associated with the economic benefits that accrue to commercial operations 
because of the aesthetic quahties of vegetation (landscaped and natural vegetation). There is 
no significant commercial use of animals in the city. However, the collection and sale of 
reptiles and amphibians is permitted by the State and probably results in a limited amount of 
collection and sale within city limits. 

Plants and animals currently provide recreational amenities at several public and private 
parks throughout the city. These amenities are also enjoyed in residential areas. Because of 
the ecological and aesthetic benefits of plants and animals, the City should adopt pohcies 
which encourage the acquisition and management of exemplary ecological communities as a 
part of a parks and recreational improvement program. Such a program should, in part, 
strive to maintain (or in some instances restore) wildlife species diversity. 



56 



; 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Potential for Conservation, Use, or Protection 

In GainesviUe, the three hammock types are increasing in abundance due to urban fire 
control. Scrub, sandhill, cypress, marsh, upland pine, and the three flatwood types are 
decreasing in abundance due to urban fire control, drainage of wet areas, fragmentation, 
and real estate development. For the purposes of promoting diversity, therefore, those 
communities that are declining in abundance are those that are most important to preserve or 
restore. 

Urban wildlife dependent on these communities will change in abundance and diversity as 
the communities they depend on change in abundance, composition, and structure. In 
general, many historical populations of wildlife in the urban area (particularly larger 
mammals) will decline as a result of: 

* Habitat fragmentation and loss 

* Animals being killed on roads 

* Domestic pesticide and herbicide use 

* Soil erosion 

* Diseases borne by humans or domestic plants and animals 

* Predation by domestic animals 

* Loss of woodland understory 

* Introduction of exotic species 

* Loss of dead trees 

* Discontinuous noise from residences and parks 

* Toxic degradation of water bodies 

The natural integrity of Gainesville's ecological systems and current bird diversity within 
these communities are in jeopardy.^^ Breeding bird surveys by the local Audubon Society 
Chapter indicate the common nighthawk and brown-headed nuthatch are showing 
population declines. Colonial wading and water birds, such as herons, ibis, and wood 
storks, were once much more likely to nest at Lake Alice or Bivens Arm. The red-cockaded 
woodpecker, spotted at Momingside Nature Center as recently as the late 1970's, is no 
longer found in Gainesville. Similar surveys of other animals and plants have not been 
conducted in Gainesville. However, ecologists point out that when bird populations 
decline, we can assume other forms of wildlife with similar habitat requirements are also 
declining. 

Protection of endangered, threatened, or "special concern" species is primarily 
accomplished through landscaping, subdivision, planned development, and flood control 
regulations enforced by the city. Additional protection of such species is expected through 
adoption of special environmental overlay regulations described in the "Identification of 
Environmentally Significant Open Space" section of this Element. However, because of its 
urban character, the viability of such species within the city will not be significantly 
improved by land development regulations. Instead, the City should estabUsh regulations 
that would be triggered by development of relatively large and undeveloped lands in the 
event of future annexation of such lands. 

Compact urban development would have both positive and negative effects on the viability 
of wildlife in the future. On the positive side, such development will preserve larger 
"clumps" of connected open space outside of urbanized areas and therefore improve habitat 



^' Lener from Joe Schaefer, January 25, 1989. 



57 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



for species requiring both a large range and protection from human activity. Compact 
development will also minimize the amount of road mileage and reduce auto travel, thereby 
reducing the potential for road kills and further habitat fragmentation. 

On the negative side, the "infilling" associated with compact development will remove 
many of the "pockets" of relatively dry, upland open space now providing urban habitat. It 
follows, then, that creeks, lakes, and wetlands are becoming increasingly important 
sanctuaries for Gainesville's wildlife. 



Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 

Existing local plant, animal, and habitat conservation strategies include: 

* City "Regulation of Development Near Creeks" Ordinance 

* City Flood Control Ordinance 

* City Landscape Ordinance 

* City Subdivision Ordinance 

* City Site Plan Review Requirements 

* City Planned Development District 

* City Zoning Code General Performance Standards 

* SJRWMD and SRWMD Permitting and Research Programs Relating to Water Use 
and Management 

* DER Rules Goveming Construction & Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants 

* HRS Rules Goveming Siting, Construction, & Maintenance of On-Site Sewage 
Disposal Systems 

Recommended strategies to conserve Gainesville's plants, animals, and habitat include: 

* Establish a city- or county-managed monitoring program for trends in plant and 
animal populations. 

* Continue acquiring and maintaining exemplary ecological communities as a part of a 
parks and recreation improvement program. 

* Apply development regulations designed to protect and restore native plants and 
animals to properties associated with creeks, lakes, and wedands. 

* Work with Alachua County to adopt protection and restoration guidelines for 
significant uplands, farms, and forested areas in anticipation of future annexation of 
such areas into the city. 

* Encourage the clustering of buildings, xeriscaping, establishment and protection of 
native vegetation, and tree protection for all land uses within the city. 

* Ensure that future road alignments are minimizing disturbance of important upland 
and wetland habitats, and design roads to reduce the incidence of animals being 
killed on roads. 

* Estabhsh a more vigorous city tree and vegetation planting program (including 
creation or maintenance of understory in public parks), and promote private 
planting efforts. 



58 



J 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



* Ensure that drainage projects are designed and maintained to maximize the use of 
the natural environment as a tool to meet drainage objectives. 

* Ensure that city mosquito control and utility corridor management activities are not 
detrimental to species diversity. 

* If appropriate, adopt regulations consistent with those found in the Alachua County 
Conservation Element (adopted July 11, 1989) for the protection of significant 
upland communities, and threatened, endangered or otherwise important species. 



* 



Conduct a study which would establish a list of species to be protected by the 
Greenway Network, and a management plan for such species. 



The most significant plant and animal problems and conservation strategies are illustrated in 
Figure 8. 



AIR 



Inventory of Air Quality 

Air quality in the Gainesville urban area is better than in most Rorida cities when quality is 
measured by state air quality standards. Using these standards, Gainesville's air is 
classified as "Class 11" (non-degraded). There are state standards for the following 
pollutants: 

Primarv Sources in Gainesville 

* Ozone Cars, Industry 

* Carbon Monoxide Cars 

* Sulfur Dioxide Power Plants, Industry, Home Heating 

* Particulates (dust) Power Plants, Cars, Construction, Industry 

* Nitrogen Oxides Cars, Power Plants 

* Lead Cars 

* Hydrocarbons Cars, Power Plants, Industry 

Primary sources of air pollution can be broken down into two broad categories. The first 
category is stationary sources (e.g. home heating, incinerators, industry, sewage treatment 
plant digestors, power plants, solvent evaporation, open burning). The second category is 
mobile sources (mostly cars). 

In 1963, the proportions of each major pollutant from primary and secondary sources in 
Gainesville were as follows: 



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As implied by the above tables, the highest concentrations of air pollution in Gainesville are 
probably from the following: 

* Cars along the major city transportation corridors (such as University Avenue, NW 
8th Avenue, Waldo Road, 13th Street, and 34th Street). 

* Industries in the north central, northeast, and south industrial areas of the city 
(particularly Koppers Company, Whitehurst Asphalt, Marion Concrete, and 
Thomas Concrete). 

* Jets and planes at the Gainesville Regional Airport. 

* Boilers at Tacachale. 

* Smokestacks at the Deerhaven and Kelly Power Plants. 

* Gas stations and bulk petroleum dealerships. 

* Incinerators at Alachua General, VA, and Shands Hospitals. 

* Heating Plant on the University of Florida campus. 

Of the above pollutants, ozone and particulates are most significant in Gainesville when 
measured by the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). In recent years, monitoring by DER has 
recorded only two violations of state air standards, and these were for particulates caused 
by construction in the Millhopper area in August 1984. See Map 12 for an inventory of 
"point" sources of air pollution. 



61 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Indoor Air Pollution 

Indoor air contains a number of potentially hazardous pollutants. These pollutants include: 

Primary Sources 

* Radon Soil, Water, Building Materials 

* Respirable Particulates Tobacco Smoke, Combustion 

* Carbon Monoxide Gas Stoves 

* Nitrogen Dioxide Gas Stoves 

* Formaldehyde Insulation, Plywood, Home Furnishings 

Because of reduced air circulation within buildings, these pollutants are often at much 
higher concentrations than are found in outdoor air. By reducing the amount of air leakage, 
recent energy conservation techniques for buildings have probably increased the 
concentrations of indoor pollutants in Gainesville. However, several air exchange 
techniques are now being used to reduce concentrations. 

Radon is a naturally occurring, radioactive gas. It cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted. In 
Gainesville, radon is released from phosphate in the Hawthom clays which predominate 
throughout the city. In outdoor air, radon is too diluted to pose a health hazard. However, 
reduced air circulation within buildings sometimes allows radon concentrations to reach a 
level where it becomes a serious threat to public health. The health threat posed by radon 
increases as the time of exposure to the gas increases and as the concentration of radon in 
the air increases. 

Generally, buildings located in areas where radon occurs will show higher radon levels as 
the "footprint" of the building increases. Buildings with a "slab" foundation show higher 
levels than buildings with an elevated (crawlspace) foundation. Cracks, joints, and pores in 
the floor can allow radon to seep into buildings. 

Geographic location plays perhaps the most significant role in the level of radon found in 
buildings. Areas in Gainesville that show the highest levels of radon are those where the 
Hawthom is either near or at the surface.^ Surface exposure to the Hawthom clays is 
particularly likely in: 

* Areas with a significant amount of topographic relief, such as steep slopes 
associated with creek channels. These areas typically expose the Hawthom as a 
result of erosional processes which have cut into the clay layer. In some areas 
where this cutting extends below the elevation of the Hawthom layer, clays from 
the Hawthom have eroded and moved downward to be mixed with the sandy soils 
of creek lowlands to produce moderate radon levels. 

* Areas that are between 105 feet and 145 feet above sea level. This elevation 
corresponds to the elevation of the Hawthom in the Gainesville area. 



This area is rcprescnicd by the "scmiconfincd" zone which forms a nonhwesicriy lo souihcriy band through the dty, as 
shown on Map 5. 



62 



^ 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Because the "semiconfined" zone in the city is characterized by such geologic features, high 
levels of radon have been measured in that area of Gainesville. (See Map 5 for the location 
of the semiconfined zone.) Some studies obtained by the Alachua County Office of 
Environmental Protection indicate that areas in western Gainesville and Marion County 
have some of the highest radon levels recorded in the southeastern United States. The 
"unconfined" zone shows lower levels of radon, although there are pockets of high levels 
indicating that patches of the Hawthorn exist in the zone. The lowest levels of radon are 
observed in the "confined" zone, where the Hawthorn is the farthest from the surface. (See 
Map 5.) 

Levels of radon in several buildings west of NW 13th Street have often exceeded 20 
picocuries per liter (pCi/1), with a few measurements exceeding 100 pCi/l. The U.S. EPA 
currently recommends that immediate remedial action be taken when levels exceed 20 pCi/1. 
EPA is currendy of the opinion that levels at or below 4 pCi/1 are reasonably safe. 

Certain factors impede the migration of radon to the surface, and therefore reduce the health 
risk. Undifferentiated sands, which overlay much of Alachua County (see Map 4), can 
retard radon movement. Groundwater also reduces radon movement to the surface. In 
addition, building design can reduce exposure to radon. 

Noise 

Noise pollution can be defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or animals. 
Because of the high concentration of machinery used, urban areas such as Gainesville 
experience high levels of noise pollution. 

Primary Sources 

* Cars, Trucks, Motorcycles, Buses (along the major transportation corridors cited 
above). 

* Planes, Jets, Helicopters (vicinity of Gainesville Regional Airport, travel corridors 
of emergency hehcopters). 

* Emergency Vehicles (fire trucks, emergency rescue, police cars). 

* Road and Building Construction. 

* Power Tools for Maintenance (air blowers, grass trimmers, lawn mowers, chain 
saws). 

* Burglar Alarms (for cars, homes, businesses). 

* Industrial Activities. 

* Domestic Pets (primarily barking dogs). 

* Air Conditioning Units. 

* Loud Music. 

* Home Appliances (garbage disposals, washers, vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, 
blenders). 



63 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Transportation is the leading source of noise pollution. Regarding noise levels resulting 
from levels of traffic flow, the Florida Department of Transportation reports that the highest 
noise levels are found on roads with "level-of-service 'C." 

Functions of Healthy Air Quality 

Clean air provides the following functions: 

* Visual clarity, aesthetics. 

* Source of oxygen and carbon dioxide for humans, other animals, plants. 

* Capacity to absorb and dilute air pollutants at concentrations that will not 
harm humans, animals, plants. 

Air Quality Conservation Strategies 

Change in air and noise pollution levels in Gainesville will depend primarily on future 
levels of local auto travel, and to a lesser extent, a change in the number of regional 
industries emitting air pollutants. It is expected that pollution from municipal power plant 
emissions will not worsen significantly. It is expected that levels of ozone will grow worse 
as car travel increases in the Gainesville urban area. Levels of airborne lead, on the other 
hand, will probably continue to decline as the proportion of autos using leaded gasoline 
declines. 

Levels of particulates are expected to rise as population growth continues. This will occur 
as a result of a loss of vegetative cover throughout the urban area, construction activity, and 
increases in impervious surface. A loss of vegetative cover will also tend to increase noise 
levels. In addition, noise levels are expected to increase as a result of increasing levels of 
air traffic volumes, as well as an increase in the number of emergency vehicle calls. 

An increase in "exotic" air pollutants may occur if the County elects to use incineration as 
one form of municipal soUd waste disposal. Existing institutional and industrial incinerators 
are expected to increase emissions as the cost of solid waste disposal increases. Local 
hospitals are currently incinerating waste plastics, and because of precautions now being 
taken to reduce the spread of the AIDS virus, the amount of plastics incineration is 
increasing. The public health threat associated with the buming of such plastic is unknown. 

Existing and Recommended Conservation Strateg ies 

Existing local air quahty conservation strategies include: 

* City Landscape Ordinance 

* City Subdivision Ordinance 

* City Site Plan Review Requirements 

* City 2^ning Code General Performance Standards 

* State and Federal Rules Under the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act and 
the (federal) Clean Air Act 

* City Noise Control Ordinance 

* City Clean Air Ordinance 

* Regional Mass Transportation, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Programs 

* GRU Energy Conservation Program 



64 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Recommended strategies to conserve Gainesville's air quality include: 

* Accelerate both public and private planting of vegetation, particiilarly trees. 

* Implement compact development strategies and other techniques to encourage non- 
auto travel. 

* Establish a systematic air quality monitoring program for the urban area, 
particularly for the primary source locations cited above. 

* Discourage the burning or incineration of toxic air pollutants, such as the 
combustion by-products of plastics. 

* Control auto emissions by establishing auto inspection stations and requiring vapor 
recovery for fuel dealers. 

* Encourage energy conservation through the use of solar energy, energy audits, 
energy transmission improvements, and an accelerated tree planting program. 

* Strengthen indoor smoking regulations. 

* For major arterials, use sound barriers and land use controls to separate auto noise 
from noise-sensitive land uses. 

* Discourage the use of high-decibel power tools and machines. 

* Discourage aircraft (particularly helicopter) flight paths and emergency vehicle 
routes that create excessive noise nuisance for noise- sensitive land uses. 

* Adopt building code requirements and land use controls that minimize indoor radon 
levels. 

* Provide radon information to homebuyers and homeowners. 

The most significant air quality problems and conservation strategies are illustrated in 
Figure 9. 



SOILS AND MINERALS 

Inventory of Soils 

Soils within the city are neutral to acidic sands underlain by sandy loams or clay subsoils. 
Much of the land area east of Main Street and in the northwestern portion of the city north 
of 53rd Avenue is level and poorly drained. (See Map 14.) These soils, known as the 
Myakka-Wauchula-Placid association, retain high water tables several months of the year. 

Most of the remaining city land has level to gently rolling, well-drained sandy or sandy 
loam soils well suited to development Development problems are restricted to the 



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floodplains of the Hogtown-Possum Creek system and to small ponds or marshes lacking 
drainage oudets. Clay subsoils are occasionally present in the Arrendondo-Zuber 
association, causing shrink-swell problems for building foundations and roads. There is no 
current or expected extraction of commerciaUy valuable minerals within city limits. 

Inventory of minerals 

The following minerals display actual or potential commercial value in the Gainesville 
urban area: 

* Limestone 

* Sand 

* Phosphate 

Despite extensive mining in the past, limestone deposits remain quite large and are expected 
to be mined in the future for such uses as roadfill or in construction as crushed rock. While 
active Umestone mining is taking place in the county, there are presently no active mines 
within the city or urban area. 

Sand deposits can be found throughout the urban area, and there is no foreseeable threat to 
the availability of this resource. Although the Rorida Mining Adas (DER, 1982) does not 
list any active sand mines in the county, USGS maps (1982) indicate the existence of five 
sand pits, three gravel pits, and six quarries within the urban area (Map 15). Presentiy, 
mined sand is used for general building and road construction purposes within the city. 

Phosphate mining in the county has occurred in the past, but there are presentiy no active 
mining operations. Because of the relatively lower grade quality of local deposits, it is 
expected that resumption of phosphate mining will not occur until local deposits become 
comparable in quality to deposits being mined elsewhere in the state. 

Functions of Soils 

Soils provide the following functions: 

* Foundation for buildings, roads, and other development. 

* Foundation and nutrient source for urban vegetation. 

* Habitat for various urban wildlife. 

* Storage of groundwater and surface waters. 

* Protection from flooding. 

* Adsorption of pollutants. 



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Soil Problems 



General development limitations include soil drainage potential, shrink-swell potential, 
bearing capability, erosion, and trafficability. Some of these limitations are referred to in 
the inventory section above. Refer to Map 16 for general soil limitations and erosion 
problem areas in Gainesville. 

The fertile topsoils of Gainesville are endangered by erosion and contamination from 
pollutants. Erosion is primarily due to construction practices and other activities where soils 
are left unprotected by the removal of vegetation. Without the binding provided by plant 
roots, topsoils are eroded by wind and flowing water. 

Contamination of soils in urban areas such as Gainesville is typically widespread but 
poorly inventoried. Generally, soils near industrial areas, roads, gas stations, and parking 
lots have been exposed to some degree of containination. 

Both soil erosion and contamination reduce the ability of urban soils to support plant life 
and animal habitat Water storage capability is also reduced. In the case of erosion, the 
structural stability of various developments can be threatened. 

Existing & Potential Commercial, Recreational Use of Minerals 

There is no existing commercial extraction of minerals within the city limits. Because of the 
urban character of the city, futiu^e extraction of minerals within city limits is unlikely. 

There is no recreational use of minerals within the city. No future recreational use of ^^ 

minerals is expected. 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection of Minerals 

As described above, there are no existing or anticipated threats to the availability of 
minerals within the city or urban area. 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection of Soils 
Existing and Recommended Conservation Strategies 

Existing local soil conservation strategies include: 



* 



City "Regulation of Development Near Creeks" Ordinance 

City Flood Control Ordinance 

City Landscape Ordinance 

City Subdivision Ordinance 

City Site Plan Review Requirements 

City Planned Development District 

City Zoning Code General Performance Standards 

Alachua County Murphree Well Field Management Code 

Alachua County Storage Tank Systems Code 

HRS Rules Goveming Siting, Construction, & Maintenance of On-Site Sewage 

Disposal Systems 



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Recommended strategies to conserve Gainesville's soils include: 

* Encourage construction design consistent with existing terrain by discouraging 
contouring or cut and fill. 

* Provide residents and small businesses with convenient programs for properly 
disposing of household hazardous waste. 

* Maintain, and where necessary re-establish vegetative ground cover, particularly in 
areas near surface waters. 

* Encourage the use of erosion control practices during development of individual 
residential lots. 

* Encourage the composting of yard and food waste for use as a soil conditioner. 
The most significant soil problems and conservation strategies are illustrated in Figure 10. 

OPEN SPACE 

Inventory of Open Space 

Open space can be defined as any vegetated or surface water area set aside for recreation, 
public gathering, aesthetics, buffering, urban definition, protection of public health and 
safety, and/or preservation of ecosystem functions. Using this definition, Gainesville open 
space can be placed in four broad (and in some cases, overlapping) categories: 

Public Safety Open Space 

* Floodplains and Steep Slopes 

* Airport and Road Noise Contour Zones 

* Wasteland (such as abandoned dumps and waste sites) 

Natural Resource Open Space 

* PubUc Conservation Areas 

* Significant Ecological Communities 

* Wildlife Management Areas 

* Wetlands 

* Lakes 



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Recreation Open Space 

* Active Public Parks 

* Passive Public Parks 

* Public School Recreation Areas 

* Golf Courses 

Utility Open Space 

* Utility Rights-of-Way and Easements 

* Cemeteries 

* Vacant Urban Land 

* Farms/Agricultural 

These categories are inventoried and defined in Table 6 in the Appendix. Significant 
ecological communities, lOO-year floodplain areas, and land designated as "open space" on 
the 1980-2000 Gainesville Land Use Map are shown in Maps 17, 18, and 19. 

Existing & Potential Commercial, Recreational Uses 

Utility open space in GainesviUe is used by commercial operations for expansion. 
Economic benefits accrue to commercial operations because of the aesthetic and social 
qualities of open space. 

An inventory of existing public and private open space sites providing some form of public 

recreation can be found in Table 8 in the Appendix. This inventory identifies the types of t^ 

facilities found at each site and whether the site is resource-based or activity-based. 

Potential for Conservation, Use or Protection 

As described in the Recreation Element, the following active and passive park acreage 
level-of-service standards will be maintained: 



Proposed Park Standards 

Park Type Standard 1991 Deficiency 2001 Deficiency 

Nature Park 5 ac per 1000 Surplus 120 acres 

Sports Complex 0.5 ac per 1000 Surplus Surplus 

Community Park 2 ac per 1000 Surplus Surplus 

Neighborhood Pk^ 1.5 ac per 1000 Surplus 41 acres 



1 

Standard increases to 6 acres in 1997. 
2 
Standard is 0.8 acres per quadrant in 1997. 



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Over the past 10 years, Gainesville's park acquisition program has added mostly passive 
park acreage to the existing stock of parks within city limits. As the table shows, there are 
projected deficiencies for nature parks and neighborhood parks. 

Because most of the recent acquisitions have not been developed for recreation, it is 
possible that the pace of future acquisitions may be slowed in order to provide funding for 
park development However, continued population growth and development, along with 
the possibility of new funding sources for parks, may result in efforts to maintain or 
increase the pace of future park acquisitions. 

The Gainesville urban area contains large expanses of State-owned (and therefore publicly 
protected) open spaces. Continued encroachment by human activities, however, may 
reduce the long-term viability of these habitat islands. In addition to these wildlife 
management areas (none of which are found within city Umits), the urban area contains 
several linear corridors of privately-owned creek floodplain. 

As for private open space, existing flood control, planned development, and subdivision 
ordinances limit the development of this open space. Revision of the "Regulation of 
Development Near Creeks" ordinance would, if undertaken, bring additional creek 
segments into a regulatory framework which protects private open space. Expansion of the 
ordinance (see "Identification of Environmentally Significant Open Space" section) could 
conceivably include lakes and wetlands as well. The flood control ordinance often requires 
that retention or detention basins be constructed. These basins, if properly designed, add to 
the stock of pubhc and private open space. Future modifications to the ordinance may result 
in an increase in the size, number, changes in slopes, and landscaping of such basins. 
Furthermore, existing Planned Development and cluster subdivision ordinances increase 
the likelihood that privately-owned common areas will be created as a supplement to future 
residential development. 

Protection of privately-owned floodplains and significant ecological communities would be 
accomplished primarily through establishment of special environmental overlay regulations 
(as described in the "Identification of Environmentally Significant Open Space" section of 
this Report). 

The continued growth of the school-aged population in the area will result in the addition of 
new public schools and their associated open space acreages. Additionally, older schools 
that are converted to non-school (or special education) use will typically retain their open 
space acreage. Both old and new schoolyards can offer excellent locations for maintaining 
or creating natural habitat areas. If designed properly, such areas reduce maintenance costs 
and provide outdoor ecology laboratories. 

However, many local schools are reducing the availabiUty of school open space. The 
primary reasons for this include: (1) add-ons to schools which encroach upon existing open 
space; and (2) increasing liability and maintenance concerns which are leading school 
administrators to adopt pohcies restricting public use of school open space. Add-ons are 
likely to continue, but will not result in a significant loss of school open space. Cooperative 
agreements, habihty management practices, and increased funding for city maintenance 
programs will be necessary to preserve the current level of public access to open space 
being threatened by liability and maintenance problems. 

Operation and maintenance costs can be minimized, however, through the use of 
landscaping practices which minimize the need for maintenance. For example, xeriscaping 
techniques can reduce the need for water, fertilizers, pesticides, pruning, and energy. 



78 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



The City will continue to encourage infill development in order to promote compact urban 
development. Such a policy may result in a substantial loss of private open space. 
However, compact development may result in an increase of public open space if 
appropriate open space policies are adopted. 



POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION 



There are two general sources of pollution: "point" sources and "non-point" sources. 
"Non-point" sources of pollution were discussed in the previous section describing the 
components of the natural environment. "Point" sources will be discussed here. 

Many sites in Gainesville have experienced significant pollution problems in the past. 
Several of these "point" sources of pollution are identified in Map 12. As the map 
demonstrates, the locations of these pollution sites generally correspond to areas in close 
proximity to the major arterials of the Gainesville urban area. 

In addition to known point sources of pollution. Map 12 identifies "potential" point sources 
of pollution.31 Again, such areas generally correspond to major arterials in the urban area. 

In general, Gainesville gives priority to the correction of point source pollution problems 
resulting from activities associated with some form of City ownership or management. 
Nevertheless, the City strongly encourages the immediate mitigation of private sector point 
source pollution problems. 



ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAM 



Environmental quality monitoring is an essential ingredient for environmental planning. By 
carrying out a detailed, comprehensive, and ongoing monitoring program of natural areas 
and features, a community can: 

* Determine whether existing regulations relating to protection or improvement of the 
environment are having a beneficial effect 

* Determine whether new regulations are necessary, or whether existing regulations 
should be modified or abandoned. 

* Provide strong legal justification for regulations should they be challenged in court 

* Determine whether certain natural features (such as air quality or tree populations) 
are improving or being degraded. 



•1 1 

Alachua County Department of Environmental Services. 1987. Design and Implementation of an Ambient Groundwater 
Quality Network in Alachua County. Gainesville, Florida. 



79 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



* 



Make sure current and comprehensive information relating to the status and 
management of natural resources is available to inform local land use decision- 
making. 

* Determine whether pollution at contaminated sites is being contained, or whether 
the pollution is migrating off of the site. 

Despite its importance, such a monitoring program is typically considered a low priority. 
When monitoring is done, it is usually on an ad hoc basis (often in response to an 
environmental crisis). As a result, communities such as Gainesville have found that 
relatively little long-term monitoring of local environmental quality has been conducted.^^ 

The City should work with the County environmental protection office to establish an 
ongoing and comprehensive environmental quality monitoring program. A "State of the 
Urban Environment" report, describing existing conditions and trends regarding 
environmental quality, should be prepared on an annual basis as a part of the program. The 
report should include, but not necessarily be limited to: 

* Groundwater quality trends (particularly near sinkholes and around contaminated 
sites). Note that groundwater quality monitoring stations have been established in 
several city locations (see Map 12). 

* Air quality trends (particularly at strategic locations such as major road 
intersections, industrial areas, and incinerator facilities). 

* Radon measurements (particularly for homes and schools). 

* Surface water quality trends (particularly for major city lakes and creeks). 

* Habitat locations and population trends for important plants and animals 
(particularly threatened and endangered species). 

* The effects of toxins such as pesticides and heavy metals on Gainesville's public 
health and urban wildlife. 

* Recent open space acquisitions and opportunities for additional acquisitions. 

* Noise level trends (particularly along major roads, and in plane and hehcopter flight 
paths). 

* Origins of identified pollutants (particularly for surface waters and groundwater). 

* Identification and ongoing evaluation of the status of significant uplands. 

* Inventory and ongoing evaluation of the health of the city tree canopy (particularly 
along the corridors of the Greenway Network). 

* The nature and location of businesses and industries using hazardous materials and 
generating hazardous wastes. 



^^ Goiigens. Johan F. and Qay L Montague. 1988. "Comprehensive Reconnaissance Profile of the Paynes Prairie Basin, 
Flonda." Dcpi. of Envuonmcntal Engineering Sciences, University of Rorida, Gainesville. For: St. Johns River Water 
.Management DislncL Page 50. 



80 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Reports on any spills or other problems relating to the transport, storage, handling, 
or disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. 

Status reports on whether the City's wastewater treatment plants, power plants, and 
water treatment plant are in compliance with all required federal, state, and regional 
construction and operation permits. 

Reports of problems with septic tanks filed with the Alachua County Health 
Department. 



HAZARDOUS WASTES 



Hazardous wastes have become a significant environmental quality concern over the past 
few decades. The Alachua County Department of Environmental Services conducted a 
hazardous waste assessments^ in the mid-1980's which revealed that the top six small 
quantity generators (SQGs) of hazardous waste in the county, by weight, are: 



Hazardous Waste 


Percent of Total 


Oils and Greases 


42 


Batteries 


38 


Pesticide Rinse Water 


4 


Solvents 


4 


Toxic Metal Rinse Water 


3 


Photographic 


3 



Approximately 80 percent of the County's SQGs are located within Gainesville or the 
unincorporated urbanized area surrouncing the city. Approximately 40 percent of this 80 
percent is located south of N.W. 16th Avenue and east of 13th Street in Gainesville. 

The largest amount of hazardous waste by a large quantity generator CLQG) was reported 
by PCR, Inc. (ammonia-laden process wastewater). The next largest was Shands Hospital 
(wastewater sludges containing toxic metals from x-ray equipment). 



^-' Alachua County Department of Environmental Services. 1987. Hazardous Waste Management Assessment for Alachua 
County, Volume I. Gainesville, Florida. 



81 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



There are nine abandoned dump sites (areas used for unmanaged solid waste disposal and 
considered to pose a threat to surface water and groundwaters) relevant to the Gainesville 
urban area and on the DER sites list:^'' 

* Southwest Landfill * Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund 

* FMX * Former Airport Landfill & Bum Site 

* Old Airport Landfill * PCR, Inc. 

* Univ. of Ra. Landfill * Crom Corp. (Zirtech) 

* Kelly Generating Station (Power Plant) 

In Alachua County, improper management of hazardous waste occurs when such waste is 
landfilled, buried, or discharged into public sewers, septic tanks, or open pits. Reporting 
by SCKjs indicates that about 85 percent of SQG hazardous waste is being properly 
managed. Approximately 77 percent of SQG waste is recycled (mostly batteries, solvents, 
and waste oils). Of the SQG wastes that are improperly managed, 81 percent is discharged 
to pubUc sewers, 15 percent is landfilled, and 3 percent is placed in open pits. The most 
common SQG wastes discharged to sewers are pesticide rinses, heavy-metal rinses, and 
photographic wastes. 

See SDW: 30-38 for additional information regarding hazardous waste management 



ENERGY 



The amount and type of energy used by City residents directly affects Gainesville's quality 
of life and natural resources such as air, water, plants, and animals. Energy use is also 
closely tied to housing, other forms of land development, transportation, and solid waste 
management 

Communities using large amounts of energy, for example, are typically characterized by: 

* Dispersed (rather than compact) land use patterns, which require greater use of fuel- 
burning vehicles and construction of relatively large amounts of roads and parking 
lots; 

* Heavy reliance on centralized or relatively polluting energy from utility companies; 

* Poorly designed buildings which require large amounts of artificial heating and 
cooling, landscape maintenance, and heat-producing pavement and building 
materials; and 

* Low levels of recycling and high levels of waste disposal. 

Communities with programs and designs which promote energy conservation experience a 
much higher quality of life. For example, such energy -conserving communities spend 
much less money for energy, use energy in ways which conserve natural resources and 
protect pubhc health, and set up programs which allow for energy flexibility should certain 
types of energy become less available in the future. 



^ See also the 'Hazardous Waste" section of the SoUd Waste Element Dau Collection & Analysis Section. 



82 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Energy strategies which will protect the quality of Gainesville's natural resources include: 

* Promoting conservation as the most desirable source of energy. 

* Using the most environmentally benign types of energy available for various energy 
needs. 

* Discouraging use of centralized, non-renewable energy sources. 

* Incorporating energy conservation techniques in development and redevelopment 
plans. 

* Promoting higher development densities and mixed land uses in appropriate 
locations such as activity centers. 

* Promoting alternatives to single-occupant auto travel, such as bicycling, buses, 
carpooling, and walking. 

* Promoting landscape and development designs which encourage pedestrian activity 
and minimize the energy and water needed to heat, cool, and otherwise maintain 
buildings. 

* Maximizing the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of, through such 
techniques as recycling, re-use, composting, and source reduction. 

ECONOMIC COSTS OF DAMAGE TO GAINESVILLE'S NATURAL 

ENVIRONMENT 



If contamination in the Floridan Aquifer were to reach the municipal wellfield, the 
cost of drinking water might increase due to the need for special water treatment 
techniques, construction of a new municipal wellfield, or importation of water from 
outside of Alachua County. 

Significant loss of vegetation (particularly trees) would increase the cost of air 
conditioning, wind buffering, sun screening, and heating. Such loss would require 
the construction of flood control works needed as a result of increased flooding. 
Costs would also be incurred due to flood damage to public and private structures. 
In addition, the need for storm sewer networks and creek channel modifications 
would increase. 

Significant contamination of, or damage to any portion of Gainesville's natural 
environment would reduce property values immediately surrounding the affected 
area. If significant enough, property values citywide might be reduced. In addition, 
industries seeking a high quality of life for their employees would be less likely to 
locate in Gainesville. Declines in property values would result in declines in public 
revenues firom ad valorem taxation. Such revenues are needed to fund community 
services and facilities. 



83 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Uncontrolled soil erosion increases the need to remove sediment from creeks and 
undertake programs to improve surface water quality for fish and wildlife harmed 
by sedimentation. In addition, excessive sedimentation interferes with the ability of 
sinkholes to accept and move water. Erosion also increases the need for fertilization 
of soils, and soil leveling or stabilization. 

Lx)ss of community attractiveness would result in a decline in tourism, as well as a 
decline in construction industries dependent on immigration. 

Increases in air and noise pollution would increase the need for air pollution 
abatement equipment and monitoring devices. Also, such poUution would result in 
costs for medical treatment and noise muffling equipment 



84 



APPENDIX 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

DEFINITIONS 



AQUIFER: a geologic formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that 
contains sufficient saturated peraieable material to yield significant quantities of water to 
wells and springs. 

ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY: the greatest amount of a pollutant loading that a water 
or wetiand can receive without violating state water quality standards. 

BUFFER: the use of naturally occurring vegetation or open space for the purposes of 
limiting the effects of development on natural areas, nearby land uses, or recreational 
resources. 

CHANNELIZATION: cutting a ditch into, or otherwise modifying the channel of, a 
creek; usually for the purpose of increasing the storm water conveyance capacity of the 
creek and/or draining saturated areas. 

CONE OF DEPRESSION: a roughly conical concavity (or dimple) in tiie 
potentiometric surface around a pumping well. It relates to the events that occur in an 
aquifer when withdrawal of well water exceeds recharge. 

CONFINED AQUIFER: an aquifer bounded above and below by impermeable beds or 
by beds of distinctly lower permeability than that of the aquifer itself. 

CONNECTED WETLAND: a vegetative community which is part of a flowing water 
system or a runoff system where waters flow through during times of heavy rainfall. 

CONSERVATION: the prudent use and protection or restoration of natural areas and 
features consistent with the continued functioning of the natural areas and features. 

DEPRESSION BASIN: natural depression watershed areas which have no outiet for 
siuface water outflow except by percolation or evapotranspiration. 

DEVELOPMENT: any man-made change to property including, but not limited to, 
building or erecting a structure, locating a mobile home, mining, dredging, filling, grading, 
paving, excavating, or drilling operations. 

ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY: an integrated association of plants and animals 
adapted to and dependent on a particular environment 

ECOSYSTEM: an interacting system of living and non-living components of the 
environment. 

ENVIRONMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT (or SENSITIVE): natural features 
prone to damage due to development and necessary for (1) the protection of public health, 
safety, and welfare; and (2) the conservation of the natural environment. 

FOREST, URBAN: the woody vegetation within city limits. With respect to 
government management, the urban forest refers to trees in parks, along streets within the 
urban area, within the landscaped area of government buildings, and associated with 
surface water areas. 



A-1 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



GEOLOGIC FEATURES: a prominent or conspicuous characteristic of naturally 
occurring earth materials in the landscape. Includes sinkholes, caves, stream bluffs, 
escarpments, outcroppings, and springs. 

GROUNDWATER: water occurring beneath the surface of the ground in zones of 
saturation, whether or not flowing through known or definite channels. 

HABITAT: the natural abode of a plant or animal. The kind of environment in which a 
plant or animal normally lives, as opposed to the range, or spatial distribution. 

HABITAT CORRIDOR: a naturally-vegetated transportation route for plants and 
animals that connects larger natural areas. Wild plants and animals typically require avenues 
for dispersal to different feeding and breeding sites in order to survive. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL: materials, as defined in the Alachua County Hazardous 
Materials Management Code, which are potentially harmful to the natural environment 
and/or to the public health, safety, and welfare. 

HYDROPERIOD: the annual period of inundation. 

IMPERVIOUS: incapable of being penetrated, as by moisture. 

ISOLATED (or EPHEMERAL) WETLAND: a wetland where no naturally 
occurring outfall exists. Examples are cypress domes, shallow marshes, and bayheads. 

KARST TOPOGRAPHY: the relief of an area underlain by limestone that dissolves in 
differing degrees, thus forming numerous depressions or small basins. The relief is also 
marked by sinkholes and underground drainage. 

MAJOR NATURAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AREAS: those areas where 
stream-to-sink basins occur and the Floridan Aquifer system is unconfined or 
semiconfmed. 

MITIGATE: actions taken before, during or after development to preserve, replace, or 
restore various environmental functions or features of a natural area, or to buffer nearby 
land uses from adverse impacts of the development. 

NATIVE (or NATIVE BIOTA): the natural occurrence of species of plants and 
animals in a specific region. Native biota does not include species that are exotic or 
introduced by humans and that have become "naturalized." 

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT (or NATURAL AREA or NATURAL 
FEATURE or NATURAL RESOURCE): anything needed by an organism, 
population, or ecosystem. Excludes areas and features disturbed or created by humans, 
such as buildings and parking lots, but includes areas defined as open space. 

OPEN SPACE: any vegetated or surface water area set aside for recreation, public 
gathering, aesthetics, buffering, urban definition, protection of public health and safety, 
preservation of ecosystem functions, or a combination of these features. 

POLLUTION: undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics 
of the air, water, or soil, that can harm humans, animals, vegetation, or structures. 



A-2 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

POLLUTION, NON-POINT SOURCE: contamination arising from a relatively wide 
area such as a parking lot or construction site, rather than a specific point such as a pipe. 

POLLUTION, POINT SOURCE: contamination arising from a specific point such as 
a pipe or smokestack, rather than from a relatively large area such as a parking lot or 
construction site. 

POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE: an expression of the pressure under which water is 
found or held, the level to which water from an aquifer will rise in tightiy cased wells that 
penetrate an aquifer. The water table is a particular potentiometric surface. 

PRESERVATION: the perpemal maintenance of areas in their natural state. 

RECHARGE: the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water table 
surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated 
zone. 

RESTORATION: the revival or rehabilitation of a natural area or feature such as a 
wetiand, plant or animal habitat, etc., to a condition in which the area or feature functions 
in a relatively self-maintaining, historically natural condition. 

SEMICONFINED AQUIFER: according to tiie USGS, an aquifer witii an overlying 
confining bed which is generally less than 100 feet thick, breached, or both. 

SHEETFLOW: the pattern of water movement where large quantities of water move in 
broad-spread, shallow layers across the ground's surface. Typically seen in wetiands, 
marshes, grasslands, pine flatwoods, and prairies. 

STORMWATER (OR RUNOFF): flow of water which results from, and which 
occurs during and immediately following, a rainfall event 

UNCONFINED AQUIFER: an aquifer that has no impermeable layer between the 
zone of saturation and water table. 

UPLAND COMMUNITY: non-wetland, non-aquatic areas not subject to regular 
flooding. Includes scrub, mesic hammock, sandhill, upland pine forest, xeric hammock, 
mesic flatwoods, and scrubby flatwoods. 

WATER TABLE: the surface of an unconfined aquifer at which the pressure is 
atmospheric. It is defined by the level at which water stands in wells that penetrate the 
water body far enough to hold standing water. 

WETLAND: areas inundated by surface- or groundwater with a frequency and duration 
sufficient to support and which, under normal circumstances do supjxjrt, a prevalence of 
vegetation typically adapted for hfe in saturated or seasonally saturated soO conditions. 

XERISCAPE: water-conserving, drought-tolerant landscaping. Includes use of 
vegetation not requiring special attention to grow properly. 



A-3 



^ 



Table 2. Inventory of Creeks, Lakes and Wetlands 



Nane 



Type Number Basin 



Location Size City Reg Use Use Rank TSI:'82 TSI/U0I:'86 Env Attrib 



Unnamedl 


Creek 


1110 


Hogtown 


481 


.23 


.23 


.00 




Unnamed 


Creek 


nil 


Hogtown 


579 


.32 


.32 


.32 


PFOIC 


Unnaaed 


Creek 


1112 


Hogtown 


529 


.09 


.09 


.09 




Unnamed 


Creek 


1113 


Hogtown 


375 


.29 


.29 


.29 


PFOIC 


Unnamed 


Creek 


1114 


Hogtown 


528 


.30 


.30 


.30 


PFOIC 


Unnaned 


Creek 


1115 


Hogtown 


379 


.45 


.45 


.45 


PFOIC 


Unnamed 


Creek 


1116 


Hogtown 


429 


.30 


.30 


.30 


PFOIC 


Unnamed 


Creek 


1119 


Hogtown 


524 


.20 


.20 


.00 


PFOIC 


Ridgeview 


Creek 


1120 


Hogtown 


478 


1.36 


1.36 


1.36 


PFOIC 


Glen Springs 


Creek 


1130 


Hogtown 


526 


.75 


.75 


.75 




Three Lakes 


Creek 


1140 


Hogtown 


427 


1.76 


1.76 


1.76 


PFOIC 


Monterey 


Creek 


1150 


Hogtown 


474 


.65 


.65 


.65 


PFOIC 


Hillhopper 


Creek 


1160 


Hogtown 


424 


.50 


.50 


.50 


PFOIC 


Beville Hts 


Creek 


1170 


Hogtown 


572 


2.20 


1.21 


.88 




Unnamed 


Creek 


1180 


Hogtown 


628 


.22 


.22 


.22 




Unnamed 


Creek 


1190 


Hogtown 


579 


.44 


.44 


.44 


PFOIC 


Royal Park 


Creek 


1210 


Hogtown 


624 


1.90 


1.90 


1.90 




Rattlesnake 


Creek 


1220 


Hogtown 


628 


.96 


.96 


.96 


PFOIC 


Springstead 


Creek 


1230 


Hogtown 


482 


2.55 


2.55 


1.10 


PFOIC 


Possum 


Creek 


1240 


Hogtown 


324 


4.56 


4.56 


4.43 


PFOIC 


Unnamed 


Creek 


1250 


Hogtown 


677 


.44 


.44 


.44 


PFOIC 


Hogtown Creek 


Creek 


1310 


Hogtown 


378 


7.25 


4.07 


4.07 


26 PFOIC 


UfPsm Ck H/U]' 


Lake 


1400 


Hogtown 


325 


1.56 


1.56 


.00 


POUH.PEniC 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


1410 


Hogtown 


377 


3.52 


3.52 


.00 


POUHx 


U[NU39AV/25ST] 


Lake 


1412 


Hogtown 


427 


1.55 


1.55 


.00 


POUH 


U[NEl/4] 


Lake 


1414 


Hogtown 


427 


.43 


.43 


.00 


POUHx. PF06C 


U[SEl/4 HGTUN] 


Lake 


1416 


Hogtown 


479 


.88 


.88 


.00 


POUH 


U[NU39AV/6$T]' 


Lake 


1417 


Hogtown 


431 


2.94 


.00 


.00 


POUHX 


U[NEl/4] 


Lake 


1418 


Hogtown 


481 


2.70 


2.70 


.00 


POUHx 


U[NE of TBV] 


Lake 


1420 


Hogtown 


524 


2.10 


2.10 


.00 


POUHx 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


1422 


Hogtown 


531 


1.30 


1.30 


.00 


POUHx 


U[Bvl Ck H/U] 


Lake 


1424 


Hogtown 


572 


3.50 


3.50 


.00 


POUH 


U[Bvl Ck H/W]« 


Lake 


1426 


Hogtown 


572 


.25 


.25 


.00 


POUH 


U[BVL CK H/U] 


Lake 


1428 


Hogtown 


572 


.65 


.65 


.00 


POWH.PEMIF 


rieta Lake 


Lake 


1430 


Hogtown 


580 


5.00 


5.00 


.00 


44 POUH 


U[NE of riETA] 


Lake 


1432 


Hogtown 


580 


.05 


.05 


.00 


POUH 


U[NFR Duck Pnd]* 


Lake 


1434 


Hogtown 


621 


3.56 


.00 


.00 


POUHx 


U[NU60ST/13PL]* 


Lake 


1436 


Hogtown 


621 


1.02 


.00 


.00 


POUH 


U[NU59ST/16PL]' 


Lake 


1438 


Hogtown 


621 


5.26 


.00 


.00 


PAB3EH1H,P0UH 


U[NUl/4] 


Lake 


1440 


Hogtown 


624 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U[NWl/4] 


Lake 


1442 


Hogtown 


624 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U[NWl/4] 


Lake 


1444 


Hogtown 


625 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U(NWl/4] 


Lake 


1446 


Hogtown 


625 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U[NH9AV/21ST] 


Lake 


1448 


Hogtown 


628 


.20 


.20 


.00 


POUH 


U[Sl/2ofNUl/4] 


Lake 


1450 


Hogtown 


628 


.40 


.40 


.00 


POUH 


U[RYL PK Pond] 


Lake 


1460 


Hogtown . 


674 


2.00 


2.00 


.00 


POUH 


U[26ST SINK] 


Lake 


1462 


Hogtown 


677 


.05 


.05 


.00 


POUH 


Serendipity 


Lake 


1464 


Hogtown 


677 


.05 


.05 


.00 


POUH 


Clear Lake * 


Lake 


1470 


Hogtown 


723 


10.00 


.00 


.00 1236 639 


69 POUH 


U[Grnacre Area] 


Lake 


1472 


Hogtown 


724 


.50 


.50 


.00 


POUH 


U[S Center] 


Lake 


1474 


Hogtown 


723 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U[Nm/4ofNUl/4] 


Lake 


1476 


Hogtown 


724 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U[S of Ckside] 


Lake 


1478 


Hogtown 


725 


.29 


.29 


.00 


POUH 


U[S of Ckside] 


Lake 


1480 


Hogtown 


725 


.50 


.50 


.00 


POUH 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


1482 


Hogtown 


726 


.50 


.50 


.00 


POUHx 



B-1 



Nane 



Type Nunber Basin 



Location Size City Reg Use Use Rank TSI:'82 TSI/U0I:'86 Env Attrib 



UfHaile Sink]* 


Lake 1 


484 


Hogtown 


871 


2.30 


.00 


.00 




Lake Kanapaha* 


Lake 1 


490 


Hogtoun 


922 


204.01 


.00 


.00 6857 494 


75 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


500 


Hogtown 


374 


2.47 


2.47 


.00 


PAB4H,PF064C 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


501 


Hogtoun 


372 


.20 


.00 


.00 


PEfllF 


U[El/2ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


502 


Hogtoun 


375 


1.48 


1.48 


.00 


PEfllC 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


503 


Hogtoun 


372 


.30 


.00 


.00 


PF0C/7F,PEniA 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


504 


Hogtown 


373 


54.80 


.00 


.00 


PEHIC 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


505 


Hogtown 


373 


1.97 


.00 


.00 


PEfllCPFOlC 


U[NEl/4ofSUl/4] 


Wetland 1 


506 


Hogtown 


375 


52.14 


52.14 


.00 


PEfllF 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland ] 


507 


Hogtown 


422 


.44 


.00 


.00 


PEniF 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland I 


508 


Hogtoun 


375 


.57 


.57 


.00 


PAB4Ef11H 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


509 


Hogtoun 


422 


.55 


.00 


.00 


PEHIF 


U[SEl/4ofNEl/4] 


Wetland ] 


510 


Hogtown 


376 


1.48 


1.48 


.00 


PEfllCx 


U(NEl/4] 


Wetland 1 


511 


Hogtown 


422 


.50 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NEl/4ofSWl/4] 


Wetland 1 


512 


Hogtown 


377 


1.97 


1.97 


.00 


PF06C 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland ] 


513 


Hogtown 


422 


.66 


.00 


.00 


POWH 


U[NEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Wetland 1 


514 


Hogtown 


377 


.50 


.50 


.00 


PEniCx 


U[El/2] 


Wetland 1 


515 


Hogtown 


427 


5.42 


5.42 


.00 


PF06C 


U[Ul/2ofNWl/4]* 


Wetland 1 


1516 


Hogtown 


378 


1.98 


.00 


.00 


PF06C 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland 1 


517 


Hogtoun 


423 


7.67 


.00 


.00 


PF06/4C 


U[SEl/4ofSUl/4]' 


Wetland 


1518 


Hogtown 


378 


.50 


.00 


.00 


PEfllF 


U[NUl/4]' 


Wetland ] 


519 


Hogtown 


431 


26.46 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Center]' 


Wetland 


L520 


Hogtown 


379 


1.98 


.00 


.00 


PFOIC 


U[El/2] 


Wetland 


521 


Hogtown 


431 


8.20 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


UlriHP CK H/U]* 


Wetland 


1522 


Hogtoun 


424 


2.47 


2.47 


.00 


PAB3EI1iH 


U[NEl/4]' 


Wetland 


1523 


Hogtoun 


382 


36.26 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NWl/4ofNEl/4] 


Wetland 


L524 


Hogtown 


424 


.49 


.49 


.00 


PEfllF 


UlCenter So.l/4] 


Wetland 


L525 


Hogtoun 


423 


1.53 


.00 


.00 


PS53C 


U[Center] 


Wetland 


L526 


Hogtoun 


473 


.33 


.00 


.00 


POWHX 


U[SlJl/4] 


Wetland 


1527 


Hogtoun 


324 


1.15 


1.15 


.00 


PF01/4A 


U[NWl/4] 


Wetland 


1528 


Hogtown 


425 


2.43 


2.43 


.00 


PAB4EniH 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


1529 


Hogtown 


324 


7.45 


7.45 


.00 


PF01/4A 


U[Nl/2ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


1530 


Hogtown 


425 


1.73 


1.73 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Center] 


Wetland 


1531 


Hogtown 


275 


5.04 


.00 


.00 


PF04A,PF04A/6C 


U[SWl/4] 


Wetland 


1532 


Hogtown 


483 


4.90 


4.90 


.00 


PSS34C 


U[Center SUl/4] 


Wetland 


1533 


Hogtown 


275 


3.29 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[SEl/4ofSUl/4] 


Wetland 


1534 


Hogtown 


576 


3.94 


3.94 


.00 


PFOIA 


U[Center So.l/4] 


Wetland 


1535 


Hogtown 


275 


3.70 


.00 


.00 


PEf1/S53 F 


U[NUl/4] 


Wetland 


1536 


Hogtown 


532 


8.35 


8.35 


.00 


PF01SS7C 


U[Center No.] 


Wetland 


1537 


Hogtown 


325 


.27 


.00 


.00 


POWH 


U[El/2] 


Wetland 


1538 


Hogtown 


532 


20.58 


20.58 


.00 


PF071C 


U[Center] 


Wetland 


1539 


Hogtoun 


325 


2.63 


.00 


.00 


POWH 


U[Center SEl/4] 


Wetland 


1540 


Hogtoun 


532 


1.00 


1.00 


.00 


PEfllC 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


1541 


Hogtoun 


325 


3.29 


.00 


.00 


PEfllC 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland 


1542 


Hogtoun 


572 


1.00 


1.00 


.00 


PSS31C 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


1543 


Hogtown 


325 


2.85 


.00 


.00 


PSSIC 


U[Center SEl/4] 


Wetland 


1544 


Hogtown 


580 


.50 


.50 


.00 


PEfllF 


U[SUl/4ofNEl/4] 


Wetland 


1546 


Hogtown 


581 


1.27 


1.27 


.00 


PFOIC 


U[East End] 


Wetland 


1547 


Hogtown 


432 


31.76 


.00 


.00 


PSS3B 


U[S Center] 


Wetland 


1548 


Hogtown 


622 


.49 


.49 


.00 


PEfllF 


U[BVL CK H/U] 


Wetland 


1550 


Hogtown 


572 


.53 


.53 


.00 


PEfllC. PF0SS3C 


U[NE 1/4] 


Wetland 


1551 


Hogtown 


624 


.50 


.50 


.00 


PAB4H 


U[Ngi/4] 


Wetland 


1552 


Hogtown 


625 


.96 


.96 


.00 


PAB4H 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


1553 


Hogtown 


672 


12.00 


.00 


.00 


PFOIC 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 


1554 


Hogtoun 


674 


3.45 


3.45 


.00 


PFOIA 



B-2 



J 



Naae 


Type 


Number 


Basir 


Location 


Size 


City 


Reg Use Use Rank TSI:'82 TSI/W0I:'86 Env Attrib 


U[SEl/4] 


Uetland 


1555 


Hogtoun 


672 


5.00 


.00 


.00 


PAB4EH1H 


U[SofUside Pk] 


Wetland 


1556 


Hogtown 


676 


4.65 


4.65 


.00 


PAB4H 


UfCenter NU] 


Uetland 


1557 


Hogtoun 


380 


3.61 


.00 


.00 


POUHx 


U[NE of Trwl]' 


Uetland 


1558 


Hogtoun 


722 


11.01 


.00 


.00 


PEMIC 


U[NEl/4] 


Uetland 


1559 


Hogtoun 


677 


5.00 


5.00 


.00 


PFOIF 


Hogtown Pr 


Uetland 


1560 


Hogtoun 


774 


435.84 


.00 


.00 


PF06C,PF06F 


U[Center SUl/4] 


Uetland 


1561 


Hogtoun 


380 


1.53 


.00 


.00 


POUHx 


U[NEl/4] 


Uetland 


1562 


Hogtoun 


432 


2.41 


.00 


.00 


PSS3B 


UCenter] 


Uetland 


1563 


Hogtown 


382 


2.85 


.00 


.00 


PEHIC 


U[SUl/4] 


Uetland 


1564 


Hogtoun 


382 


.24 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NUl/4] 


Uetland 


1565 


Hogtown 


432 


1.35 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Center NE] 


Uetland 


1566 


Hogtown 


432 


1.75 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Center] 


Uetland 


1567 


Hogtown 


432 


1.70 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


Sugarfoot Pr 


Uetland 


1570 


Hogtown 


822 


457.27 


.00 


.00 


PEmF,PF046C 


Lake Ridge 


Creek 


2110 


Lake 


Forest 


687 


2.20 


.00 


.00 




Lateral B 


Creek 


2120 


Lake 


Forest 


635 


1.40 


1.00 


1.00 




Lateral C 


Creek 


2130 


Lake 


Forest 


685 


.50 


.40 


.40 




Unnamed 


Creek 


2140 


Lake 


Forest 


735 


.25 


.25 


.25 




Sunny Land 


Creek 


2210 


Lake 


Forest 


586 


3.30 


.25 


.00 




Lake Forest 


Creek 


2310 


Lake 


Forest 


734 


3.72 


.55 


.55 




U[NEl/4] 


Lake 


2400 


Lake 


Forest 


585 


.10 


.10 


.00 


POUH 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


2410 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


.30 


.30 


.00 


POUH 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


2420 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


.05 


.05 


.00 


POUH 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


2430 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


.05 


.05 


.00 


POUH 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


2440 


Lake 


Forest 


535 


.26 


.26 


.00 


POUHx 


U[$Ul/4] 


Lake 


2450 


Lake 


Forest 


536 


.37 


.37 


.00 


POUHx 


U[SEl/4] 


Uetland 


2510 


Lake 


Forest 


585 


1.96 


1.96 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2511 


Lake 


Forest 


586 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4] 


Uetland 


2512 


Lake 


Forest 


585 


1.96 


1.96 


.00 


PF076F 


U[Nl/2of55,36] 


Uetland 


2513 


Lake 


Forest 


587 


150.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4] 


Uetland 


2514 


Lake 


Forest 


585 


4.90 


4.90 


.00 


PSS13C 


U[Nl/2ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2515 


Lake 


Forest 


588 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NWl/4ofNm/4] 


Uetland 


2516 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


2.50 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2517 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


4.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2518 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NEl/4ofNWl/4] 


Uetland 


2519 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


2.50 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


2520 


Lake 


Forest 


634 


.98 


.98 


.00 


PFOIC 


U[NEl/4ofNWl/4] 


Uetland 


2521 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


1.50 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2522 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


1.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NEl/4ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


2523 


Lake 


Forest 


789 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NMl/4ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


2524 


Lake 


Forest 


639 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NWl/4ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


2525 


Lake 


Forest 


639 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[wl/2of Sec] 


Uetland 


2526 


Lake 


Forest 


590 


35.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2527 


Lake 


Forest 


786 


8.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2528 


Lake 


Forest 


786 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofSWl/4] 


Uetland 


2529 


Lake 


Forest 


736 


18.00 


.00 


.00 




U[Center SUl/4] 


Uetland 


2530 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


2.50 


2.50 


.00 


PF06C 


U[El/2ofSUl/4] 


Uetland 


2531 


Lake 


Forest 


736 


38.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NEl/4ofSWl/4] 


Uetland 


2532 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


1.00 


1.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Nm/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


2533 


Lake 


Forest 


788 


5.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4ofSUl/4] 


Uetland 


2534 


Lake 


Forest 


738 


2.50 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


2535 


Lake 


Forest 


739 


5.00 


.00 


.00 




U[El/2ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


2536 


Lake 


Forest 


636 


.50 


.50 


.00 


PEttlF 


U[N Sec Line] 


Uetland 


2537 


Lake 


Forest 


786 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[El/2ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


2538 


Lake 


Forest 


787 


2.00 


.00 


.00 





B-3 



Nane 



Type 



Number Basin 



Location Size City Reg Use Use Rank TSI:'82 TSI/U0I:'86 Env Attrib 



U[NEl/4ofNWl/4] 


Wetland 


2539 


Lake Forest 


786 


1.50 


.00 


.00 




U(Ul/2ofSUl/4] 


Wetland 


2540 


Lake Forest 


637 


.50 


.50 


.00 


PEH1F 


U[Sl/2] 


Wetland 


2542 


Lake Forest 


637 


17.67 


17.67 


.00 


PF06C 


U[Nl/2ofNUl/4] 


Wetland 


2550 


Lake Forest 


686 


1.00 


1.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Sl/2ofNUl/4] 


Wetland 


2552 


Lake Forest 


686 


1.00 


1.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NEl/4ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


2554 


Lake Forest 


686 


1.30 


1.30 


.00 


PAB3H 


U[Sl/2ofNUl/4] 


Wetland 


2560 


Lake Forest 


687 


.75 


.75 


.00 


PF06F 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


2562 


Lake Forest 


687 


225.00 


6.37 


.00 


PF043C 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


2568 


Lake Forest 


536 


1.00 


1.00 


.00 


PF06C 


U[SEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Wetland 


2570 


Lake Forest 


735 


2.86 


2.86 


.00 


PFOIC 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


2571 


Lake Forest 


735 


27.70 


27.70 


.00 


PF06C 


U[SEl/4ofSUl/4] 


Wetland 


2574 


Lake Forest 


538 


2.45 


2.45 


.00 


PF036C 


Lateral B 


Creek 


3220 


Little Hate 


484 


1.05 


.50 


.00 




U[SU 1/4] 


Creek 


3120 


Little Hate 


534 


.70 


.70 


.00 




U[NU 1/4 of NU 1/4] 


Creek 


3130 


Little Hate 


584 


.65 


.65 


.00 




U[SE 1/4 of SE 1/4] 


Creek 


3150 


Little Hate 


533 


.25 


.25 


.00 




Lateral A 


Creek 


3210 


Little Hate 


533 


2.50 


1.25 


.00 




Little Hatchet 


Creek 


3310 


Little Hate 


438 


6.00 


1.70 


1.70 


14 PEniCx.PF06F 


U[Center] 


Lake 


3430 


Little Hate 


537 


.20 


.20 


.00 


POWHx 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


3440 


Little Hate 


539 


3.00 


1.50 


.00 


POWHx 


U[El/2] 


Lake 


3470 


Little Hate 


338 


.63 


.63 


.00 


POWHx 


U[SUl/4] 


Lake 


3480 


Little Hate 


582 


4.90 


4.90 


.00 


PEH1C, PFOIC 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 


3514 


Little Hate 


389 


2.54 


2.54 


.00 


PEHIC 


U(Eastl/4] 


Wetland 


3515 


Little Hate 


332 


40.30 


.00 


.00 


PF06F,PSS3B.PF04B 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 


3516 


Little Hate 


389 


7.80 


7.80 


.00 


PF063F 


U[SUl/4ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3517 


Little Hate 


333 


4.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SUJ 


Wetland 


3518 


Little Hate 


436 


2.50 


2.50 


.00 


PEniSS3F 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


3519 


Little Hate 


382 


3.06 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[SUl/4 SNDPIT] 


Wetland 


3520 


Little Hate 


436 


2.20 


2.20 


.00 


PEH1F 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland 


3521 


Little Hate 


383 


4.16 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[Center] 


Wetland 


3522 


Little Hate 


383 


3.29 


.00 


.00 


PF06C 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 


3523 


Little Hate 


433 


3.94 


.00 


.00 


PF06C 


U[Nl/2] 


Wetland 


3524 


Little Hate 


438 


4.30 


4.30 


.00 


PSSIC 


U[Center West] 


Wetland 


3525 


Little Hate 


433 


7.23 


.00 


.00 


PF06/3F 


U[Nl/2] 


Wetland 


3526 


Little Hate 


438 


3.20 


3.20 


.00 


PSS1AB4F 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland 


3527 


Little Hate 


338 


3.52 


3.52 


.00 


PFOIA 


U[Nl/2] 


Wetland 


3528 


Little Hate 


438 


3.00 


3.00 


.00 


PF063F 


UlSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3529 


Little Hate 


339 


15.40 


15.40 


.00 


PF034C 


U[Center] 


Wetland 


3530 


Little Hate 


439 


23.52 


23.52 


.00 


PF063F 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


3531 


Little Hate 


433 


4.16 


.00 


.00 


PF06F,PSS3F 


U[Nl/2] 


Wetland 


3532 


Little Hate 


484 


9.53 


9.53 


.00 


PF067F 


U[SE End] 


Wetland 


3533 


Little Hate 


433 


.44 


.00 


.00 


PSSIF 


U[NEl/4ofSUl/4] 


Wetland 


3534 


Little Hate 


484 


4.47 


4.47 


.00 


PF04A 


U[SE End] 


Wetland 


3535 


Little Hate 


383 


1.22 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NUl/4ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3536 


Little Hate 


484 


1.96 


1.96 


.00 


PFOIC 


U[NEl/4] 


Wetland 


3537 


Little Hate 


385 


.99 


.00 


.00 


PEHIC, PFOIC 


U[SE End] 


Wetland 


3538 


Little Hate 


333 


5.26 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


UlCenter SE] 


Wetland 


3539 


Little Hate 


333 


5.32 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland 


3540 


Little Hate 


485 


35.28 


35.28 


.00 


PFOUC 


U(Center No.] 


Wetland 


3541 


Little Hate 


333 


9.64 


.00 


.00 


PF06/4F 


U[Center No] 


Wetland 


3541 


Little Hate 


333 


8.76 


.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[SWl/4] 


Wetland 


3542 


Little Hate 


487 


2.45 


2.45 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NU End] 


Wetland 


3543 


Little Hate 


334 


3.90 


.00 


.00 


PF06/3F 


U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


3544 


Little Hate 


487 


2.90 


2.90 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NUl/4ofNUl/4] 


Wetland 


3545 


Little Hate 


384 


1.50 


.00 


.00 





^ 



B-4 



Nane 


Type 


Number 


Basin Loeation 


Size 


City 


Reg Use Use Rank TSI:'82 TSI/W0I:'86 Env Attrib 


U[SUl/4] 


Wetland 


3546 


Little Hate 


488 


3.00 


3.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[SUl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


3547 


Little Hate 


384 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


3548 


Little Hate 


488 


1.47 


1.47 


.00 


PF06C 


U[SUl/4ofNWl/4] 


Wetland 


3549 


Little Hate 


384 


4.00 


.00 


.00 




U[Nl/2of$El/4] 


Wetland 


3550 


Little Hate 


488 


8.33 


8.33 


.00 


PF063F 


U[NEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


3551 


Little Hate 


384 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[Center NWl/4] 


Wetland 


3552 


Little Hate 


384 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[Center Nl/2] 


Wetland 


3553 


Little Hate 


385 


3.00 


.00 


.00 




U[Wl/2ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3554 


Little Hate 


489 


8.50 


.50 


.00 


PF064F 


U[SEl/4ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3556 


Little Hate 


489 


8.20 


.00 


.00 


PF013C 


U[Sl/2] 


Wetland 


3557 


Little Hate 


489 


5.40 


5.40 


.00 


PF046C 


U[Sl/2] 


Uetland 


3558 


Little Hate 


490 


29.40 


5.00 


.00 


PF03F 


U[SUl/4ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


3559 


Little Hate 


385 


6.50 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3560 


Little Hate 


490 


1.47 


1.47 


.00 


PEfllC 


U[NEl/4ofNEl/4] 


Wetland 


3561 


Little Hate 


385 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


3562 


Little Hate 


533 


14.21 


14.21 


.00 


PSS3F04C 


U[CenterofNEl/4] 


Wetland 


3563 


Little Hate 


385 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4] 


Wetland 


3564 


Little Hate 


533 


4.90 


4.90 


.00 


PF04C 


U[SUl/4ofNEl/4] 


Wetland 


3565 


Little Hate 


434 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SUl/4ofNWl/4] 


Uetland 


3566 


Little Hate 


535 


1.30 


1.30 


.00 


PEfllCx 


U[CenterofSUl/4] 


Wetland 


3567 


Little Hate 


434 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SUl/4ofSWl/4] 


Uetland 


3569 


Little Hate 


435 


18.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


3570 


Little Hate 


537 


.70 


.70 


.00 


PEfllF 


U[CenterofSUl/4] 


Uetland 


3571 


Little Hate 


435 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[CenterofSec] 


Uetland 


3573 


Little Hate 


435 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[CenterSEl/4] 


Wetland 


3575 


Little Hate 


335 


35.00 


.00 


.00 




U[El/2] 


Wetland 


3576 


Little Hate 


538 


9.80 


9.80 


.00 


PF04C.PF06F 


U[NWl/4ofSUl/4] 


Uetland 


3577 


Little Hate 


336 


15.00 


.00 


.00 




U[SEl/4] 


Uetland 


3578 


Little Hate 


539 


1.75 


1.75 


.00 


PAB4H 


U[NUl/4ofSUl/4] 


Uetland 


3579 


Little Hate 


338 


3.00 


.00 


.00 




U[Center NUl/4] 


Uetland 


3580 


Little Hate 


539 


5.50 


5.50 


.00 


PF06F 


U[NUl/4ofSWl/4] 


Uetland 


3581 


Little Hate 


338 


2.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NUl/4ofNEl/4] 


Wetland 


3584 


Little Hate 


583 


3.43 


3.43 


.00 


PEniC,PF064C 


U[NEl/4ofSgi/4] 


Wetland 


3585 


Little Hate 


334 


17.50 


.00 


.00 




U[Nl/2ofSUl/4] 


Wetland 


3586 


Little Hate 


440 


35.00 


3.00 


.00 




U[SUSecLine] 


Uetland 


3587 


Little Hate 


490 


7.00 


4.00 


.00 




U[NWl/4ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


3589 


Little Hate 


383 


36.00 


.00 


.00 




U[NWl/4ofNWl/4] 


Wetland 


3590 


Little Hate 


384 


25.00 


.00 


.00 




Tumblin 


Creek 


4110 


Tunblin 


730 


2.00 


1.82 


1.82 




East Tumblin 


Creek 


4120 


Tumblin 


881 


1.98 


1.98 


1.20 


PFOlC 


Unnaaed 


Creek 


4130 


Tumblin 


780 


.36 


.36 


.36 




Biven's Arm 


Lake 


4400 


Tumblin 


878 


177.00 


.00 


.00 6282 511 


74 LlOWF, PEfllF 


U[SEl/4] 


Lake 


4410 


Tumblin 


780 


.50 


.50 


.00 


POWH 


U[Center] 


Lake 


4411 


Tumblin 


930 


5.47 


5.47 


.00 


P0UH,PAB3Ef11H 


U[Rush Lake] 


Lake 


4415 


Tumblin 


829 


.75 


.75 


.00 


POUH 


U[Kirkwood Pnd] 


Lake 


4420 


Tumblin 


830 


6.38 


6.38 


.00 


PSS13C,P0UH 


U[NU of Clclgh] 


Lake 


4430 


Tumblin 


880 


1.28 


1.28 


.00 


POUH 


Colelough Pond 


Lake 


4440 


Tumblin 


881 


11.48 


11.48 


.00 


P0WH.PAB30WH 


U[NEl/4] 


Lake 


4450 


Tumblin 


781 


1.50 


1.50 


.00 


PSS13C 


U[SEl/4] 


Uetland 


4510 


Tumblin 


779 


.50 


.50 


.00 


PAB4H 


U[Nl/2of$gi/4] 


Uetland 


4520 


Tumblin 


831 


2.96 


2.96 


.00 


PEMIC 


U[NUl/4]] 


Uetland 


4521 


Tumblin 


881 


2.49 


2.49 


.00 


PAB30UH 


U[NEl/4ofNm/4] 


Wetland 


4530 


Tumblin 


829 


29.50 


18.00 


.00 


PF06F 


U[El/2ofNm/4] 


Uetland 


4540 


Tumblin 


880 


34.50 


34.50 


.00 


PAB4H,PF01C 


U[NUl/4] 


Wetland 


4541 


Tumblin 


879 


5.00 


5.00 


.00 


PEfllF 



B-5 



Nase 



Type NuBber Basin 



Location Size City Reg Use Use Rank TSI:'82 TSI/U0I:'86 Env Attrib 



U[Ul/2] 


Wetland 


4542 


TuBbl 


.in 


930 


19.36 


19.36 


.00 




PEniAB3H 


Lateral f1 


Creek 


5120 


Sweet 


:water 


683 


.96 


.96 


.86 




1 


Syeetuater Br 


Creek 


5210 


Sweet 


:water 


631 


4.20 


2.80 


2.10 




PFOlCi 


U[S£l/4] 


Lake 


5410 


Sweet 


:water 


581 


.66 


.66 


.00 




POUHx 


U[Nl/2ofSEl/4] 


Lake 


5420 


Sweet 


:water 


633 


.88 


.88 


.00 




POUHi 


Duck Pond] 


Lake 


5430 


Sweet 


iwater 


682 


.38 


.38 


.00 




POUHi 


'JfUl/2ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


5510 


Sweet 


iwater 


733 


1.92 


1.92 


.00 




PSSIC 


U[Center] 


Wetland 


5530 


Sweet 


:water 


882 


6.41 


.00 


.00 




PFOIC 


Lateral A 


Creek 


6110 


Calf 


Pond 


834 


.38 


.38 


.00 




PFOIC 


Lateral B 


Creek 


6120 


Calf 


Pond 


833 


.38 


.38 


.00 




PFOIC 


Lateral C 


Creek 


6130 


Calf 


Pond 


785 


.90 


.90 


.00 






Calf Pond 


Creek 


6210 


Calf 


Pond 


734 


1.65 


.85 


.00 




P0UH,PAB4H 


Calf Pond ' 


Lake 


6400 


Calf 


Pond 


886 


14.00 


.00 


.00 1479 


637 68 


P0UH,PAB4H 


U(SUl/4] 


Uetland 


6510 


Calf 


Pond 


785 


40.00 


40.00 


.00 




PF013C 


U(N£l/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


6520 


Sweet 


:water 


883 


1.24 


1.24 


.00 




PSS3C 


UfNl/2ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


6530 


Calf 


Pond 


833 


6.00 


6.00 


.00 




PF06F 


U[Sl/2ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


6540 


Calf 


Pond 


833 


16.00 


16.00 


.00 




PF071C 


U[Nl/2ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


6550 


Calf 


Pond 


833 


7.00 


7.00 


.00 




PF064C 


U[Nl/2ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


6560 


Calf 


Pond 


833 


5.00 


5.00 


.00 




PF064C 


U[NEl/4] 


Uetland 


6561 


Calf 


Pond 


835 


1.50 


1.50 


.00 




PF06F 


U[SEl/4ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


6563 


Calf 


Pond 


835 


60.00 


.00 


.00 






U[SUl/4ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


6564 


Calf 


Pond 


835 


1.00 


.00 


.00 






U(NEl/4ofNWl/4] 


Uetland 


6565 


Calf 


Pond 


884 


5.00 


.00 


.00 






U[Center NEl/4] 


Uetland 


6566 


Calf 


Pond 


885 


1.00 


.00 


.00 






Lake Alice Creek 


Creek 


7100 


Lake 


Alice 


779 


.50 


.50 


.50 




PF06F 


Lake Alice 


Lake 


7400 


Lake 


Alice 


777 


73.00 


73.00 


.00 3708 


588 46 


P0UH,PAB3EniH 


U(SEl/4] 


Lake 


7410 


Lake 


Alice 


726 


1.15 


1.15 


.00 




POUHx 


Grahaa Pond 


Lake 


7420 


Lake 


Alice 


728 


.10 


.10 


.00 




POUHx 


UfARCH SINK] 


Lake 


7430 


Lake 


Alice 


729 


.10 


.10 


.00 




POUHx 


U[ART SINK] 


Lake 


7440 


Lake 


Alice 


729 


.10 


.10 


.00 




POUHx 


Reitz Pond 


Lake 


7450 


Lake 


Alice 


729 


.10 


.10 


.00 




POUHx 


McCarthy Pond 


Lake 


7460 


Lake 


Alice 


729 


.40 


.40 


.CO 




POUHx 


U[Nl/2ofNEl/4] 


Lake 


7470 


Lake 


Alice 


776 


.10 


.10 


.00 




POUHx 


UlHuie Lake] 


Lake 


7480 


Lake 


Alice 


778 


1.80 


1.80 


.00 




POUHx 


U[Sl/2ofNEl/4] 


Lake 


7490 


Lake 


Alice 


778 


.40 


.40 


.00 




POUHx 


U[tJeaver Bch] 


Uetland 


7510 


Lake 


Alice 


728 


2.95 


2.95 


.00 




PFOIA 


U[Sl/2ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


7520 


Lake 


Alice 


778 


1.30 


1.30 


.00 




PA64H. 


U[Sl/2ofNEl/4] 


Uetland 


7530 


Lake 


Alice 


778 


.99 


.99 


.00 




PF06F 


U[Nyi/4ofSUl/4i 


Uetland 


7540 


Lake 


Alice 


828 


5.00 


.00 


.00 






U[NEl/4ofNUl/4] 


Uetland 


7545 


Lake 


Alice 


776 


3.00 


.00 


.00 






U[NEl/4ofSEl/4] 


Uetland 


7550 


Lake 


Alice 


827 


3.00 


.00 


.00 






Prairie 


Creek 


9300 






990 


1.75 


.00 


.00 






Newnan's Lake 


Lake 


9400 






642 


7350.00 


.00 


.00 90386 


74 71 


59 LIOUH 


noon Lake ' 


Lake 


9410 


Hogt( 


3wn 


521 


13.00 


.00 


.00 




POUH.PFOlF.PABiH 


Trout Lake ' 


Lake 


9420 






887 


480.01 


.00 


.00 




PAB3EniH,PUSC 


Lake Ridge 


Lake 


9430 






1034 


.00 


.00 


.00 






Fox Pond * 


Lake 


9450 






270 


2.40 


.00 


.00 




P0UH,PA64EriH 


Terwilliger ' 


Lake 


9460 


Hogt( 


Dwn 


722 


18.00 


.00 


.00 




PAB3EniF 


Payne's Prairie 


Uetland 


9500 






932 





.00 


.00 58424 


no 73 


57 


GuiRootSwasp 


Uetland 


9510 






442 





.00 


.00 







^ 



Source: City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development December 1990 



f 



B-6 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Key to Table 2. Inventory of Creeks, Lakes and Wetlands 

Deflnition of Terms 

Name. Commonly recognized name of water feature. 

Type. Type of water feature (creek, lake, wetland). 

Number. Department of Community Development Identification number (1000 Series = 
basin, 1(X)-3(X) Series = creek & creek order, 400 Series = lake, and 500+ Series = 
wedand). 

Basin. Sub-basin of the Oklawaha River Basin. 

Location. Gainesville Zoning Atlas quarter section number. For creeks, the number 
indicates headwaters. For lakes and wetlands, the number indicates quarter section which 
contains the majority of the feature's surface area. 

Size, Miles for creeks; acres for lakes, wetlands. 

City. Acreage or mileage within city limits. 

Reg. Regulated creek mileage. Regulated creeks or creek reaches are designated by the 
City Public Works Department for special protection under the City's Regulation of 
Development Near Creeks Ordinance. These creek reaches are generally those which flow 
for at least 9 months out of the year and are in a relatively undisturbed/natural state. 
However, some regulated reaches have been artificially channelized in the past 

Use. Number of user occasions annually. Based on DNR survey, which includes 
swimming, boating, fishing, canoeing. Source: A Classification of Rorida Lakes, by W.C. 
Huber et al. 

Use Rank. State rank for user occasions. 

TSI:'82. Trophic State Index for 1982. The Index uses physical, biological, and chemical 
measures to numerically describe the water quality of a lake. Values range from zero to 100 
(0-59 = "good" water quality, 60-69 = "fair" water quality, and greater than 70 = "poor" 
water quality). Source: A Classification of Florida Lakes, by W.C. Huber et al. (1982). 

TSIAVQI:'86. Trophic State Index for lakes and Water Quality Index for creeks as 
measured in 1986. Water Quality Index is similar to Trophic Index. Used to measure creek 
water quality. Measures dissolved oxygen, pH, bacteria, nutrients, turbidity, organic and 
inorganic toxics. Values range from zero to 100 (less than 30 = "good" quality and greater 
than 60 = "poor" quality). Source: 1986 Florida Water Quality Assessment 305(b) 
Technical Report by DER. 

Env Attrib. Wedands classification from U.S. Fish & Wildlife National Wetiands 
Inventory (1984). 



B-7 ;i 



■m 



Table 3. Basin-bv-Basin Surface Water Inventory 
Within the Gainesville Urban Area 



Pa$in 



Creeks 



Regulated 
Creeks 



Citv 



42.0 



32.0 



Lakes Wetlands 



Hogtown: 


Total 


27.7 


— 


257.7 


1.303.6 




Citv 


23.6 


21.2 


28.6 


138.9 




Little Hatchet: 


Total 


17.2 





8.7 


564.1 




Citv 


5.1 


1.7 


7.2 


198.3 




Sweetwater: 


Total 


5.2 


— 


1.9 


9.6 




Citv 


3.8 


3.0 


1.9 


3.2 




Lake Forest: 


Total 


11.4 





1.1 


587.5 




Citv 


2.5 


2.2 


1.1 


76.4 




Calf Pond: 


Total 


3.3 





14.0 


142.5 




Citv 


2.5 


0.0 


0.0 


75.5 




Lake Alice: 


Total 


0.5 





77.3 


16.2 




Citv 


0.5 


0.5 


77.3 


5.2 




Tumblin: 


Total 


4.3 





204.4 


94.3 




Citv 


4.2 


3.4 


27.4 


82.8 




TOTALS: 


Total 


03.6 


— 


565.1 


2,717.$ 



143.5 



580.3 



NOTE 

Creeks are in miles. Lakes and wetlands are in acres. 

SOURCE: City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development, April 1990. 



Oj 



C-1 







TABLE 4. ENDANGERED, THREATENED, AND SPECIAL PROTECTION SPECIES OF ALACHUA COUNTY 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 


CONWON NAMES 


CfTIES 


USFWS 


FGFWFC 


FCREPA 


FNAI 






















Reptiles and Ampliibians 






























A. tiqnnum 


Tiger salamander 










S3 




Alligator mississippiensis 


Amencan alligator 


II 


T(S/A) 


SSC 


SSC 


S4 




Ambystoma anqulatjm 


Flatwoods salamander 




UR 






S3? 




Ambysloma tiqnnum 


Tiger Salamander 










S3? 




Clenmys guttata 


Sponed Tunle 








R 


S3? 




Crotalus homdus 


CanebreaK ranlesnake 










S3 




Drymarction corais couperi 


Eastern Indigo Snake 




T 


T 


SSC 


S3 




Gophenjs polyphemus 


Gopher Tortoise 




UR 


SSC 


T 


S3 




Macroclemys lemnlnckJi 


Alligator Snapping Turtle 




UR 


SSC 


SU 


S3? 




Notophthalmus perstnalus 


Stnped r4ewt 








R 


S3 




Pituophis melanoleucus muqitus 


Flonda Pine Snake 




UR 


SSC 




3? 




Pseudemys concinna suwanniensjs 


Suwannee Cooter 




UR 


SSC 


T 


S3 




Rana a/eolata 


Gopher Frog 




UR 


SSC 


T 


S3 




Stilosoma exienuatum 


Short-Tailed Snake 




UR 


T 


E 


S3 






































Fish 






























Acanlharchus pomotis 


Mud sunflsh 


II 






R 


S3 




Acipenser oxyrhynctius 


Allan Dc sturgeon 




UR 


SSC 


T 


S2 




Enneacanthus ctiaelodon 


Blackt>anded sunfish 








R 


S3 




Icialunjs senBcanthus 


Sponed bullhead 








R 


S3 




Micropteois noous 


Suwannee bass 






SSC 


R 


S2S3 




Umbra pyqmaea 


Eastern mudminnow 








R 


S3 






















Birds 






























Accipiter cooperii 


Coopers hawk 






SSC 


SSC 


S3 




Aimophila aestivalis 


Bactiman's sparrow 




UR 




S 


S? 




Aphelocoma coeailesoens 


Florida scrub lay 




T 


T 


T 


S3 




Aramus guarauna 


Limpkin 






SSC 


SSC 


S3 




Athene cunicularia flondana 


Flonda burrowing owt 






SSC 


SSC 


S3 




Buteo brachyuois 


Short-tailed hawk 






R 


S3 






Casmerodius albus 


Great egret 








SSC 


S4 




Circus cyaneus 


Northern hamer 


II 




T 


T 






Dendrocopus villosus audubonji 


Hajry woodpecker 








SSC 


S3? 




Eqrena caerulea 


Lmle Blue Heron 






SSC 


SSC 


S4 




Eqrena Ifiula 


Snowy Egret 






SSC 


SSC 


S4 




Eqrena tncolor 


Tncolored Heron 






SSC 


SSC 


S4 




Eudoamus albus 


White Ibis 








SSC 


SU 




F. s. sparvenus 


E amencan kestrel 


II 












Faico columbanus 


Merlin 


II 








SU 




Falco pergnnus 


Peregnne taJcon 


1 


T 


E 




82 




FaIco spafvenus paulus 


SE Amencan Kestrel 


II 


UR 


T 


T 


S3? 




Gnjs canadensis pratensis 


Flonda Sandhill Crane 


II 




T 


T 


S2S3 




Haliaeerus leucocephalus 


Bald Eaqle 


1 


E 


T 


T 


S2S3 




Ixobrychus exilis 


Least Bittern 








SSC 


S4 




Laierallus lamaicensis 


Black rail 








SU 


S3 




Myctena amencana 


Wood Stork 




E 


E 


E 


82 




Nycticoasoa violaceus 


Yellow Crowned Night Heron 








SSC 


S3? 




Nycticorax nycticorax 


Black Crowned Night Heron 








SSC 


S3? 




Pandion haliaetus 


Osprey 


II 






T 


S3S4 




Picoides borealis 


Red-cockaded woodpecker 




E 


T 


E 


S2 




Pteqadis falcinellus 


Glossy Ibis 








SSC 


82 




Seiunjs moiacllla 


Louisiana walenfirush 










83 





















>) 



D-1 



SCIEMTIFIC NAME 


COMMON NAMES 


CfTIES 


USFWS 


FGFWFC 


FCREPA 


FNAI 






















Mammals 






























Eptastcus fuscus 


Big brown bat 








R 


S3 




Laslurus dn«reus aner 


Hoary bat 








R 


SU 




Lutra canadensis 


River oner 


II 












.ynx rufus 


Bobcat 


II 












M. vison mink 


Southern mink 




UR 




R 


S2 




Mustela (renala olivacaa 


Southeastern Weasel 








R 


S3 




Neoriber alleni 


Round-tailed muskral 




UR 




SSC 


S3? 




Peromysojs tlondanus 


Ftonda Mouse 




UR 


SSC 


T 


S3 




Plecoius rafinesquii 


SE biq-eared bat 




UR 




R 


S3 




Sciufus niger shermani 


Sherman's Fox Squirrel 




UR 


SSC 


T 


S2 




Sorex longirosnns 


Southeasiem shrew 








R 


S4 




Ursus amencanus Horidanus 


Flon da Black Bear 




UR 


T 


T 


S3 






















Crustaceans 






























Caecidotea hoWssi 


Hobb's cave tsopod 








SSC 






Crangonyx gradimanus 


Florida Cave Amphipod 








SSC 






Cranqonyx hobbsi 


Hobbs Cave Amphipod 




UR 




SSC 






Palaomonetes cummingi 


Florida Cave Shnmp 




UR 




T 






Procambarus lualuQUS 


Liqhtfleeing Cave Crayfish 








SSC 






Procambarus palliOus 


Pallid Cave Crayfish 








SSC 






Troglocambrus madanoi 


McLane/s Cave Crayfish 








SSC 
























Arachnids 






























Ptiidippus xerus 


Jumping spider 








R 






Sphadros abboil 


Purse-web spider 








SSC 






Umnidia spp 


Trapdoor spider 








SSC 








































Planu 


CfTIES 


USFWS 


FDA 


FCREPA 


W& P 


FNAC 


















A. monanthes 


Sinqle-sorus spleenwon 






E 






S1 


A leneoim 


Bnnle maidenhair (em 






T 




T 


S3 


A X plenum 


Double spleenwon 




UR 


T 




E 


SI 


Adianium capillus-venens 


Southern maidenhair (em 






T 


R 




S3S4 


Agnmonia inasa 


Incised groove-bur 




UR 








S2 


Asplenium pumilum 


Dwart Spleenwon 




UR 


E 


E 


E 


S1 


Asplenium i heteroresiliens 


Wagner's Spleenwon 




UR 


T 






S1S2 


Btechnum ocadentale 


Sinkhole Fern 






E 


E 




S1 


Bnckellia corditolia 


Flyrs bnckell-bush 




UR 


T 


R 


E 


S2 


Bromeliacsae (all native 
species except Tillandsia 
usneokjes and Tillandsia 
recurvala) 


Air Plants 






T 








Callirtioe papaver 


Woods poppy-mallow 






T 


T 


T 


S2 


Callilnche helerophylla 


Water starwon 










T 




Calopoqon spp. 


Grass pink ordiids 


II 




T 








Carex chaoTianii 


Chapman's sedqe 




UR 








S2 


Cheilantties microphYlla 


Southern lip (ern 






E 


R 




S3 


Clemalis caiesDyana 


Virgin's bower 










E 


S3 


Coeloractiis tuberculosa 


Piedmont Joint-Grass 




UR 








S3 


Clenium flondanum 


Flonda toothache grass 




UR 








S2 


Eleoctians quadranqulaia 


Square-stem spikerush 










E 




Epidendrum conopseum 


GreentV orchid 


II 




T 




E 




Erylhrodes auerceticola 


Low erythrodes orchid 


II 




T 




E 




Fagus qrandilolia 


Amencan beech 










T 





















D-2 











SCIEFiTIRC NAME 


COMMON NAMES 


crriES 


USFWS 


FDA 


FCREPA 


W&P 


FNAI2 




















Plants 






























Ferns (all native species 
of the (em families except 
Azolla spp.. Blechum sarrulatum, 
Potypodium polypodioids, 
Reridlum aquilinum, Saivlnia 
spp., Thelypieris kunthii, and 
woodwardia virginica, and 
except those noted elsewhere In 
this list) 


Fems 






T 








Forestiera qodtreyi 


Godfrey's swamp pnvet 










E 




Habenana spp. 


Fnnged orchids 


II 




T 








HartwnghDa flondana 


Hartwnghtia 




UR 


T 






82 


1. cassine 


Dahoon holly 















1. decidua 


Possum haw 






T 








1. opaca 


Amencan holly 






C 








Ilex ambigua 


Carolina holly 






T 








Uiium caiestjaei 


Pine lily 






T 






SI 


Linodendron tulipifera 


Tulip tree 










E 




Lobelia cardinalis 


Cardinal flower 






T 








Malax IS unifolia 


Green Adder's Mouth 


II 




T 


R 




S3 


Matelea fioridana 


Flonda spiny-pod 




UR 


E 






S2 


Nelumbo luiea 


Amencan lotus 










T 




O. reqalis 


Royal fern 






C 








Osmunda cinnamomea 


Cinnamon (em 






c 








Peliandra saginitolla 


Spoon flower 








R 




S3 


Phlebodium auerum 


Golden polypody 










T 




Physalis carpenten 


Carpenier's qround-cherry 










E 




Poqonia spp. 


Rose poqnoia 


II 




T 








Polyqala ruqelii 


Yellow milkwort 






T 








Potyqonalum biflotxim 


Solomon's seal 










T 




Polyqonum meisnenanm 


Mexican learthumb 






T 


R 


T 


82 


PolysBchumacroslichoides 


Chnstmas (em 






T 




E 




Pieroqiossaspis ecnstaia 


Wild coco 


II 


UR 


T 




T 


S2 


Pycnanihemum floridanum 


Flonda Mountain Mint 




UR 








S3 


Ouerojs tyrata 


Overajp oak 










T 




R. viscosum 


Swamp honeysuckle 






T 








Rhapidophyllus hystrix 


Needle palm 




UR 


C 


T 


T 




Rhododendron canescens 


Pink azalea 






C 








Rynchosia cinerea 


Brown-haired snouthbean 




UR 








S3 


S. ludoviaana 


Gulf spikemoss 






T 






S3S4 


S. ludoviaana 


Gulf spikemoss 






T 






S3S4 


Sabal minor 


Blue stem palmeno 






T 








Salix flondana 


Flonda willow 




UR 


T 






82 


Salvia chapmanii 


Chapman's saqe 












81 


Selaqinella apoda 


Meadow spikemoss 






T 






S3S4 


Smilax smallii 


Jackson-vine 






T 


T 






Spiranthes spp. 


Lady's tresses 


II 




T 








Tipulana discolor 


Cranefly orchid 


II 




T 








Tnllium maculatum 


Wake- robin 










E 




Verbesina heterophylla 


Vanable-leaf crownbeard 




UR 








S2 


Z. simpsonii 


Ran lily 




UR 


E 






S2S3 



































>)) 



D-3 



SCIEKTIRC NAME 


COMMON NAMES 


CfTIES 


USFWS 


FDA 


FCREPA 


Wi P 


FNAC 


















Z. irealiae 


Rain lilv 






T 








2am la flood ana 


Flonda Cooniie 


II 




C 








Zephyranihes atamasco 


Rajn Illy 






T 
























































SCIENTIFIC NAME 


COMMON NAMES 


CfTIES 


USFWS 


FGFWFC 


FCREPA 
























Insects 






























A. haldemani 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






A. laevigatus 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






A. troglCKJytes 


Scarab beetle 




UR 




T 






Acanihoceois aeneus 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






Aphodius aeorolus 


Scarab beetle 








T 






Aianius sciunjs 


Scarab beetle 








T 






Bolbcx;erosoma hamatum 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






C.saYi 


Say's spiketal draflonfty 




UR 




T 






Copns qophen 


Scarab beetle 




UR 




T 






Corduleqasler (asciata 


Arrowhead spiketail 








R 






Didymops (londensis 


Majdencane cruiser 








SSC 






Dromoqomphus armaius 


Souiheasiem rateleg 








R 






Gomphaescfina anclope 


Soory darner 








R 






Gomphus cavillaiis 


Sandhill clublail 








SSC 






Hvdropiila bemeri 


Bemer's microcaddisfty 








T 






Hvpotnctiia spissipes 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






Lesles inequalis 


Elegant dryad 








R 






Mycotrupes flaigei 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






Nemopalpus nearaitxis 


Sugartool fty 




UR 




SU 






Neurocofdulia otjsolela 


Umber shadowfty 








SU 






Onlhophagus potvphemi 


Scarab beetle 








T 






Peltotrupes profundus 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






Proflomphus alachuensis 


Tawny sand dubtail 








SSC 






S. pusilla 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






Senca delicata 


Scarab beetle 








R-SU 






Tachopieryx ffioreyi 


Gray petal-tail dragonfly 








R 






Tnaenodes flonda 


Fl. Tnaenodes caddisfN 








T 






Ummidiaspp. 


Trapdoor spider 








SSC 
























Mollusks 






























Aptiaostracon chalaronvus 


Loose-coiied snail 








E 







D 4 



» 







» 



LEGEND 

■CITIES' = Convention on International Trade & Endangered Speaes. From: FGFWFC, 1990 

FGFWS = Rorida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission 

USFWS = United Slates Fish and Wildlife Service 

FNAI = Florida Natural Areas Inventory 

W 5 P = Ward & PerlOns. 1 985 

FCREPA = Florida Committee on Rare & Endangered Plants & Animate 

DEISGNATED STATUS: 

E = Endangered 

T = Threatened 

R = Rare 

T (S/A) = Tttreatened due to slmilanty of appearance 

C = Commercially exploited 

SSC = Species of Special Concern 

UR = Under Review 

UR1 = Under review for federal listing, with substantial evidence In existence Indicating at least some degree of biological 

vulnerability and/or threat is lacking 

UF12 = Under review for listing, but substantial evidence of biologicaJ vulnerability and/or threat is lacking 

UR5 = Still formally under review for listing, but no longer considered for listing because recent informaton indicates species is 

more widespread or abundant than previously believed 

51 = Critically imperilled In state because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occunences or less than 1000 individuals) or t>ecause of 
extreme vulnerability to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor 

52 = Imperilled In slate because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or less than 3000 Individuals) or because of extreme vulnerability to 
extinction due to some biological or man-made (actor 

53 = Either very rare and local throughout range (21 - 100 occurrences or less than 1000 Individuate) or found kxxUly in a restricted 
range or vulnerable to extinction because of othe factors 

54 = Apparently secure In state (may be rare In parts of range) 
S1S2 = Rsink ranges from SI to S2 

S2S3 = Flank ranges from S2 to S3 
S3S4 = Rank ranges from S3 to S4 
SU = Status Undetermined. Species suspected of falling Into orte of the above categories, but lack available data to determine 

I = CITIES Appendix I level of restriction 

II = CITIES Appendix II level of restriction 



Source: Alachua County Office of Planning & Development, December .1990 



D-S 



») 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Table 5. CATALOG OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES BY SITE 
LOCATION 

On November 30, 1987, KBN Engineering and Applied Sciences submitted a report to the 
Alachua County Department of Planning and Development entitled: "Comprehensive 
Inventory of Natural Ecological Communities in Alachua County". This report described 
the occurrence of ecologicsd communities found within the Gainesville urban area. The 
location of these sites is shown in Map 17. The communities found at each site include: 

Prairie Creek. Hydric, mesic, and xeric hammock, mesic and scrubby flatwoods, strand 
swamp, baygall, scrub, blackwater stream, swamp lake, basin marsh, cypress dome. 

Hickory Sink. Upland pine forest, xeric hammock, terrestrial and aquatic cave, sinkhole, 
sinkhole lake. 

Sugarfoot Hammock. Mesic hammock, basin marsh, floodplain swamp, floodplain 
forest, sinkhole, sinkhole lake, marsh lake. 

Hatchet Creek. Mesic flatwoods, sandhill, blackwater stream, floodplain swamp, 
baygall, hydric and mesic hammock. 

Kanapaha Prairie. Mesic hammock, sandhill, wet prairie, basin marsh, sinkhole, 
sinkhole lake, upland pine forest. 

Gum Root Swamp. Mesic, wet, and scrubby flatwoods, sandhill, basin swamp. 

jf^ Millhopper Flatwoods. Mesic flatwoods, basin swamp, baygall. 

Palm Point Hill. Mesic, hydric, and xeric hammock, scrub, prairie/flarwoods lake, 
seepage stream. 

Fred Bear Hammock. Mesic hammock, sinkhole, sinkhole lake, seepage stream. 

Buzzard's Roost. Mesic hammock, seepage stream, sinkhole, floodplain forest. 

North San Felasco Hammock. Mesic hammock, sinkhole lake, seepage stream. 

Serenola Forest. Mesic hammock, sinkhole, sinkhole lake. 

Paynes Prairie. Mesic and hydric hammock, sandhill, upland pine forest, wet, scrubby, 
and mesic flatwoods, baygall. 

Kincaid Flatwoods. Wet flatwoods. 



SOURCE: KBN Engineering & Applied Sciences, Inc., 1987. 



E-1 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



n 



7> 



Table 6. Citv of Gainesville Open Space Inventory 



Open Space Category Acreage Acres Per 1.000 People* 

Public Private Public Private 



Floodplains & Steep Slopes 


N.A. 


1203 


N.A. 


14.08 


Airport/Road Noise Contour Zones 


9 


9 


9 


9 


Wasteland 


9 


9 


9 


9 


Public Conservation Areas 


71 


N.A. 


0.83 


N.A. 


Significant Ecological Communities 


N.A. 


202 


N.A. 


2.36 


Wildlife Management Areas 





N.A. 





N.A, 


Wetlands 


N.A. 


580 


N.A. 


^.79 


Lakes 


N.A. 


144 


N.A. 


1.68 


Active Public Parks 


316 


N.A. 


3.70 


N.A. 


Passive Public Parks 


564 


N.A. 


6.60 


N.A. 


Public School Recreation Areas 


197 


N.A. 


2.30 


N.A. 


Golf Courses 


115 





1.35 





Utilitv Rights-of-Wav and Easements 


9 


9 


9 


9 


Cemeteries 


54 


38 


0.63 


0.44 


Vacant Urban Land 


9 


9 


9 


9 


Farms/Agricultural 


58 


140 


0.6$ 


1.04 



• Gainesville population as of 1987 = 85.469. 
? Infonnaiion is not available. 

Norm 

Open space inventory includes all lands which could potentially be considered open space, regardless of whether such land has 
been designated as open space on the City 1980-2000 Land Use Map. 



SOURCES: City of Gainesville, Depanment of Community Development; KBN Engineering & Applied Sciences, 1988. 



F-1 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Key to Table 6. - City of Gainesville Open Space Inventory 
Definition of Terms 



Floodplains & Steep Slopes. The City of Gainesville 1980-2000 Comprehensive Plan 
reported 1,203 acres of private "flood channel" land The Plan defined steep slopes as 
those in excess of 15 percent There was no inventory of such slopes. Public floodplains 
and steep slopes are found in the "Passive Park Acreage", "Public Conservation Areas", 
and "Active Park Acreage" categories. 

Airport-Road Noise Contour Zones. Areas where the average decibel level exceeds 
levels considered suitable for human habitation. There is no existing inventory of such 
areas. The expected noise contours of the Gainesville Regional Airport for 1990 indicate 
that the only city property to fall within the contour zone of Ldn-65 or greater is the airport 
property. 

Wasteland. Public and private land located in low-density or rural areas that has been 
altered, developed, cleared, and abandoned. Often includes abandoned waste dumps. There 
is no existing inventory of such areas. 

Public Conservation Areas. Publicly-owned regional and local nature parks that are 
not developed for passive recreation. Nature parks are defined as recreation sites that are 
attractive because of the important natural attributes of the site. Such sites are therefore 
suitable for passive recreation. Includes the N.W. 8th Avenue floodplain, N.W. 34th Street 
floodplain, and Hatchet Creek Park. 

Significant Ecological Communities. Private land identified by KBN Consultants as 
ecologically significant on at least a county-wide scale. (See Map 17) KBN classifies these 
sites as "exemplary" upland ecological communities. Includes Rock Creek (1 12 acres) and 
Kincaid Flatwoods (90 acres). Public lands identified by KBN are found in the "Wildlife 
Management Areas" category. 

Wildlife Management Areas. Public land identified by KBN Consultants as 
ecologically significant on at least a county-wide scale (See Map 17). KBN classifies these 
sites as "exemplary" upland ecological communities. There are no such sites within city 
limits. 

Wetlands. Private land that is transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where 
the water table is at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. Inventory is 
based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife National Wetiands Inventory for 1984. Public wetiands 
are found in the "Passive Park Acreage", "Public Conservation Areas", and "Active Park 
Acreage" categories. 

Lakes. Privately-owned lakes at least one acre in size. Publicly- owned lakes are found in 
the "Passive Park Acreage", "PubUc Conservation Areas", and "Active Park Acreage" 
categories. 

Active Public Parks. Publicly-owned community, neighborhood, mini, special, and 
sports complex parks. Public schools that contain neighborhood park acreage are found in 
the "Public School Recreation Areas" category. 



F-2 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

S\'\ Passive Public Parks. Publicly-owned (and privately-owned, publicly accessible) 

-^^ regional and local nature parks that are developed for passive recreation. 

Public School Recreation Areas. Includes that portion of public schools designated 
as "open space" on the 1980-2000 Land Use Map of the City of Gainesville. 

Golf Courses. The University of Florida operates the only golf course found within city 
limits. 

Utility Rights-of-Way and Easements. Active and abandoned railroad rights-of- 
way, power line corridors, drainage ditch corridors. There is no existing inventory of such 
land. 

Cemeteries. Includes Evergreen (public). Forest Meadows, Jewish, and I*ine Grove, 

Vacant Urban Land. Public and private land located in relatively dense urban areas that 
has been altered, developed, cleared, and abandoned. There is no existing inventory of 
such areas. 

Farms/Agricultural. Land used for livestock and/or agriculture and at least one acre in 
size. The pubhc acreage is tiie City Tree Farm. 



B 



0) 



F-3 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Table 7. Property Within 150 Feet of Surface Waters* 



CREEKS LAKES WETLANDS TOTAL- 



LotTvpe Lots Acres Lots Acres Lots Acres Lots % Total Acres % Total 

TOTAL 1.232 3.929 191 235 352 1.321 1.775 7% 5.485 33% 

DEV. 1.020 3.235 165 196 227 452 1.412 6% 3.883 29% 

UNDEV. 212 694 25 39 125 869 362 13% 1.602 48% 

PUBLIC 72 2.159 6 18 39 359 117 27% 2.536 38% 

PRIVATE 1.160 1.172 185 217 311 967 1.656 7% 2.356 24% 

SF 771 1.116 122 131 235 737 1.024 5% 1.984 23% 

MF 181 272 11 42 36 108 228 7% 422 31% 

COM./OFF. 107 179 5 11 16 38 128 9% 228 19% 

INST. 40 2.124 4 16 1 5 45 — 2.145 — 

PD 95 78 40 26 15 50 150 10% 154 22% 

IND. 38 162 10 9 33 101 81 14% 272 39% 



•NOTE: 

Includes property within 150 feet of a wetland, lake, or regulated creek. Total acreage and number of lots in city, not including 
Bellamy Forge, Mission Oaks, the airport and airport industrial park, and UF campus, is 16,582 acres and approximately 25,000 
lots, respectively. 



G-1 



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EXPLANATION OF COLUMN HEADINGS 
FOR INVENTORY OF RECREATION SITES 

MAP #: locator number for the park. Refer to the official map of urban area recreation sites. 

GEN. TYPE: general type of park. The park can be resource- or activity-based. See Definitions for 
explanation. 

SPECIFIC TYPE: one of seven specific park classifications. "Community-U" designates 
"Community-Undeveloped" sites and indicates that parks do not meet the minimum thresholds of 
facilities specified in the park design standards. "Conservation" indicates that the site is a potential 
local nature park but is not developed to accommodate passive recreation. 

OWNERSHIP: owner or operator of the park. "SB AC" designates School Board of Alachua County 
schools. "SBAC-P" designates parks for which there is a cooperative use agreement between the SBAC 
and the City or County. "WMD" designates water management district. 

SIZE: total acreage of the park. For SBAC schools, this includes only acreage designated as "Open 
Space" on the Gainesville 1980-2000 Comprehensive Plan Land Use map or areas containing 
recreational facilities, or both, as shown on aerial maps. 

ACTIVE: total "active" acreage at the park. See Recreation Element Data Collection and Analysis 
Report for definition of "active acreage." 

PASSIVE: total "passive" acreage at the park. See Recreation Element Data Collection and Analysis 
Report for definition of "passive acreage." 

LAND: land area of park in acres. Does not include submerged acreage. Can include areas within 10- 
year flood channel or 100-year floodplain. 

WATER: acreage of the park submerged for at least nine months out of the year. 

BKTBALL: number of basketball hoops at the park. Also known as "multi-purpose courts." Indoor 
basketball facilities operated by the SBAC are not counted unless there is a cooperative use agreement 
with the City or County. In some instances, basketball and tennis courts may overlap each other. When 
overlay occurs, the inventory counts the court for both basketball and tennis. 

R-BALL: number of racquetball courts at the park (includes all outdoor, three- or four- walled courts). 

HARDBALL: number of youth baseball fields at the park. Youth fields feature outfield fences that are 
no more than 275 feet from home plate. 

SOFTBALL: number of adult baseball/softball fields at the park. Adult fields feature outdoor fences 
that are no less than 275 feet from home plate. In some instances, Softball and soccer fields may 
overlap each other. When overlay occurs, the inventory counts the field for both softball and soccer. 

SOCCER: number of soccer fields at the park. Also known as "multi-purpose" fields. Football, rugby, 
and lacrosse fields are also counted as soccer fields. In some instances, softball and soccer fields may 
overlap each other. When overlay occurs, the inventory counts the field for both softball and soccer. 

POOL: length of swimming pool, in meters. 

PLAYGRD: number of playgrounds at the park. 

PICNIC: total number of picnic tables at the park. 



TRAILS: length of trail (walking, jogging, hiking, etc.) in miles. This classification does not include 
running tracks at SBAC schools or sidewalks which run contiguously and parallel to roads. Trail must 
be designed predominantly for recreation in order to qualify as an inventoried recreational trail. 

RESTR: are there restrooms at the park? (Yes/No). This classification does not include SBAC 
restrooms. 

REC: is there a recreation center at the park? (Yes/No). 

LIGHTED: is the park, or facilities at the park, lighted? (Yes/No). 

INVENTORY: date of the most recent inventory of the park. This includes only inventories which 
survey all facilities found at the park. 



)) 



n 



/D 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Alachua County Dept. of Environmental Services. (1987). Design and Implementation of 
an Ambient Groundwater Quality Network in Alachua County. Gainesville, 
Florida. 

Alachua County Dept. of Environmental Services. (1987). Hazardous Waste Management 
Assessment for Alachua County. Gainesville, Florida. 

Alachua County Office of Planning and Development (1990). "Data and Analysis and 

Goals, Objectives and Policies for the Solid Waste Element of the Alachua County 
Comprehensive Plan." August 9 draft. Gainesville, Florida. 

Aucott, Walter R. (1988). Areal Variation in Recharge to and Discharge from the Floridan 
Aquifer System in Florida. Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4057. 
United States Geological Survey in cooperation with Fla. Dept. of Environmental 
Regulation. 

Bechtold, William A. and Herbert A. Knight. (1982). Rorida's Forests. U.S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. U.S. Forest Service, 
Resource Bulletin SE-62. 

Black, Crow and Eidsness. (1965). Engineering Report for City of Gainesville, Fla. - Ten 
Year Master Plan for Water, Electric & Sewerage Systems. Gainesville, Florida. 

Black, Crow and Eidsness. (1971). Engineering Report for City of Gainesville, Fla. - Ten 
Year Master Plan for Wastewater Systems. Gainesville, Rorida. 

Boniol, D., et al. (1990). Recharge Areas of the Floridan Aquifer in the Crescent City 

Ridge of Southeast Putnam County, Florida - a Pilot Study. St. Johns River Water 
Management District Technical Publication SJ 90-9. Palatka, Rorida. 

Brown, M.J. and M.T. Thompson. (1987). Forest Statistics for Florida 1987. USDA 
Forest Serv., SE Forest Experiment Station, Resource Bull. SE-101. 

Brunt, Frank (Alachua General Hospital), Betsy Saliba (North Florida Regional Hospital), 
Steve Trulock (Shands Hospital), and Darcy White (VA Hospital). (1990). 
Telephone conversations, July and August. 

Burke, Roy. (1971). A Survey of Available Information Describing Expected Constituents 
in Urban Surface Runoff, with Special Emphasis on Gainesville, Rorida. Dept. of 
Environmental Engineering, University of Florida. Gainesville, Rorida. 

Bumson, Terry. Hydrogeologic Overview of Suwannee River Water Management 
District. Suwannee River Water Management District Technical Report 82-3. 
Live Oak, Rorida. 

CH2M Hill. (1978). Alachua County 201 Wastewater FaciUty Plan for the City of 
Gainesville, Fla. 

CH2M Hill. (1986). Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the University of Florida 
Wastewater Treatment Plant and Lake Alice Recharge Well System. Project 
BR- 161. Prepared for the University of Rorida, Gainesville, Rorida. 



I-l 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Clark, William E., et al. (1964). Water Resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union 
Counties, Rorida. Report of Investigations No. 35. Florida Geological Survey, 
Division of Geology, Fla. State Board of Conservation. Prepared by the United 
States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Rorida Geological Survey. 
Tallahassee, Rorida. 

Dertien, Joe. (1990). Alachua County Office of Environmental Protection. Consultation on 
Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks on July, 20, 1990. 

Durrando, Joe. (1988). President, Rorida Native Plant Society. Comments submitted in 
December. 

Rorida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals (FCREPA). (1979-1982). 
Rare and Endangered Biota of Rorida. Peter Pritchard, general ed. University 
Presses of Rorida, Gainesville, Rorida. 

Rorida Department of Environmental Regulation. (1989). Early Detection Incentive 
Program. Tallahassee, Rorida. 

Rorida Department of Environmental Regulation. (1986). 1986 Rorida Water Quality 
Assessment 305(b) Technical Report. Water Quality Monitoring & Quality 
Assurance Section. Bureau of Water Quahty Management. Tallahassee, Florida. 

Rorida Department of Environmental Regulation. (1982). Rorida Mining Adas: A Guide to 
Mineral Resource Management - Appendices. Tallahassee, Rorida. 

Rorida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission (FGFWFC). (1990). Official Lists of 
Endangered and Potentially Endangered Fauna and Rora in Rorida, by D.A. 
Wood. Tallahassee, Rorida. 

Rorida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI). (1990). Matrix of Habitats and Distribution by 
County of Rare/Endangered Species of Rorida. Element Occurrence List. The 
Nature Conservancy. Tallahassee, Rorida. 

. (1990). Special Plant and Lichen List. The Nature Conservancy. Tallahassee, 

Rorida. 



. (1990). Special Vertebrates List. The Nature Conservancy. Tallahassee, Florida. 

Gainesville Dept. of Community Development. (1975). Environmentally Sensitive Areas - 
1975. Gainesville, FL. Carleton J. Ryffel, principal author. 

Gainesville Regional Utihties. (1985). Onsite Systems for Wastewater Treatment in the 
Gainesville Urban Area. Gainesville, Rorida. 

Gainesville Regional Utilities. (1987). Kanapaha Deep Well Disposal Assessment. 

Strategic Planning Dept. and the Wastewater Systems Group. Gainesville, Rorida. 

Gainesville Regional Utilities. (1989). Five- Year Report Gainesville, Rorida. 

Gainesville Regional Utilities. 1989 Water and Wastewater Customer and Sales Forecasts. 
Gainesville, Florida. 



1-2 



>3 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Gainesville Regional Utilities & CH2M Hill. (1987). Gainesville's Main Street Wastewater 
Treatment Plant and Sweetwater Branch: Permitting Issues. March 1987. 
Gainesville, Florida. 

Gainesville Sun. (1984). "Hogtown Creek Contaminants Will Go to Sewage Plant." June 
12, 1984. Gainesville, Florida. 

Gottgens, Johan F. and Clay L.Montague (1988). Comprehensive Reconnaissance 
Profile of the Paynes Prairie Basin, Florida. Prepared for the St. Johns River 
Water Management District Project 15-200-33. Dept. of Environmental 
Engineering Sciences, University of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. 

Huber, Wayne C, et. al. (1981). An Environmental Study of Hogtown Creek in 
Gainesville, Florida. 

Huber, Wayne C, et. al. (1982). A Classification of Florida Lakes. Publication No. 72. 
Univ. of Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, Florida. 

Huff, Michael D. and Margaret McKenzie-Arenberg. (1990). Lower St. Johns/St. Marys 
Ground Water Basin Resource Availability Inventory. St. Johns River Water 
Management District Technical Publication SJ 90-8. Palatka, Florida. 

Independent Florida Alligator. (1990). "Contaminated Site May Threaten Drinking Water." 
November 14, 1990. Gainesville, Florida. 

International Technology Corporation. (1987). Remedial Investigation Report: Cabot 
Carbon/Koppers Company Site, Gainesville, FL. Submitted to Fla. Dept. of 
Environmental Regulation, May 1987. 

Jaffe, Martin and Frank DiNovo. (1987). Local Groundwater Protection. American 
Planning Association. Chicago, Dlinois. 

Johnston, Richard H. and Peter W. Bush. (1988). Summary of the Hydrology of the 

Floridan Aquifer System in Florida and in Parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and 
Alabama. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1403-A. United 
States Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 

KBN Engineering & Applied Sciences. (1987). Final Report: Comprehensive Inventory of 
Natural Ecological Communities in Alachua County. Gainesville, Florida. 

Kobriger, T.V. et. al. (1983). Guidelines for the Management of Highway Runoff on 
Wetiands. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report #264. 
Transportation Research Board. National Research Council. Washington, D.C. 

Kutnya, Andrew (Fla. Dept. of Environmental Regulation) and Jim Robinson (Dept. of 
Health and RehabiUtative Services). (1990). Conversations in July. 

Macesich, Milena. (1988). Geologic Interpretation of the Aquifer Pollution in Alachua 

County, Florida. Open File Report No. 21. Florida Geological Survey, Division of 
Resource Management, Fla. Dept. of Natural Resources. Tallahassee, Florida. 

Moler, Paul. (1989). Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission. President, Alachua 
Audubon Society. Conversation on October 9, 1989. 



1-3 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 

Phelps, G.G. (1984). Recharge and Discharge of the Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns 
River Water Management District and Vicinity, Rorida. Water-Resources 
Investigations Report 82-4058. United States Geological Survey in cooperation 
with the St. Johns River Water Management District 

Phelps, G.G. (1987). Effects of Surface Runoff and Treated Wastewater Recharge 

on Quality of Water in the Floridan Aquifer System, Gainesville Area, Alachua 
County, Florida. Water- Resources Investigations Report 87-4099. United States 
Geological Survey in cooperation with Gainesville Regional Utilities. Tallahassee, 
Florida. 

Pollman, Curtis D. (1987). Lake Kanapaha: Application of Treated Domestic Wastewater 
as a Restorative Technique for a Hypereutrophic Lake. KBN Engineering & 
Applied Sciences, Gainesville, Florida. 

Regan, John, et al. (1989). The City of Gainesville Plan for a Real-Time Well Field 

Management Sup)ervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Reprint 
from the 1989 Southeastern Ground Water Symposium Proceedings. Orlando, 
Florida. 

Schaefer, Joe. (1989). Urban Wildlife Extension Specialist, Institute of Food and 

Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida. 
Gainesville, Florida. Letter dated January 25. 

Shipley, Terry. (1990). Alachua County Public Health Unit. Consultation on On-Site 
Sewage Disposal Systems on May 22, 1990. 

Scott, Thomas M. (1983). The Hawthorn Formation of Northeastern Florida, Part I - The 
Geology of the Hawthom Formation of Northeastern Florida. Report of 
Investigation No. 94. Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, 
Fla. Dept. of Natural Resources. Tallahassee, Florida. 

Scott, Thomas M. (1988). The Lithostratigraphy of the Hawthom Group (Miocene) of 
Florida. Bulletin No. 59. Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource 
Management, Fla. Dept. of Natural Resources. Tallahassee, Florida. 

Soil Conservation Service. (1987). 26 Ecological Communities of Florida. 

Soil Conservation Society of America. (1987). Twenty-Six Ecological Communities of 
Florida. Florida Chapter, Gainesville, Florida. 

Suwannee River Water Management District. (1988). Water Shortage Plan. Live Oak, 
Florida. 

Sverdrup & Parcel and Assoc., Inc. (1974). 1974 Drainage. Prepared for the North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council. Gainesville, Rorida. 

Ward, D. and K. Perkins. (1985). List of Endangered and Threatened Plants of Alachua 
County. Unpub. Man. Dept. of Botany, University of Florida. Gainesville, 
Florida. 



1-4 



Conservation, Open Space, and Groundwater Recharge 



Williams, Kenneth E., et al. (1977). The Geology of the Western Part of Alachua County, 
Florida. Report of Investigations No. 85. Prepared for Bureau of Geology, 
Division of Resource Management, Fla. DepL of Natural Resources. Tallahassee, 
Florida. 



^ 



1-5 



V 



phapter G 
Recreation Element 






tf" ,. 



f 







^ 



RECREATION 



DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



J ) 



City of Gainesville 

1991 - 2001 
Comprehensive Plan 



Prepared by 

The Department of Community Development 

Comprehensive Planning Section 

November 1991 



"Preparation of this document was aided through financial assistance received fironi the State of Rorida under 
the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program authorized by Chapter 87-98, Laws of 
Florida and administered by the Florida Department of Community Affairs." 



> 



o 



^ 



) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i 

INTRODUCTION 1 

PUBLIC ACCESS 2 

Public Access to Environmentally Significant Open Space 3 

Development of Recreational Greenways 3 

An Emerald Necklace 3 

Creating an Emerald Necklace 7 

Land Acquisition 7 

Public Access to Recreational Facilities 8 

Park and Facility Standards 9 

Park Design Standards 10 

Service Level Standards 12 

Existing Facilities and Determination of Deficiencies 13 

Proposed Locations of New Community Parks 13 

Proposed Locations of New Neighborhood Parks 16 

Recreation Programs 16 

Public Access to the Decision-Making Process 18 

Park and Facility Substitution 18 

Monitoring, Reevaluation, and Public Input 19 

DATA 20 

Inventory of Parks and Facilities 21 

Inventory Table for Public Parks & Facilities 22 

Linear Corridors and Linkages 24 

Facility Locations and Service Radii 28 

Inventory of Private Recreational Facilities 36 

Inventory of Private Recreational Facilities at Residential 

Complexes Outside of City Limits 37 

ANALYSIS 40 

Calculation of Park and Facility Deficiencies and Surpluses 41 

Planning Areas 41 

Level of Service Standards for Recreation 44 

Variations in Level-of-Service Standards 45 

Calculated Deficiencies and Surpluses .46 

Allocating Deficiencies to Planning Areas 50 

Prioritizing Improvements for the CIP 56 

Park and Facility Substitution 58 

Condition of City Recreation Facilities 60 

Undeveloped Parks 63 



^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT.) 



Page 

Funding and Designing the Projects Identified by the Element 64 

Intrcxiuction 64 

General Fund 64 

Minimum Facility Design Standards 67 

Supplemental Park & Facility Design Considerations 67 

How Recreation is Provided by the Private Sector 71 

Recreation Liability Management 72 

Role of the Private Sector 74 

Coordination of City-County Recreation Planning 76 

Coordination with the School Board 77 

Mini-Park Problems 78 

Gainesville Public Opinion Surveys 79 

Park Inventory Methodology 81 

Overview of Park Access as an Inventory Criterion 81 

Inventory of School Acreage and Facilities 82 

Inventory of State Parks 84 

Inventory of Active vs. Passive Acreage 84 

Park and Facility Inventory Updates 85 

Special Inventory Requirements for Recreation Facilities 85 

Defmitions 86 

References 88 

Appendix 

Parcel Ranking System A-1 



LIST OF TABLES 

Page 

Table 1. Park Design and Function Standards 10 

Table 2. Service Level Standards for Parks and Facilities 12 

Tables. Sunimary of Recreation Deficiencies 13 

Table 4. Park Inventory 22 

Table 5. Private Recreation Facilities in the GUA 36 

Table 6. Inventory of Private Recreation Facilities at Unincorporated 

Residential Complexes 38 

Table 7. Gainesville Urban Area - Inventory and Analysis 47 

Table 8. Southeast Quadrant - Inventory and Analysis 49 

Table 9. Southwest Quadrant - Inventory and Analysis 51 

Table 10. Northwest Quadrant - Inventory and Analysis 52 

Table 11. Northeast Quadrant - Inventory and Analysis 54 

Table 12. Condition of City Recreation Facilities 61 

Table 13. Undeveloped City Parks 63 

Table 14. Minimum Requirements for Recreation Facilities 68 

Table 15. Conversion Table for Inventory of SBAC Schools 82 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 1. Leisure Hours Per Week 

Figure 2. City Recreation Expenditure Comparison for Fiscal Year 1986-87 
Figure 3. Comparison of Recreation as a Percent of All Expenditures .... 



Page 



. 1 
.65 
.66 



LIST OF MAPS 



Page 

Map 1 . Recreational Greenways 4 

Map 2. Gainesville's Emerald Necklace 5 

Map 3. Park Locations 14 

Map 4. Community Parks - Location and Service Radii 15 

Map 5. Neighborhood Parks - Location and Service Radii 17 

Map 6. Gymnasiums, Swimming Pools, Recreation Centers, Special Sites ... .29 

Map 7. Baseball/Softball Fields 30 

Map 8. Soccer/Football Fields 31 

Map 9. Trails 32 

Map 10. Mini-Parks 33 

Map 11. Basketball Courts 34 

Map 12. Tennis Courts, Racquetball Courts 35 

Map 13. Quadrants, City Limits 42 

Map 14. Planning Districts 43 



c 



) 



Recreation Data and Analysis Report 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



The Recreation Data and Analysis Report of the City of Gainesville Comprehensive Plan 
inventories passive and active recreational parks and facilities. The Report analyzes the need for 
new recreational facilities, additional park acreage, recreation programs, and provision of 
recreation by the private sector. 

The primary focus of the Element is providing pubhc access to recreation: 

PUBLIC ACCESS TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT OPEN SPACE 

The Report recommends that the City establish a "Greenway Network" and "Emerald 
Necklace" as a long-range vision used to preserve and provide public access to environmentally 
significant open spaces. For the purposes of the Element, the greenways are trail and creek 
corridors which provide recreational, aesthetic, and environmental benefits. The Necklace 
consists of a series of large open spaces ("gems") which encircle the city. The Necklace 
provides benefits in the areas of growth management, park linkages, community identity, 
protection of ecosystems, and enhanced public access. 

This section also recommends adoption of a computerized land evaluation and ranking system 
which catalogues and prioritizes lands for possible acquisition or regulation. 

PUBLIC ACCESS TO RECREATIONAL FACILITIES 

The Report inventories the quantity and quality of existing recreational facilities offering public 
access. Park design and function standards are described for mini-parks, neighborhood parks, 
community parks, sports-complex parks, local nature parks, regional nature parks, linear 
corridors, and special use parks. 

The Report contains an inventory identifying 95 publicly accessible or limited access parks 
within tiie urban area. The Report also contains an inventory of ten existing and potential 
linear-corridors, and the linkages that they could provide to locations of interest. 



Service level standards are proposed for swimming pools, Softball fields, soccer fields, trails, 
basketball courts, tennis courts, racquetball courts, neigborhood parks, community parks, local 
nature parks, and sports-complex parks. Based on Gainesville's current and projected 
population, and the standards noted above, the city will require the following new facilities in 
1991, 1997, and 2001: 

FACILITY 1991 1997 2001 TOTAL 



Local Nature Park 


Oac 


64 ac 


56 ac 


120 ac 


Sports-Complex Park 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


50-meter Pool 














25-vd Swim Pool 








1 


1 


Softball Field 





6 


2 


8 


Soccer Field 





5 


1 


6 


Trail/Linear Corridor 


Omi 


4.5 mi 


1.2 mi 


5.7 mi 


Community Park 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


Neighborhood Park 


Oac 


37 ac 


4 ac 


41 ac 


Basketball Court 





8 


2 


10 


Tennis Court 





7 


1 


8 


Racquetball Court 





10 


1 


11 



This section also describes issues, problems, and strategies regarding the provision of 
recreational programs. 

PUBLIC ACCESS TO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS THROUGH 
NEIGHBORHOOD-BASED RECREATION PLANS 

The Report strongly encourages citizen access to the decision-making process for recreation 
planning. Strategies are outlined for improving such access. A key access strategy is the 
establishment of facility substitution, which enables citizens to tailor recreational deficiencies 
called for by the Report to fit the needs of specific neighborhoods. 

Also included is a discussion of how the Element should be monitored and evaluated over time. 



MAJOR ISSUES AND DEFICIENCIES 

Some of the most critical issues and deficiencies identified by the Report include: 

* Extremely Umited funding for recreation over the past 15 years - both in an absolute 
sense and relative to similar cities. 

* Limited daytime and after-school programming for recreation. Most lacking is 
programming for playground and gym activities for pre-schoolers, teens, and senior 
citizens. 

* Lack of coordination between the City, the County, the School Board, and the private 
sector for the provision of recreational facilities and programs. 



Recreation 



)) 



RECREATION ELEMENT 



DATA AND ANALYSIS REPORT 



INTRODUCTION 



Over the past few decades, sociologists have predicted an increase in leisure time available to individuals. 
Recent studies, however, show there has been a substantial decline in available leisure time (see Figure 
1). People (particularly women) are working longer hours than ever before. Moreover, our highly mobile 
society and associated sprawling development patterns have increased the amount of time spent on daily 
travel. 

Fig.l LEISURE HOURS PER WEEK 



V 




Source: Americans Working More; Playing Less. 

The Harris Survey by Louis Harris Dec. 26 , 198S 

With the quantity of leisure time declining, citizens can be expected to seek improvement in the quality of 
their leisure time, and access to leisure activities that are less time-consuming. As a result, there is an 
increased need for high-quality, easily accessible recreation at the local level. Also, improving public 
recreation at the local level makes recreation more affordable because it minimizes transportation costs. 

Communities are beginning to reahze that adequate, well-planned open space and recreational 
opportunities can have far-reaching imphcations for future growth. Such communities are: 

* Increasing the attractiveness of higher urban densities and thereby encouraging more compact and 
efficient urban growth patterns; 

* Providing the sorts of amenities many industries and business firms require for their employees, 
and thereby attracting high-quality economic development; 

* Helping to define the urban area with green spaces, while at the same time protecting 
environmental qualities and features. 

As local, close-to-home recreation increases in importance, so too does the need for far-sighted recreation 
planning. The Gainesville urban area population is projected to grow relatively rapidly in the coming 

1 



Recreation 

decades. The value of the land in developing areas will increase as land becomes scarcer and public 
improvements make land more attractive for development. Increased land values will increase the cost of 
public acquisition of land for recreation and open space purposes. To minimize the costs of growth, 
acquisition of public land must precede private development pressures. 

Since the mid-1970's, however, City expenditures for recreational land, facilities, and programs have 
been extremely low relative to total City expenditures, and in comparison to similar cities. (See Figures 2 
and 3 later in this Report for city comparisons.) Few improvements have been made in existing parks and 
very few major new facilities have been built despite continuing population growth. 

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 

This Element recognizes both the value and the limitations of traditional, quantitative recreation facility 
standards (e.g., the number of tennis courts needed per 1,(XX) people). Standards are useful in ensuring 
that recreational facilities are equitably and comprehensively provided throughout the community. Total 
reliance on such standards, however, may lead to inflexibility, a suppression of creative approaches to 
recreation, and a tendency to ignore important community, neighborhood, and individual recreational 
needs. 

To address these limitations, the Element gives some attention to how people behave when offered 
various types of recreational opportunities. For example, a neighborhood park or a significant 
environmental feature may be difficult to enjoy due to a lack of citizen awareness, barriers such as busy 
roads, or remoteness from population centers. By considering the importance of citizen behavior, the 
Element stresses public access as the key to improving recreational opportunities. 



PUBLIC ACCESS 

The Key to Improving Recreational Opportunities 



Access is essential to any successful recreation program. 
Improving public access includes ... 

* Improving the visibility of, preservation of, and access to the environmentally 
significant open spaces of the urban area. 

* Efficiently providing adequate amounts of park acreage and facilities in close 
proximity to urbanized residential areas. 

* Increasing the amount of citizen input in order to determine neighborhood 
desires and devise neighborhood-based recreation plans. 



■)■) 



>) 



J) 



Recreation 

PUBLIC ACCESS... 

...To Environmentally Significant Open Space 

There will be little public support for an ambitious open space acquisition program unless the public is 
given adequate access - either visual or physical - to the acquired open spaces. Typically, large and 
environmentally significant open spaces feature only small spurs or vistas to provide this access. Such 
limited access frequently leaves people feeling intimidated, bored, or ahenated from the open space. 
Often, a more desirable altemative is to develop deeply penetrating "greenway" corridors which are as 
near to the attractive features of the open space as possible, yet designed to minimize potential adverse 
impacts. 

Ideal opportunities for greenways include abandoned railroad and utility rights-of-way, flood channels, 
and other corridors which provide quiet, non-motorized recreation and transportation connections 
between important community locations. Greenways link environmentally significant open space and 
parks to each other and to residential areas. Both forms of linkages are necessary to maximize access. 
One way in which the Recreation Element encourages this type of open space access is through its call for 
the development of "local nature parks" and "linear corridors." 

Development of Recreational Greenways 

As demonstrated in Map 1, there exist numerous radial and circumscribing greenways which provide a 
"window of opportunity" for the development of an interconnected system of open space and trails 
throughout the urban area. These greenways show enormous potential for development as recreational 
and open space access routes, since they pass through and connect several significant open spaces and 
existing city, county, and state parks. 

Recreational greenways, or "linear corridors", are fingers of greenspace which penetrate and crisscross 
the residential areas of the city. They offer convenient physical and visual access to the significant open 
spaces of the city. As such, they help connect people to the natural environment and thereby provide 
important community needs such as environmental education and appreciation. A regionally important 
example is the soon- to-be-developed Gainesville-to-Hawthome "Rail Trail." An inventory of significant 
corridors with recreational potential can be found in the "Linear Corridors and Linkages" section of this 
Report. 

Railroad rights-of-way can provide significant recreational access at Uttle or no cost to the City. Presently, 
there are at least 15 abandoned raHroad segments in Alachua County. These segments can serve as non- 
motorized linkages to such locations as Paynes Prairie, Sweetwater Branch, Boulware Springs, the City 
of Hawthome, Tumblin Creek, the University of Florida campus. Little Hatchet Creek, Northside Park, 
and several destinations outside of the county. Such greenways would serve as the connecting strands of 
an "emerald necklace." 

An Emerald Necklace 

Gainesville's recreation and open space lands have traditionally been fragmented. There has been no 
unifying theme or symbol giving the city an attractive image in comparison to other cities. An "emerald 
necklace" can serve that puipose (see Map 2). 

The Emerald Necklace is a concept which envisions an open space system encircling the Gainesville 
urban area. It consists of more than 30,000 acres of natural beauty made up of interconnecting "gems." 
These gems contain attributes of scenic, environmental, historic, and geologic significance. Each gem is a 
parcel of greater than 100 acres which is either publicly owned, or privately owned and undeveloped, and 
in low-intensity zoning categories. The gems are traversed by, or in close proximity to greenways. As 



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Recreation 

pointed out above, these greenways show great pxDtential for the development of public trails and 

community delineation. 

The Necklace is similar to, but in some ways different from a more traditional greenbelt configuration. 
Both serve to define an urban area with greenspaces and agricultural land Both provide urban residents 
with easy access to significant open spaces. And both are useful in preserving the ecological, scenic, 
recreational, and municipal values embodied by a greenbelt network. The Emerald Necklace, though, is 
distinct in the sense that it is an integrated system of greenspace "islands" (or gems), rather than an 
unbroken swath of parks and farms surrounding the city. Despite this distinction, it should be noted that a 
Necklace and a greenbeh are not mutually exclusive. A Gainesville Necklace could serve as a component 
of the larger greenbelt system. 

Why an Emerald Necklace? 

The rationale for adopting the concept of the Emerald Necklace is based on several important factors: 

* Growth Management. Urban sprawl results in traffic congestion, and large increases in the 
amount of money needed for public service and infrastructure improvements such as roads, 
sewers, fire, and schools. Sprawl can also lead to a lack of community cohesiveness and identity, 
among other problems. An emerald necklace could serve as a physical and symbolic line which 
can help define the limits of urban development. 

* Integration. Currentiy, the parks of the Gainesville urban area suffer from a lack of 
"relatedness" to each other. An emerald necklace can unify many of the parks into a system of 
gems strung together by recreational greenways. 

* Identity. The urban area is somewhat limited in its ability to attract new businesses and 
industries, many of which seek favorable market proximity, access to materials, education, 
transportation, and a high quality of life. Gainesville's advantage in relation to other communities 
is due primarily to the presence of the university and natural amenities. Emphasizing these 
amenities with a unique and attractive park system could promote both economic vitality and 
community pride. 

* Ecosystems. As is the case in most developed and developing areas, human encroachment into, 
and f^gmentation of, natural habitat areas are threatening the viability of critically important 
ecosystems. Without an interconnection and preservation of "habitat islands", these ecosystems 
are not likely to remain viable over the long-term. 

* Access. Private development, urban sprawl, and the proliferation of congested, high-speed 
roads reduce public access to our parks and significant open spaces. A non-motorized corridor 
system improves the safety and attractiveness of parks. Increased access generates an increased 
awareness of these sites. Increased public awareness can promote concern for the preservation of 
natural sites and spark interest in park development. 

The Emerald Necklace is a unifying concept for the City's park and open space plan. While the vast 
majority of Necklace gems are outside of city limits, there are steps the City can take to implement the 
Necklace concept For example, utility and abandoned railroad rights-of-way within the city could be 
improved to facilitate recreational access to gems. In conjunction with such improvements, the City could 
acquire and develop park acreage along city greenways. These linear parcels, staging areas, and rights-of- 
way would then improve the connectivity of the city to Necklace gems. As shown below, the criteria 
governing purchases of park acreage are designed, in part, to prioritize acquisition of these linear 
connectors. 

With the cooperation of Alachua County, the Emerald Necklace could be further enhanced through joint 
City-County efforts to purchase (and when appropriate, develop) gems and linear connectors. The 
County also possesses land regulation authority useful in protecting features of the Emerald Necklace. 



r 



C 



)) 



)) 



1) 



Recreation 

Creating an Emerald Necklace 

Gainesville is already largely surrounded by an Emerald Necklace outside of its city limits. Gems such as 
Newnans Lake, Paynes Prairie, San Felasco Hammock, and Lake Kanapaha will retain their status as 
publicly accessible open spaces for the foreseeable future. Newnans Lake is managed as a "Fish 
Management Area" by the Rorida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. San Felasco Hammock and 
Paynes Prairie are two of eight state preserves found in Florida. The state preserves are designated in 
order to maintain representative samples of the exceptional natural conditions found at the sites. Other 
large and environmentally significant areas such as Gum Root Swamp, Prairie Creek, Kanapaha Prairie, 
and Buck Bay are privately owned but not yet developed. 

Land Acquisition 

While it is unlikely that the City and County will be able to purchase all of the privately owned gems of 
the Emerald Necklace, there wiU be instances when tracts of land should be evaluated for public 
acquisition. A computerized land evaluation database has been prepared for this Element The database 
catalogues and ranks parcels of land according to a series of criteria. These criteria will be used to 
determine the public park value of parcels. The criteria, which are more fully explained in the Appendix, 
include: 

* POPULATTON DENSITY 

Parcels near high population densities; 

* PROXTMTTY TO EXISTING PARKS 

Parcels that are remote from existing parks; 

* ACCESS TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT OPEN SPACE 

Parcels that improve public access to environmentally significant open space; 

* TRAIL ACCESS 

Parcels that are served by an existing or potential recreational trail; 

* GREENBELT VALUE 

Parcels that would serve as a component in a greenbelt system; 

* CONNECTIVITY 

Parcels useful in connecting or extending the size of existing parks or open spaces; 

* MULTIPLE USE 

Parcels able to provide active and passive forms of recreation, as well as conservation of natural 
resources; 

* RARITY AND DIVERSITY 

Parcels that contain rare or diverse forms of environmental or historical features, or a combination 
of these features; 

* ECOSYSTEM PRESERVATION 

Parcels necessary for preserving the integrity of an important ecosystem; 

* COST 

Parcels that are relatively low in acquisition and maintenance cost; 

* WILLINGNESS TO SELL 

Parcels with an owner willing to sell all or part of the rights to the parcel; 



Recreation 

* DEVELOPMENT PRESSURE 

Parcels that are likely to be developed in the near future; i^t^ 

* TURISDICTION 

Parcels within or near the boundaries of the City; and 

* ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION 

Parcels able to accommodate recreation without degrading environmentally significant features. 

The database catalogues and ranks undeveloped or vacant parcels found within the county. Parcels are 
assessed for their value in accommodating "activity-based" recreation and, in a separate ranking, for their 
value in conserving significant environmental resources (or accommodating "resource-based" recreation). 
Both rankings are used to assess the value of parcels for facilities such as neighborhood and community 
parks, and the value of the larger open spaces that are part of the Emerald Necklace. 

In addition to land purchases, acquisition efforts should include: 

* Acquisition of conservation, scenic, trail, or recreational easements; and 

* Land dedications by private individuals. 

Of the parcels that are environmentally significant according to the "resource-based" ranking, those that 
cannot be acquired should be evaluated to determine whether non-acquisition management incentive 
strategies are appropriate. For the City, these strategies can include: 

* Implementation of a "transfer of development rights" program. Under such a program, the City 
and County would cooperate in setting up Necklace/Greenbelt "sending" zones and urban 

"receiving" zones; ^^ 

* Adoption of policies encouraging compact urban development, such as incentives for higher 
residential densities within city limits; and 



* 



Adoption of more stringent land use regulations for areas designated as both environmentally 
significant (See COS: 9-14), and as Necklace gems in this Element. 



PUBLIC ACCESS... 

...To Recreational Facilities 

In addition to providing access to environmentally significant open space, the City needs to provide 
access to a broad range of recreational facihties. Instead of the natural features of "passive" parks, 
"active" parks offer human-built facilities such as racquetball courts and ballfields. 

More so than with passive parks, improving public access to active recreational facilities involves 
adopting "level-of-service" (LOS) standards. These standards call for the provision of a certain number of 
facihties for a certain number of people, and designing these facilities in ways that are attractive to those 
most Ukely to use them. The Recreation Element achieves this by: 

* Assigning facihties to either urban area- or quadrant-wide regions, depending on the relative 
attractiveness of the facility. This Element encourages the efficient concentration of certain 
"significant" (regionally attractive) facihties to improve the attractiveness of those facilities to 

8 



) 



) 



) 



Recreation 

organized leagues, and to minimize maintenance costs. Assigning other facilities to quadrants, on 
the other hand, assures the equitable distribution of such facilities among neighborhoods. (See the 
"Urban Area vs. Quadrant Facilities" section for a discussion of these planning areas); 

* Counting existing facilities only to the extent that they are publicly accessible. For the purpose of 
establisMng levels of service, this Element generally avoids counting private facilities (although 
significant facilities at large apartment complexes in certain parts of the urban area are counted). 
Facilities at county schools are only partially counted (See "Park Inventory Methodology" section 
for further explanation); 

* Establishing poHcies encouraging the development of recreational corridors; and 

* Establishing policies encouraging the development of desirable, flexible, and accessible recreation 
programs, particularly for youth. 

Park and Facility Standards 

Standards are necessary to help assess the present condition of recreation resources in a community. They 
also establish policy guidelines which help a community plan and provide for future recreational 
opportunities in an efficient and effective way. The standards used for parks and facilities in Gainesville 

are generally based upon state or federal standards. These standards were modified using information 
unique to Gainesville, such as recent facility use data, climate, natural and human-built resources, 
information from the Recreation & Parks Etepartment and City poUcy-makers, age cohort characteristics, 
citizen input, fiscal concerns, private facilities, park users living outside of city limits, and urban 
development trends. 

Both qualitative and quantitative forms of capital facility standards are used. The quahtative standards 
describe the essential and optional design requirements for each of the park types sought by the City. The 
quantitative standards describe how many acres of parks and how many of various types of facilities are 

needed for a given number of people. 



1 Florida Department of Natural Resources. 1987. Outdoor Recreation in Florida - 1987 . Tallahassee, Florida. 
Florida Department of Community Affairs. 1987. Recreation and Open Space Element (Model Element) . Tallahassee, 
Florida. National Recreation and Park Association. 1983. Recreation. Park, and Open Space Standards and 
Guidelines. Washington, D.C. 

2 Note that there is some overlap between these two forms of standards. 

9 



Recreation 

Park Design Standards 

Planning for recreation and open space requires the use of design standards for the sites at which facilities 
are (or will be) located. There are eight different types of sites: (1) Mini-Park; (2) Neighborhood Park; (3) 
Community Park; (4) Sports Complex Park; (5) Local Nature Park; (6) Regional Nature Park; (7) Linear 
Corridor, and (8) Special-Use Park. Each type of park is briefly described in Table 1 , with standards for 
size, equipment, and general design indicated. 



Table 1. Park Design and Function Standards 



Mini-Parks 

Small recreation areas within relatively high-density residential areas. Include benches, child play 
areas, shade trees, and picnic facilities. Size is one-quarter acre to five acres. Service radius is 1/4 
mile. Access is by local streets, with facilities for pedestrians and bicycles. An example is 
A.N.N.E. Park. There is no LOS standard for this park type. 

Neighborhood Parks 

Moderately-sized recreation areas located to provide convenient access (no more than 1/2 mile) 
from neighborhoods served. Include tennis courts, racquetball courts, shade trees, picnic 
facilities, child play areas, and a limited number of soccer and baseball fields. Size ranges from 5 
to 20 acres, although the presence of certain types of facilities may classify certain sites less than 5 
acres as neighborhood parks. (These smaller sites must provide at least two facilities of different 
types from tiie following hst: basketball courts, tennis courts, racquetball courts, baseball/softball 
fields, gymnasium or recreation center, and soccer fields.) Service radius is 1/2 mile. Access is by 
local streets, with facihties for pedestrians and bicycles. An example is Woodlawn ParL 

Community Parks 

"Intensive-use", activity-based recreation areas which serve an entire planning quadrant. Include a 
wide range and large concentration of facilities: lighted tennis courts, racquetball courts, soccer 
and baseball fields, a swimming pool, off-street parking, playgrounds, and picnic facilities. Sites 
20 acres or larger are classified as "undeveloped" if the site does not contain at least two different 
types of these facihties. If LOS standards require community park acres, but the quadrant is not 
deficient in any of these facilities, the following facihties may be substituted: basketball courts, 
tennis courts, or racquetball courts. Size ranges from 20 to 100 acres, although certain types of 
facihties may classify certain sites less than 20 acres as community parks. (Parks between 10-20 
acres can be classified as a community park if at least two different types of the following facihties 
are provided: baseball/softball fields, swimming pool, gymnasium, recreation center, and/or 
soccer or football fields.) Service radius is 1 1/2 miles or the planning quadrant. Access is by 
collector or arterial streets, with facilities for pedestrians, bicycles, autos, and buses. An example 
is Westside Park. 



10 



) 



) 



Recreation 

Table 1 (cont.) 

Sports Complex Parks 

"Intensive-use" recreation areas which provide a concentration of facilities for leagues and 
tournaments. One or more of the following facilities are necessary but not necessarily sufficient to 
classify a site as a "sports complex": (1) at least four adult-size or youth- size basebaU/softball 
fields; (2) at least six regulation- size soccer fields; (3) a professional or semi-professional sports 
stadium; (4) a combination of at least one gymnasium, four tennis courts, and four racquetball 
courts; and/or (5) a region-serving water theme park. Size ranges from 15 to 100 acres. Service 
radius is urban area-wide. Access is by arterial streets, with facilities for bicycles, autos, and 
buses. There are no examples in Gainesville as of June 1990, although the City has recentiy 
acquired acreage adjacent to Boulware Springs that is planned to be developed as a sports 
complex. 

Local Nature Parks 

Moderately-sized, resource-based parks which offer physical or visual access to environmentally 
significant open spaces. Such parks include trails, benches, picnic facilities, boardwalks, and 
exhibits. Size is generally less than 100 acres. (AU resource-based parks owned by the city or 
county are designated local nature parks, regardless of size.) Service radius is urban area-wide. 
Access is variable. Motorized vehicles are prohibited from pedestrian/bicycle corridors. Examples 
are Momingside and Bivens Arm Nature Parks. Public properties containing environmentally 
significant features that have not been developed to accommodate passive recreation are known as 
"conservation areas." 

Regional Nature Parks 

Regionally important natural areas which preserve, conserve, restore, and enhance large and 
significant natural or cultural resources, and offer important environmental education benefits to 
the community. Can include boardwalks, exhibits, observation decks, a nature center, and 
picnic/camping facilities. Size is at least 100 acres. (All nature parks owned by the state or water 
management district are designated regional nature parks, regardless of size.) Service radius is 30 
to 45 miles or urban area-wide. Access facihties for bicycles, autos, and buses. An example is 
Paynes Prairie State Preserve. There is no LOS standard for this park type. 

Linear Corridors 

Provide a recreational travel corridor or "greenway" for such users as bicyclists, hikers, 
horseback riders, canoeists, and joggers. Typically a narrow strip of land developed along a 
creek, or along a utility or abandoned raikoad right-of-way. Often link parks, schools, 
commercial or residential areas, and natural features to each other. While staging areas typically 
provide auto parking, the corridors themselves allow only non-motorized travel. An example is 
the proposed Gainesville-to-Hawthome Rail-Trail. Service radius is urban area- wide if owned by 
the state, and quadrant-wide if owned by the City or County. 

Special-Use Parks 

Provide unique or unusual facilities for specialized recreational users. Support facilities dependent 
on the primary purpose of the park. An example is the Thomas Center. There is no LOS standard 
for this park type. 

SOURCE: City of Gainesville, Depaitment of Community Development. June 1990. 



Recreation 



Service Level Standards 



In addition to the use of design standards for parks and facilities, quantitative standards are necessary to 
describe how many parks and facihties are needed based on the existing and projected lu^ban area 
population (see Table 2). 

As shown in Table 2, this Element recommends that several LOS standards be incrementally increased 
over the 10-year planning time horizon. This "stair-stepping" of standards is designed to allow the City to 
incrementally attain the desired level of service over a 10-year period By stair-stepping, the City 
increases the feasibility of attaining the desired levels of service for recreation. 



Table 2. Service Level Standards for Parks and Facilities 



FACILITY 



Swim Pool (50 M) 



1991 LOS STD 



1 per 85.000 



1997 LOS STD 



1 per 85.000 



CURRENT LOS 

1 per 68.767 



Swim Pool (25 Ydr 
Softball Field (adult) 



1 per 50.000 



1 per 14.000 



1 per 75.000 



1 per 10.000 



1 per 45. 671 



1 per 13.049 



Soccer Field 



1 per 8.500 



1 per 11.000 



1 per 8.304 



Trail/Linear Corridor/Green way 1 mi per 3.500 



1 mi per 4.500 



1 mi per 3.305 



Basketball Court 



1 per 4.500 



1 per 4.400 



1 per 3.887 



Tennis Court 



1 per 6.000 



1 per 6. 00 



1 per 4.982 



Racquetball Court 



1 per 12.000 



1 per 7.000 



1 per 9.787 



PARK 

Local Nature/Conserv 



Sports Complex 



Community Park~ 
Neighborhood Park 



1991 LOS STD 
5.00 ac 



0.50 ac 



2.00 ac 



1.50 ac 



1997 LOS STD 
6.00 ac 



0.50 ac 



2.00 ac 



0.80 ac 



CURRENT LOS 
6.11 ac 



r 



0.76 ac 



2.62 ac 



1.63 ac 



Total Acres Per 1000 



9.00 ac 



9.30 ac 



11.12 ac 



NOTES: 

1 
Standards for local nature park, sports complex, and 50-meier pool facibiies apply urban area-wide. Standards for community pari, 25-yard pool, 

Softball, soccer, trail, neighborhood park, basketball, termis, and racquetball facibties apply urban area-wide in 1991, and quadrant-by-quadrant in 

1997. 

2 
Current LX)S is based on 1989 urban area population and facilities. 

3 3 

Southwest quadrant is exempt from corrunututy park and 2S-yard pool standards through 2001. 

4 
Park standards are in acres per 1 ,000 people. 



SOURCE: City of Gainesville, Department of Commimity Development. December 1990. 



3 Refer to "Variations in Level -of-Service Standards" section for more information. 

12 



) 



) 



Recreation 

Existing Facilities and Determination of Deficiencies 

A total of 95 recreation sites are currently located within the Gainesville urban area (see Map 3). Of 
these, 46 are city-owned parks. Table 4 contains an acreage and facility inventory for each site. Table 13 
shows currently undeveloped parks. 

Based on Gainesville's current and projected population and the standards discussed above, the city will 
require the following new facilities by 1991 and 1997: 

Table 3. Summary of Recreation Deficiencies 



FACILITY 1991 1997 2001 TOTAL 



Local Nature Park 


Oac 


64 ac 


56 ac 


120 ac 


Spons-Complex Park 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


50-meter Pool 














25- vd Swim Pool 








1 


1 


Softball Field 





6 


2 


8 


Soccer Field 





5 


1 


6 


Trail/Linear Corridor 


Omi 


4.5 mi 


1.2 mi 


5.7 mi 


Community Park 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


Oac 


Neighborhood Park 


Oac 


37 ac 


4 ac 


41 ac 


Basketball Court 





8 


2 


10 


Tennis Court 





7 


1 


8 


Racquetball Court 





10 


1 


11 



SOURCE: City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development. December 1990. 

When considering facility deficiencies, note that this Element offers some flexibility in meeting identified 
deficiencies. Refer to the "Facility Substitution" section for more information. 

Proposed Locations of New Community Parks 

The locations and service areas for community parks are shown in Map 4. The following criteria were 
used to determine the need for new community parks: 

* A new park is necessary for every 30 to 100 acres of community park deficiency for the year 
2001; 

* The proposed locations seek to minimize overlap with the service radii of existing community 
parks; and 

* The proposed locations seek to maximize service area coverage to existing residential 
developments which are not currentiy served by a community park. 

These criteria indicate there is no need for a new community park within city limits over the 10-year 
planning time horizon. 



I 4 Refer to "Inventory of Private Recreational Facilities" section for an inventory of private recreational 

facilities. 

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Recreation 

Proposed Locations of New Neighborhood Parks ,>-^ 

The locations and service areas for proposed and existing neighborhood parks are shown in Map 5. The 
following criteria were used to select the proposed locations: 

* A new park is necessary for every 5 to 20 acres of neighborhood park deficiency for the year 
2001; 

* The proposed locations seek to minimize overlap with the service radii of existing neighborhood 
parks; and 

* The proposed locations seek to maximize service area coverage to existing residential 
developments which are not currently served by a neighborhood park. 

As with other parks, actual neighborhood park locations will depend on availability and the cost of land, 
access, compatibility with surrounding land uses, and other relevant factors. 

Recreation Programs 

Recreational programs cannot be implemented without the appropriate facilities. As a consequence, 

available facilities will largely determine programs offered. Of the two, facilities are usually the subject of 

long-range planning because they represent capital expenditures as well as fixed physical resources. 

Long-range planning for programs is seldom attempted because recreational preferences often change and 

programming should remain responsive to trends in recreational demand and usage. Provided that 

facilities, funding and interest are present, programs can change from year to year. Nevertheless, it is 

clear that planning for facilities involves assumptions about programs. If softball fields are built rather 

than basketball courts, programming will have to emphasize softball. This situation highlights the ^ 

importance of making facilities as flexible as possible (as discussed elsewhere in this Element). 

In spite of the need to be responsive to changing preferences, programming should be guided by general 
principles that will guarantee a basic level of service is provided to all citizens and, insofar as possible, 
the special needs of certain groups are met. These principles include: 



* 



Meeting the needs of all age groups, skill levels, and income levels, while attempting to serve the 
largest possible number of city residents. In particular, the development of programs for city 
youth shall be given the highest priority. 

Designing, administering and pricing programs so as to give preference to the needs of city 
residents over non-city residents. 

Not funding the programs or facihties of other agencies and groups to the detriment of the city's 
own recreation and open space programs or facihties. 

Enhancing environmentally significant open space access and appreciation, transportation access 
(especially non-motorized), and maintenance of parks. 

Expanding volunteer assistance, where appropriate, in the area of programs. 



16 



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Recreation 

PUBLIC ACCESS... 

...To The Decision-Making Process Through Neighborhood-Based 
Recreation Plans 

Applying identical facility standards to all parts of a community may lead to inappropriate assessments of 
needs for certain neighborhoods. Age and socioeconomic differences among neighborhoods often result 
in differences in facility preferences. For example, a neighborhood may prefer 4 tennis courts rather than 
2 tennis courts and 2 basketball courts. Ideally, local standards should be tailored to the desires of 
specific neighborhoods through the use of surveys or questionnaires. Such tailoring, however, is often 
cosdy and short-lived due to changing desires. Instead, this Element recommends that a muM-pronged 
citizen input framework be used to assess differences in needs. This framework includes: 



* 



* 



Holding public hearings on the plans for developing parks to seek input from citizens on facilities 
needed in their neighborhoods; 

Undertaking mail-outs of recreational questionnaires to neighborhood leaders; and 

Establishing a Planning Division liaison to incorporate suggestions from the Recreation and 
Neighborhood Advisory Boards into the recreational needs assessment process. 



As suggested above, it is important that neighborhoods be given the opportunity to request recreational 

facilities that differ from those called for by level-of-service standards. A problem associated with this 

type of flexibility, however, is that residents of some neighborhoods may select facilities that are 

significandy more (or significantly less) cosdy than those provided to other neighborhoods. To guard 

against a disproportionate allocation of facilities, residents of a neighborhood should be given the 

opportunity to select facilities and parks that differ from those provided city- wide as long as those 

facilities are similar in cost and character to those provided to other neighborhoods in the city. Jg^ 

Park and Facility Substitution 

To better accommodate neighborhood preferences, this Element allows substitution between different 

types of p< 
following: 



types of parks and facilities. Instead of a neighborhood park, a neighborhood can request one of the 



* Nature Center/Park 

* Botanical or Vegetable Garden 

* Recreation/Cultural Center 

* Mini-Park 

Substitution is also allowed between the following facilities: 

* Basketball Courts * Volleyball Courts 

* Tennis Courts * Recreation Center 

* Racquetball Courts * Boardwalk Trail (1/2 mile) 

* Interpretive Pavilion * Mulched Trail (1 mile) 

* Picnic Area * Picnic/Pavilion/Playground 



5 Refer to "Park and Facility Substitution" section for more information about substitutions. 

6 Ibid. 

18 



Recreation 

As indicated above, one possible approach to resolving or avoiding the problem of neighborhood-facility 
mismatches would be to hold neighborhood public meetings to determine the most appropriate "mix" of 
recreational facilities — in particular, a mix from the "interchangeable" facilities listed above. At these 
meetings, neighborhoods would work with City staff to devise individualized neighborhood or city 
quadrant plans. 

Another area in which citizen input is important is in the development of recreation programs. Programs, 
by their nature, are flexible enough to be quickly modified as a result of ongoing citizen input. The 
following general principles should be adhered to: 

* The City shall consider the specific needs and desires of particular neighborhoods. 

* Programming shall be planned so as to allow enough flexibility to respond rapidly to changing 
recreational needs. 

* Increased attention shall be devoted to two-way communication of recreational information 
through the use of surveys and a "hot line." 

* Programs shall be monitored in order to evaluate their usefulness and popularity. 

* The City shall consider the typical work schedules of parents in designing programs to meet the 
year-round recreational needs of pre-school and school-age children. 

Monitoring, Reevaluation, and Public Input 

Monitoring and periodic reevaluation of the Recreation Element are necessary to maintain the timeliness, 
relevance and accuracy of the Element as the community's desires, resources and population change. 
Public input is crucial in these activities as well as during initial preparation and adoption of the Element 
In addition to public hearings and workshops, the City will use other means such as mobile displays, 
presentations to interested groups, and newsletters to provide information and receive public input. 

State statutes mandate an annual update of the Capital Improvements Element and reevaluation of the 
entire Comprehensive Plan every five years. The City should use the following procedures in completing 
the mandated updates: 

* Prior to consideration of the annual Capital Improvements Program (CIP), an update of the 
inventory and "facility condition" assessment of recreation and open space facilities and programs 
shall be completed. TTiis update should include surveys of park users, and be coordinated by the 
Recreation & Parks Department. An annual report on progress made in plan implementation shall 
be submitted by the Recreation Advisory Board (with staff assistance rendered by the Recreation 
& Parks Department) to the City Commission for consideration in conjunction with the annual 
CIP. 

* The five-year update will require a thorough review of the entire Recreation Element, and should 
include a survey or other means to assess user patterns and preferences. While the annual review 
will be the responsibiUty of the Recreation & Parks Department and Recreation Advisory Board, 
Planning Division staff and the Plan Board will oversee the five-year update, with assistance and 
input from the Recreation & Parks Department and other interested parties. 



19 



Recreation 



DATA 



20 



Recreation 

^ INVENTORY OF PARKS AND FACILITIES 

Inventory Table for Public Parks and Facilities Within the Urban Area 

An inventory of recreational parks, sites, and facilities is shown in Table 4 and Map 3. Refer to "Park 
Inventory Methodology" section for further information regarding inventory methodology. 

EXPLANATION OF COLUMN HEADINGS 
FOR PARK INVENTORY 

MAP #: locator number for the park. Refer to tiie official map of urban area recreation sites. 

GEN. TYPE: general type of park. The park can be resoiu^ce- or activity-based. See Definitions for 
explanation. 

SPECIFIC TYPE: one of seven specific park classifications. "Community-U" designates 
"Community -Undeveloped" sites and indicates that parks do not meet the minimum thresholds of 
facilities specified in the park design standards. "Conservation" indicates that the site is a potential local 
nature park but is not developed to accommodate passive recreation. 

OWNERSHIP: owner or operator of the park. "SBAC" designates School Board of Alachua County 
schools. "SBAC-P" designates parks for which there is a cooperative use agreement between the SBAC 
and the City or County. "WMD" designates water management district. 

)SIZE: total acreage of the park. For SBAC schools, this includes only acreage designated as "Open 
Space" on the Gainesville 1980-2000 Comprehensive Plan Land Use map or areas containing recreational 
facilities, or both, as shown on aerial maps. 

ACTIVE: total "active" acreage at the park. See Recreation Element Data Collection and Analysis Report 
for definition of "active acreage." 

PASSIVE: total "passive" acreage at the park. See Recreation Element Data Collection and Analysis 
Report for definition of "passive acreage." 

LAND: land area of park in acres. Does not include submerged acreage. Can include areas within 10- 
year flood channel or 100-year floodplain. 

WATER: acreage of the park submerged for at least nine montiis out of the year. 

BKTBALL: number of basketball hoops at the park. Also known as "multi-purpose courts." Indoor 
basketball facthties operated by the SBAC are not counted unless there is a cooperative use agreement 
with the City or County. In some instances, basketball and tennis courts may overlap each other. When 
overlay occurs, the inventory counts the court for both basketball and tennis. 

R-BALL: number of racquetball courts at the park (includes all outdoor, three- or four-walled comts). 

HARDBALL: number of youth baseball fields at the park. Youth fields feature outfield fences that are 
no more than 275 feet from home plate. 

SOFTBALL: number of adult baseball/softball fields at the park. Adult fields feature outdoor fences that 
are no less than 275 feet from home plate. In some instances, softbaU and soccer fields may overlap each 
\ other. When overlay occurs, the inventory counts the field for both Softball and soccer. 

21 



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SOCCER: number of soccer fields at the park. Also known as "multi-purpose" fields. Football, rugby, 
and lacrosse fields are also counted as soccer fields. In some instances, Softball and soccer fields may 
overlap each other. When overlay occurs, the inventory counts the field for both softball and soccer. 

POOL: length of swimming pool, in meters. 

PLAYGRD: number of playgrounds at the park. 

PICNIC: total number of picnic tables at the park. 

TRAILS: length of trail (walking, jogging, hiking, etc.) in miles. This classification does not include 
running tracks at SBAC schools or sidewalks which run contiguously and parallel to roads. Trail must be 
designed predominandy for recreation in order to qualify as an inventoried recreational trail. 

RESTR: are there restrooms at the park? (Yes/No). This classification does not include SBAC 
restrooms. 

REC: is there a recreation center at the park? (Yes/No). 

LIGHTED: is the park, or facilities at the park, lighted? (Yes/No). 

INVENTORY: date of the most recent inventory of the park. This includes only inventories which 
survey all facilities found at the park. 



Linear Corridors and Linkages 

Linear corridors are non-motorized recreational travel routes which generally follow utility or abandoned 
railroad rights-of-way. The utility corridors fall into two categories: (1) those that are utility easements 
granted to Gainesville Regional Utihties (GRU) or a private utility company, and (2) those that are rights- 
of-way owned in fee by GRU (see Map 1). In order to permit recreational use, an additional trail 
easement would need to be obtained from property owners in the case of utility easements. Rights-of- 
way, on the other hand, would require that the City Commission grant an additional trail dedication that 
would allow recreational trail use. In either case, an evaluation of the physical constraints of the corridor 
and possible concerns by nearby property owners would need to be conducted prior to such recreational 
development 

Another potentially significant category of recreational corridors is dedicated (but undeveloped) road 
rights-of-way. There are several of these publicly-owned "paper street" segments throughout the city, and 
their locations often offer exciting opportunities for new recreational trails. The City should conduct an 
inventory of these segments and prepare a feasibility study describing the potential recreational use of 
each segment. 

Two of the ten corridor segments described below are abandoned railroad rights-of-way. Both have been 
acquired for public trail use. In addition to these two segments, there are numerous railroad corridors in 
Alachua County that are either actively being used as railroads, have been sold to private interests, or are 
abandoned. When abandoned railroad segments aie sold to private interests, they become either difficult 
or impossible to reconstruct for recreational use. Because of this, the City needs to be in a position to 
negotiate quickly to acquire segments that are abandoned or may be abandoned in the future. There are 
three primary methods which can help the City ensure that desirable abandonments are acquired by the 
public: 

* The City should maintain a rail segment inventory which describes the attributes and status of 
each segment, and therefore enables the City to maintain an on-going assessment of segments. 

24 



J 



Recreanon 

* In conjunction with the inventory above, the City should be familiar with and follow procedures 
necessary to invoke the federal "Public Use Condition" regulation in instances where a rail 
segment may be abandoned. This regulation requires the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) 
to give pubhc agencies exclusive negotiating privileges before a rail segment can be sold on the 
open market. 

* The City should support federal legislation which would have the ICC require that railroad 
abandonments be "railbanked." R^banking would hold abandoned corridors for future rail 
needs, and allow them to be used as recreational trails in the interim. 

Presendy, there are ten corridors within the urban area which potentially qualify as recreational corridors, 
although none have yet been developed for recreation: 

1. Hawthorne Rail 

2. Waldo Rail 

3. Duckpond 

4. Hogtown 

5. Alachua (N.W. 6th Street) Rail 

6. East Gainesville Urihty 

7. West Gainesville Utility 

8. Parker Road Utility 

9. Hogtown Utility 

10. Nonh Gainesville UtiUty 

There are three types of linkages provided by these corridors. A DIRECT LINK is one where the right- 
of-way either traverses, runs adjacent to, or terminates at a location of interest. A BICYCLE LINK is one 
where the right-of-way passes within 3,000 feet of a location of interest and currentiy provides on-road 
or off-road bicycle access meeting state standards. A PEDESTRIAN LINK is one where the right-of-way 
passes within 1,000 feet of a location of interest and currently provides sidewalk access which does not 
cress a major roadway. A POTENTIAL LINK is one where the right-of-way passes within 3,000 feet of 
a location of interest but does not currendy provide bicycle or pedestrian facilities as specified above. This 
category also includes active rail Unes or abandoned rail lines which have been sold to private interests. 

The following is an inventory of the "locations of interest" that can be linked if the corridors are 
developed for public trail use: 

SOUTHEAST QUADRANT 

The Hawthome Rail provides the following linkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 

* Boulware Springs 

* Paynes Prairie, Alachua Sink, and Persimmon Point 

* Prairie Creek 

* Sweetwater Branch 

* The cities of Rochelle, Grove City, and Hawthorne 

* Destinations to the northeast, southwest, and northwest portions of Alachua County and North Central 
Florida. 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (?) LINK 

* WoodJawn Park (P) 



25 



Recreation 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Newnans Lake 

* T.B. McPherson Park 

* Mini-Park #5 

* Prairie View Elementary School 

* Audubon Colclough Park 

* Calf Pond Creek 

* Lochloosa Wildlife Management Area 

* The cities of Micanopy and Lowell 

* River Styx and Orange Lake 

* Lake Wauburg 

* Tuscawilla Lake 

* Waldo Rail Trail 

The East Gainesville Utility Corridor provides the following linkages: 

DIRECT LINK 

* Paynes Prairie 

* Sweetwater Branch 

* Calf Pond Creek 

* Lincoln/Williams School 

* Young American Park 

* Momingside Nature Center 

* Rawlings School 

* Williams School 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 
None 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* County Fairgrounds 

* Gainesville Housing Authority 



SOUTHWEST QUADRANT 

The Hogtown/Parker Road Utility Corridors provide the following linkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 

* Tumblin Creek 

* P.K. Yonge School 

* University of Florida campus 

* Forest Park 

* Lake Kanapaha 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 
None 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Lake Alice 

* Wiles Kimball Elementary School 

* Idylwild School 

NORTHEAST QUADRANT 

The Waldo Rail provides the following linkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 

* County Fairgrounds 

* Little Hatchet Creek and Hatchet Creek Park 

26 



Recreation 



> 



) 



* University of Florida campus 

* The cities of Waldo and Fairbanks 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 

* Archery Range (B) 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Lynch Memorial Gardens 

* Mini-Park #1,2, and 8 

* The Liaison Center 

* Citizen's Park 

* The Municipal Airport 

* Tumblin Creek Park 

* Hawthorne Rail Trail 



The Duckpond Greenwav provides the following hnkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 

* Duckpond 

* Kirby Smith 

* Thelma Boltin Recreation Center 

* Matheson Historical Center and Botanical Gardens 

* Public Library 

* Main Post Office 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 

* Northeast Paik (B) 

* Thomas Center (P) 

* Roper Park (P) 

* City Hall (P) 

* Sun Center, Hippodrome, and Downtown Gainesville (P) 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Lynch Memorial Gardens 

* Hawthorne Rail Trail 



NORTHWEST QUADRANT 



i 



The Hogtown Greenwav provides the following hnkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 

* Hogtown Creek System 

* Possum Creek Park 

* Westside Park 

* Loblolly Environmental Education Center 

* Ring Park 

* Green Acre Park 

* Hogtown/Sugarfoot Prairie 

* Lake Kanapaha & Botanical Gardens 

* Forest Park 

* Terwilliger Pond 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 

* Gainesville High School (P) 

* Westwood School (P) 

* LitUewood School (P) 

27 



Recreation 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Waldo Rail 

* Hawthorne Rail 

The Alachua (N.W. 6th Street) Rail provides the following linkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 

* Springstead Creek 

* Hogtown Creek 

* Potato Patch Bay 

* The cities of Alachua, Jacksonville, Bell, High Springs, Starke, and LaCrosse 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 

* Mini-Park #4 (P) 

* Sidney Lanier School (P) 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Northside Park 

* Mini-Park #9 

* Sharmie Ffar Park 

* Rosa Williams 

* A. Quinn Jones School 

* Kiwanis Park 

* Northeast Park 

* Stephen Foster School 

* A.N.N.E. Park 

* Oak Hill Park 

* O'leno State Park, Poe Springs, and the Santa Fe River 

The Parker Road/North Gainesville Utility Corridors provide the following linkages: 

DIRECT LINK: 
None 

BICYCLE (B) OR PEDESTRIAN (P) LINK: 
None 

POTENTIAL LINK: 

* Possum Creek Park 

* Northside Park 

Segments that have already been sold to private interests include: 

* Gainesville to Cedar Key * High Springs to Burnetts Lake 

* Buda to Burnetts Lake * Mattox to Burnetts Lake 

* Rochelle to Micanopy 



Facility Locations and Service Radii 

Maps 6-12 show the location and service radii for each of the facilities found at the various parks. In 
addition to showing the location of existing facihties, these maps are used to determine where new 
facilities should be located. (In general, new facilities should be located so as to minimize overlap with 
the service radius of existing facilities of that type.) 



28 



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Recreation 

Inventory of Private Recreational Facilities 

Private parks and facilities are privately owned and restrict public access through use of seasonal or 
yearly membership fees or residence requirements. Table 5 provides a list of privately owned recreational 
facilities in the Gainesville urban area. 



Table 5. Private Recreational 
Facilities in the Gainesville Urban Area 



< 



Establishment 

G-ville Golf & County Club 
7300 SW 35th Way. 

Meadowbrook Golf Club 
3096 NW 105th Blvd. 

Ironwood Golf Course 
2100 NE 39th Ave. 

West End Golf Course 
SR 26 & NW 127th St. 

Alley Katz Comer 
3705 SW 42nd Ave. 

Palm Lanes 

2606 NE Waldo Rd. 

Woodside Racquet Club 
5100 NW 53rd Ave. 

Three Hundred Club 
3715 NW 12ih Ave. 

Gator Bumper Ball, Inc. 
238 W. University Ave 

Kate's Fish Camp 
Hawthome Rd. 

McGilvary Fish Camp 
7406 SE 2nd Ave. 

Downtown Executive Health Club 
101 SE 2nd PI. 

Fittin' In 

810 E. University Ave. 

Florida Karate Center 
SW 2nd Ave. 



Facilities 
Golf 

Golf 
Golf 
Golf 

Bowling, Miniature Golf 

Bowling 

Tennis, Swimming, Racquetball 

Tennis, Swimming 

Bumper Cars 

Fishing, Canoeing 

Fishing, Canoeing 

Health Qub 

Health Club 

Health Qub 



36 



) 



Recreation 
Gainesville Gym 
203 NW 6th Sl 

G-ville Health & Fitness Center 
2441 NW 43rd Ave. 

G-ville Health & Fitness Center 
3441 W. University Ave 

G-viUe Karate - Tae Kwon Do 
2807 hrW 6th St. 

Let's Get Physical, Inc. 

2100 SW 34th St. 

Pete's Gym 

536 SW 2nd Ave. 

Power Plant 

7230 W. University Ave. 

Knights of Columbus 
1303 NE 23rd Ave. 

YMCA of Gainesville 
5201 NW 34th St. 

Boys Club NW 
2700 NW 51st St. 

Boys Club SE 
1100 SE 17th Dr. 

Girls Club 

2101 NW 39th Ave. 

Glidewell Stables 
8301 NE Waldo Rd. 

Greathouse Farm/Equestrian Center 
11004 SW 67th St. 

Williamson Farm 
1900 NW 98th St. 

Greenbriar Stable & Riding Academy 
1801 1/2 NW 35th St. 



Health Club 



Health Club 



Health Club 



Martial Arts 



Aerobics 



Health Qub 



Health Club 



Swimming 



Swirruning, Playgrounds, Ballfields, Picnic, Gym, Rec Center 
Ballfields, Basketball, Tennis, Swimming, Gym 
Ballfields. Basketball, Gym 
Ballfields, Gym, Rec Center 
Horse Riding 
Horse Riding 
Horse Riding 
Horse Riding 



SOURCE: City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development, September 1990. 



Inventory of Private Recreational Facilities at Residential Complexes Outside of City 
Limits 

Table 6 provides a list of privately owned recreational facilities at residential complexes within the 
unincorporated Gainesville urban area. 

37 



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40 



Recreation 



I 



ANALYSIS 

CALCULATION OF PARK AND FACILITY DEFICIENCIES AND 
SURPLUSES 



Planning Areas 

Recreational facilities are assigned to one of two planning areas: 

* Gainesville Urban Area 

* Quadrant 

"Urban Area" facilities and parks are those which, because they are few and so popular, are able to attract 
users from throughout the urban area. "Quadrant" facilities and parks are more widely dispersed, but tend 
to attract users from only a relatively small service radius (e.g., one or several neighborhoods). 

Both of these geographic areas constitute service radii. Each radius is then used to calculate facility and 
park deficiencies. The more traditional service radius concept, which plots a circular radius around 
facilities, is retained as a device to determine the appropriate location of new facilities. 

Map 13 shows the boundaries of the Gainesville urban area and city limits. The map also shows the four 
quadrants. Quadrants contain the following city and county planning districts: 

* Southeast Quadrant = PD 13, and county PD 13co. 

* Northeast Quadrant = PDs 10, 11, 12, and county PDs 12co and 20co. 

* Northwest Quadrant = PDs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16a, 17a, 18, 19a, and county PDs 16co, 17co, 
18co, and 19co. 

* Southwest Quadrant = PDs 2, 14, 15, and county PDs 14co and 15co. 

Map 14 shows the planning district boundaries of the Gainesville urban area. 

For the purposes of calculating deficiencies and surpluses, all parks and facilities that allow public access 
and are found within the Gainesville urban area were inventoried. These parks and facilities were then 
applied to adopted level of service standards and the projected urban area- wide and quadrant populations 
to determine deficiencies and surpluses. 

PD 1 and PD 15 receive somewhat different treatment within the Element. The PD 1 population, because 
of its central location, is not incorporated in "quadrant-level" recreation analysis, as it is assumed that the 
small number of residents have equal and adequate access to all quadrants. However, facilities and parks 
within PD 1 are assigned to appropriate quadrants based on street address. 

The PD 15 population, made up entirely of the campus of the University of Florida, will be treated in a 
manner similar to PD 1. Individuals living on campus (i.e., living in PD 15) shall not be counted in 
quadrant or urban area-wide population totals. This treatment is based upon the following assumptions: 

* The University is not amenable to City or County recreation/open space planning. 

41 



Recreation 



* 



* 



The University offers a wide range of recreation/open space amenities which often exceed the 
quantity, quality and diversity enjoyed by non-student residents and residents not employed by 
the University. 

The University adequately provides for the recreation/open space needs of on-campus residents. 

A large percentage of on-campus residents do not have sufficient transportation access to freely 
utilize many urban area facilities such as local nature parks, regional nature parks, spons 
complexes, and quadrant-level facihties. 

However, Lake Alice on the University of Florida campus is considered a publicly accessible local nature 
park. (This facility would be classified as a regional nature park if there was more adequate public 
access.) The acreage of the Lake Alice site is tiierefore included in quadrant and urban area- wide park 
acreage calculations. 

Level of Service Standards for Recreation 

Each publicly accessible park and facility is inventoried for urban area-wide and quadrant deficiency 
analysis. For the "urban area-wide" analysis, deficiencies and surpluses are calculated for: 

* 50-Meter Swimming Pools 

* Sports-Complex Parks 

* Local Nature Parks 

For the "quadrant" analysis, deficiencies and surpluses are calculated fon 

* Community Parks * 25-Yard Swimming Pools 

* Softball Fields * Trails/Linear Corridors/Green ways 

* Soccer Fields * Neighborhood Parks 

* Basketball Courts * Tennis Courts 

* Racquetball Courts 

Note, however, that "quadrant" facilities are analyzed as "urban area-wide" facilities until 1997. 

Note also that, in addition to the level-of-service standards used to calculate deficiencies and surpluses, 
the following policies should be adhered to: 

* Both the sports-complex park and local nature park can be overlays to other park 
types. 

* All baseball fields, soccer fields, basketball courts, and tennis courts should be 
lighted when appropriate. 

* Existing facilities should be in no worse than "poor" condition. 

* Regionally significant rail-trails (at least 5 miles in length) and quadrant facilities 
built at a sports-complex can be used to satisfy deficiencies for any of the four 
quadrants, regardless of the quadrant within which the complex or trail is built. 

* The southwest quadrant is exempt from the community park and 25-yard 
swimming pool standards. 



44 



')^ 



Recreation 



The following assumptions were made in developing level-of-service standards for facilities and parks: 

* Acquisition and development of public parks within the unincorporated urban area has lagged 
behind the residential development which has occurred in that area. Because very littie park 
acquisition and development has occurred in the unincorporated urban area, residents living in this 
area are obligated to use parks within city Umits. It is therefore assumed that unless or until such 
non-city residents are prohibited from using city parks, the recreation levels of service calculated 
in this Element should include both the unincorporated urban area population and recreational 
facilities. 

* In instances where local levels of demand information exists, such data shall be used to adjust the 
standards used. This shall be especially true in the years following the adoption of the Element. 

* The adopted standards are considered minimum standards, rather than ideal standards. 

Variations in Level-of-Service Standards 

The level-of-service (LOS) standards in the Recreation Element are in some instances not applicable to all 
city planning areas. Due to unique circumstances, the LOS standards proposed for certain planning areas 
differ from service levels that apply to the remainder of the city: 

Planning Area: Southwest Quadrant 

Facility: 25- Yard Swimming Pool 

Urban Area Standard: 1 pool per 50,000 people (1991) 

Variation For This Area: Exempt through 2001. 

Justification 

The southwest quadrant contains the University of Florida campus and a relatively large number of 
student apartment complexes. Both the campus and several complexes contain various outdoor 
recreational facihties used by on-campus students and residents of the off-campus complexes. These 
facilities often include swimming pools. 

A 1986 Department of Community Development study examined 51 student apartment complexes in the 
southwest quadrant and found that 60 percent provided an on-site swimming pool. Another study 
conducted by Alachua County in 1990 (see Table 6) found 41 swimming pools provided by apartment 
complexes in the unincorporated urban area of southwest Gainesville. For these reasons, it can be 
assumed that the swimming pool needs of quadrant residents will be met for the foreseeable future. 



45 



Recreation 



However, while it can be assumed that the 25-yard pool needs of the three planning districts within the 
quadrant (one of which is the campus) are adequately met, consideration must be given to adopting a 25- 
yard pool LOS standard for the southwest in the event of an annexation of unincorporated areas near Lake 
Kanapaha. Such a consideration arises because further annexation to the southwest will include a 
relatively high proportion of non-students, and locations relatively remote from the campus. 

Planning Area: Southwest Quadrant 

Facility: Community Park 

Urban Area Standard: 2 acres per 1,000 people 

Variation For This Area: Exempt through 200 1 . 

Justification 

The southwest quadrant contains the University of Florida campus, which, because of its recreational 
facilities and large greenspaces, provides students and some residents of the southwest many of the 
amenities found at a community park. The campus contains a 100-acre local nature park (Lake Alice), 5 
basketball courts, 40 tennis courts, 30 racquetball courts, fourteen softball fields, 16 soccer fields, an 
outdoor swimming pool, and several picnic and trail facilities. For these reasons, it can be assumed that 
the community park needs of quadrant residents will be met for the foreseeable future. 

However, while it can be assumed that the community park needs of the three planning districts within 
the quadrant (one of which is the campus) are adequately met by the campus, consideration must be given 
to adopting a community park LOS standard for the southwest in the event of an annexation of 
unincorporated areas near Lake Kanapaha. Such a consideration arises because further annexation to the 
southwest will include a relatively high proportion of non-students, and locations relatively remote from 
the campus. 

Calculated Deficiencies and Surpluses for Planning Areas 

As noted above, calculations of deficiencies and surpluses include both the city and unincorporated urban 
area population. 

Urban Area Deficiencies and Surpluses 

Deficiencies and surpluses are calculated for two types of "urban area" parks (i.e., local nature and 
sports-complex parks), and one type of facility (50- meter swimming pools). Until 1997, urban area 
needs are also calculated for community parks, neighborhood parks, softball and soccer fields, 25-yard 
pools, trails, basketball courts, tennis courts, and racquetball courts. Existing supply, and projected 
deficiencies and surpluses for urban area park acres and facihties are presented in Table 7. 

Active Urban Area Parks and Facilities 

There is no existing and developed sports-complex park in the urban area. The recent acquisition of 72 
acres near Boulware Springs, however, is assumed to be suitable for the development of a sports- 
complex. 



46 



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Urban Area Passive Parks and the Emerald Necklace 

There is a substantial amount of regional park acreage in the Gainesville urban area. Much of this acreage 
is either not developed for public use or provides oiUy limited access. One of the principal functions of 
the "Emerald Necklace" would be to provide better access between these large regional parks (or "gems") 
and other areas. 

There was no local nature park classification in the 1980 Comprehensive Plan. The local nature park is 
primarily designed to provide and improve public access to environmentally significant open space. 
Presentiy, there are six publicly-accessible sites which, because they are developed to accommodate 
passive recreation, qualify for this classification. Those that are not developed for recreation are 
designated as public conservation areas. Thel997 deficiency for local nature parks (conservation areas) is 
64 acres. If no such acreage is acquired by 2001, this deficiency will grow to 120 acres. 

Quadrant Deficiencies and Surpluses 

In 1997, level-of-service standards are to be revised to analyze deficiencies and surpluses (for quadrant 
facilities) on a quadrant-by-quadrant basis. Community parks and neighborhood parks will be quadrant- 
level parks. Quadrant facilities will include 25-yard swimming pools, baseball/softball fields, 
soccer/football fields, trails, basketball courts, tennis courts, and racquetball courts. Note from the above, 
however, that some of these facilities are analyzed as "urban area" facUiries until 1997. 

"Linear corridors," which are a special type of trail, can be considered the connecting strands of the 
Emerald Necklace since they often link the gems of the Necklace. Many radiate like "spokes" from the 
interior of the city (see Map 1). The corridors can provide transportation and recreational opportunities for 
non-motorized transportation modes such as walking, jogging, and bicycling. They can also provide for 
some degree of wildlife corridor access, where feasible. Through the use of features such as abandoned 
railroad rights-of-way, utility rights-of-way, and creek beds, corridors can link several active and passive 
parks. As a long-range objective, corridors should be developed to provide connections between 
residential, commercial, and industrial locations in a manner similar to the city's road network. 

Southeast Quadrant 

The southeast quadrant is the smallest of the four quadrants, containing only planning districts 13 and 
13co. Because of the relatively low population, and the presence of T.B. McPherson Park and 
Lincoln/Wilhams school, there are surpluses indicated for all quadrant facilities except racquetball courts. 
However, many facilities need repair, and the facilities are probably too widely dispersed. This is of 
particular concern since socioeconomically depressed areas such as the southeast quadrant experience 
public facility inadequacies much more acutely than more affluent areas, where residents may have better 
access to private and semi-private recreational opportunities and non-local facilities. 

In addition to repair and replacement of facilities, efforts to meet recreational needs within this quadrant 
should include an increase in staffing for facihties in combination with initiatives designed to encourage 
participation in recreational activities. Again, such measures are imjx)rtant as a result of the unique 
socioeconomic status of the quadrant. Table 8 inventories recreational facilities in the southeast quadrant, 
and shows projected deficiencies and surpluses. 



48 



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Recreation 



Southwest Quadrant 

The southwest quadrant is unique among the four quadrants in that it contains both the University of 
Florida campus and a large concentration of student apartment complexes. These complexes typically 
provide various types of on-site recreational facilities for use by apartment residents. As a result of access 
to campus and complex facilities, the southwest quadrant is exempt from the community park and 25- 
yard swimming pool level-of-service standards through 2001. (See also the "Variations in Level-of- 
Service Standards" section.) 

There are no community parks within the city portion of this quadrant, and there is only one recentiy 
acquired and undeveloped community park G^orest Park) in the unincorporated area. Table 9 inventories 
recreational facilities in the southwest quadrant, and shows projected deficiencies and surpluses. As the 
table indicates, there is a need for neighborhood park acres, softball fields, trails, basketball courts, tennis 
courts, and racquetball courts by 1997. 

Northwest Quadrant 

The northwest quadrant is the most affluent of the four quadrants, contains the largest residential 
population and acreage, and will see the largest absolute increase in residential population (approximately 
12,000 additional people) between 1991 and 2001. 

By 1997, the quadrant will be deficient in soccer fields, baseball/softball fields, trails, neighborhood 
parks, basketball courts, and racquetball courts (see Table 10). In addition, a 25-yard swimming pool 
will be needed by 2001. 

The quadrant contains the "ecological backbone" of the community; namely, the Hogtown Creek system. 
Recentiy, there has been a significant increase in public access along this creek corridor as a result of the 
acquisition and development of Ring Park. When combined with the possible public acquisition of Glen 
Springs and efforts to protect or acquire properties throughout the Hogtown and other creek systems, the 
City is well on its way to developing an interconnected greenway network for public access and 
ecological enhancement in this quadrant and others. 

Northeast Quadrant 

Because of the existence of several schools, as well as the Young American, Northeast, Momingside, 
and Copeland Settlement parks, there is a surplus of several quadrant faciUties. By 1997, however, this 
quadrant will need additional softball fields (see Table 11). 

Allocating Deficiencies to Planning Areas 

After raw park and facility deficiencies are calculated for each planning area, such deficiencies must be 
allocated to projects. Projects include: (a) generalized areas where new park acreage must be acquired to 
correct acreage deficiencies (and in most cases, deficient facilities that are to be built at the new park site); 
and (b) existing parks with excess acreage available and suitable for the building of deficient faciUries. 



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Recreation 



When allocating deficiencies to projects, it is important to minimize service radius overlap ft-om existing 
parks and facilities. Also, allocations should: (a) avoid locating parks and facilities on land not suitable 
for particular types of parks or facilities; (b) avoid locating parks and faciUties in locations that are 
separated from neighborhoods by barriers such as major roads; and (c) avoid locating parks and facilities 
without the prior consent of adjacent residents and landowners. See also the "Supplemental Park and 
Facility Design Considerations" section. 

Prioritizing Improvements for the CIP 

After deficiencies of parks, facilities, and programs are calculated, a plan is proposed to correct those 
deficiencies. Since the City is generally not able to finance all deficiencies in the upcoming fiscal budget, 
a prioritized capital improvements program (CIP) is needed to phase in recreation improvements over a 
period of time (usually 5-6 years). The following criteria are used to prioritize park and facility 
deficiencies: 



De gree of Deficiency: 



Proximity to Similar 

Facilities: 



Program Dependency: 



Park Reclassification: 



Urban Area Deficiency: 



(A) Largest Absolute Deficiency. Those planning areas with the 
highest acreage or facility deficiency are prioritized. 

(B) Lowest Current Level of Service. Those planning areas with the 
lowest current level of service are prioritized. Implicit in both "A" and "B" 
is the need to prioritize urban area facilities before quadrant facilities. 



Those dysfunctional or deficient facilities which are at least one mile from 
the same type facilities are prioritized. This distance can include hazard- 
oriented barriers such as major roadways, as well as geographical distance. 

Those dysfunctional or deficient faciUties which are necessary for the 
provision of the largest number of needed recreation programs are 
prioritized. Includes pools, basketball courts and all parks. 

Those dysfunctional or deficient facilities which enable the park to be 
reclassified to the next higher park type, in an instance where the higher 
park type is needed by the planning area, are prioritized. 

Urban area facihties that are deficient are prioritized. Urban area facilities 
include 50-meter pools, sports-complexes, and local nature parks. 



Recent Park Acquisition: A new project at a park may be within the same planning area as 

another park of the same type. If this other park was acquired over the past 
three years, the new project is de-prioritized. 



^ 



56 



I^; 



Recreation 

SCORING 

Criterion Points 

1. Degree of Deficiency 

* Largest Absolute Deficiency 1 

* Lowest Current Level of Service 1 

2. Proximity to Similar Facilities 1 

3. Program Dependency 2 

4. Park Reclassification 1 

5. Urban Area Deficiency 4 

6. Recent Park Acquisition -5 

Each facility deficiency is assigned to a project (either an existing park or a to-be-acquired park). Each 
park and facility deficiency is then scored using the criteria and scoring system described above. Projects 
which contain facilities with high scores are given a higher priority than those with lower scores. For 
projects in which the highest scoring facility receive the same score, that project with the highest sum total 
score for all deficient facilities is given the higher priority. If projects remain tied in score after such 
summation, the following criteria shall be used to prioritize (in decreasing order of importance): 

* AREAS WHERE THE CITY ENCOURAGES REDEVELOPMENT 

* HIGH RESIDENTIAL DENSITY 

* LONG-STANDING DEHCIENCY 

* REVENUE-GENERATING POTENTIAL FOR THE QTY 

* PROXIMITY TO ACTIVITY CENTER 

* HIGH RECREATIONAL MULTIPLE-USE POTENTLM. 

Those projects which are ranked most highly by the criteria are phased in over the first few years of the 
CIP. 



57 



Recreation 

Example 

Project #1 

Deficient Facility Points 

Soccer Field 9 

Tennis Court 2 

TOTAL 11 

Project #2 

Deficient Facility Points 

Swimming Pool 7 

Softball Field 6 

TOTAL 13 

Project #3 

Deficient Facility Points 

Soccer Field 7 

Basketball Comt ^ 

TOTAL 12 

Of the three projects in the above example, Project #1 is given the highest priority even though the other 
two projects receive more total points. Such a ranking is due to the soccer field, which is the facility with 
the highest score of any of the facilities listed for the three projects. Project #2 is given a higher priority 
than Project #3, even though the highest scoring facility for each project has received the same score (7 
points). Such a ranking is due to the higher total score received by Project #2 (13 points) than by Project 
#3 (12 points). 

Park and Facility Substitution 

It is possible that a LOS standard for a recreational facility will result in facility deficiencies in certain 
planning areas which do not have vacant land sufficient to accommodate such a facility. For example, a 
quadrant may need 15 acres of neighborhood park, 3 tennis courts and 2 racquetball courts. However, 
this hypothetical quadrant may contain an insufficient amount of vacant land to accommodate a new 
neighborhood park. 

In addition, socioeconomic and age differences between planning areas often mean differences in 
recreational facility preferences between planning areas. For example, a neighborhood may prefer 4 
tennis courts, rather than the 2 tennis courts and 2 basketball courts called for by the LOS standards (or 
they may prefer a passive park rather than an active park). 

Both of the above problems indicate a need for a mechanism to increase the flexibility of LOS standards 
without abandoning the benefits of such quantitative standards. There are two broad areas of flexibility: 



58 



Recreation 



li).^ PARK SUBSTITUTION 

Used when needed park land is unavailable in a quadrant, or when residents prefer a type of park other 
than a neighborhood park. 

FACILITY SUBSTITUTION 

Used when a determination is made that residents of one or several neighborhoods prefer recreational 
facility improvements that differ from what is called for by LOS standards. 

Park Substitution 

In certain quadrants, a determination may be made that the area does not contain acreage suitable and 
available for a new neighborhood park. 

In the event that a quadrant does not contain suitable and available land for a new neighborhood park, or 
when residents desire another park type, the following alternatives are considered sufficient to meet 
neighborhood park acreage needs within a quadrant: 

* Nature Center 

One center for every 10 acres of neighborhood park. 

* Recreation for Cultural) Center 

One center for every 10 acres of neighborhood park and 16 facility units (see below for 
discussion of units). 

* Mini-Park 

1 .5 acres of mini-park for every acre of neighborhood park. 

1 * Botanical (or Vegetable) Garden 

^^ 1 .5 acres of garden for every acre of neighborhood park deficiency. 

* Local Nature Park 

One acre of nature park for every acre of neighborhood park deficiency. However, nature 
park must contain at least one acre of land outside of floodprone areas and suitable for 
development as determined by the City Manager. 

Facility Substitution 

There are instances where LOS standards will indicate a deficiency for certain recreational facilities, yet 
the quadrant may not have the acreage or desire by its population to accommodate the new facilities. 
These are instances where: 

* The quadrant does not have enough unused space at existing parks to accommodate 
facility deficiencies, yet meets park acreage standards; 

* The quadrant does not have suitable and available vacant acreage to acquire for siting the 
new facihties; or 

* One or several neighborhoods to be served by a new neighborhood park express a desire 
to be served by facilities other than those called for by the Recreation Element. 

The following altematives are considered sufficient to meet facility deficiencies within a quadrant: 

* The construction of the needed facility at an SBAC school within the deficient quadrant, 
and appropriate joint-use agreements secured by the City from SBAC; 

59 



Recreation 



* Developing a joint agreement between the City and SB AC for increased public access to 
existing school facilities within the deficient quadrant; or 

* Basketball, tennis and racquetball court deficiencies exchanged for different facilities (for 
example, two volleyball courts may be preferred over 2 tennis courts). Neighborhoods 
can also request a different mix of these three facilities. (For example, 2 tennis courts and 
2 racquetball courts may be preferred over 4 basketball courts.) 

For neighborhoods seeking different types or mixes of facilit